The history of Russian aviation. Kontristrebitel BM-5

In the Baltic Sea near Revel (from 1917 — Tallinn) 15/07/1913, the light twin-engine plane made a landing on the water coercion. Pilot of the aircraft was a young pilot A. Villish. This inexperienced aviator responsible for the tragedy was not, because his plane "North swallow" has failed engine (engine K-80 or "Kalep" was created in the city of Riga, a transmission plant "Kalep" FG Kalep.) Imitating European aircraft manufacturers, Villish himself designed and built this airplane. On the outer forms of the plane was similar to an airplane, "Taube" developed by the German aviator Etrihom, and had braced truss fuselage with fixed on it biplane wing box (area of about 40 m2). Crew seats are placed under the bottom wing, side by side. The chassis was made by the type of airplane, "Bleriot". The airplane and the creator of the aircraft during an unplanned ditching did not suffer due to the frame of the wings and fuselage, which were made of bamboo. The landed estate of the owner of the Baltic Villishu had to retrain in a rapidly rower and, working with his hands, approached the shore, along with the plane. From the time of take-off from the coast to the tragedy has gone at least 40 minutes. On land the young aviator had been waiting and assist to remove the unit from the water. So ended the second flight Villisha to "North swallow" that "rescuers" promptly renamed "wet hen."

Or a life on the coast or enforced splashdown prompted the AU Villisha seriously address the seaplane. It seems that there may be, but after a vehicle designed Villishom was "Waterbird".

Flying boat VM-1 ("VM" — Villish-sea) Was quite small seaplane. The aircraft was truly having a truss reed boat tail raised for the elevation of the stabilizer and fin above water and biplane box that changes the angle of the will of the pilot plant. Design began in March 1915, at the request of the department of aeronautics Naval Staff with a condition of payment for work only in this case the test will be considered a success. The assembly of the VM-1 completed November 1, 1915 During the first flight of no accidents did not. After udavshegosya second during landing flight test pilot of the military office had not seen on the surface of the sea timber can be only in the whole environment, and specifically the seaplane landed on it. Acquired hole, has led to the "destruction" of the unit. At this time, part of the structure, made of bamboo, the machine did not give the desired buoyancy, but she fell last … Barogram flight bailed out, and she confirmed that the aircraft successfully completed flight mission. Because the pilot Frida represented military, there was an official of the person, the funds for the building (but, unfortunately, drowned) plane Villishu paid.

Followed by seaplane Villisha become VM-2. Second plane was equipped with a motor "Gnome Monosupap" (power 100 hp) Marine General Staff put forward the same requirements as for the VM-1. Villish in 1916 refers to the owners of a massive production bases to grant workers' hands and the factory area for the creation of the VM-2 Lebedev — owner of the factory "Swan" and Moeller — the owner of the factory "Dux". But nah receives waiver. Then Villish began negotiations with the owner of a furniture factory, some F. Meltzer, which made for a different aircraft manufacturers propellers and willing to do the construction of airplanes. Meltzer responded to the invitation Baltic aviator and began to work closely with him. Construction of BM-2 was launched in March 1916 and to illumine the same year the aircraft was completed. After making sure that things are going tribute, the AU Villish first 17-year entrenched in Meltzer, occupying the post of Managing Director. So makarom "art furniture factory" turned into aviation plant of the same owner. By this time, "saw the light" and Lebedev. Do not miss the benefit though, he agreed to work collaboratively with Villishem and also started to build the VM-2, but not in pure form, and an improved copy of the aircraft. It takes into account the design modifications, and this became the basis refreshed consider flying apparatus the new type. The aircraft was designated VM-4.

Flying boat BM-2/VM-4 terrain School of Marine pilots in Baku. 1917

Layout and modifications were flying boat, designed for 2-crew members, one of which flew the plane, and the second — a machine gun. Their main purpose was aerial reconnaissance of the sea. Both aircraft were built and demonstrated the good performance of the property. But they are not used in the Baltic, and in Baku flight school and the Caspian Sea. This good seaplane ran across the road more promising serial flying boat designed by M-5 DP Grigorovich. It is possible that the impact of Grigorovich, who was practically a monopoly in seaplane, contributed to the fact that the preference for Russian War Office was drawn to the M-5. This aircraft was the basis for the creation of the M-9 — almost the best flying boat during World War II.

Of all the seaplanes made Villishem deserves special attention gidroistrebitel VM-5. The aircraft was a single Marine fighter, having armed with a machine gun system Hoyrema Maxim. It was a requirement of the customer associated with the fighting in the Baltic in 1917, when the Germans were eager to Petrograd. To a large extent the occurrence gidroistrebitelya BM-5 was affected by Grigorovich edition — M-11 1st of the first Marine fighter. In 1916, it became clear that the M-11 is not paid off in full, as was the low-speed and very massive. Puzzle to create this fighter capable of taking off / landing on the water could not quite work out. Requirements applicable seaworthiness of vessels flying and the highest flight speed is always "in conflict".

It seems that it was, but during World War II naval fleet equipping puzzle fighter is not removed from consideration and gidroistrebitel VM-5 lozhili some hope. The construction of the aircraft, which began in the spring of 1917, was completed in November. Marine fighter Villisha taken on gidrodrom late and while his tests did not start until the beginning of winter. To test the "land" version of the aircraft was attached skis, but the dramatic events that unfolded in the country, have become a prerequisite that the ski configuration VM-5 is not driven and experienced.

Another device Villisha was so called, "kontristrebitel" VM-6. Villish not povinet that this unique airplane did not see no sky, no water. In 1918, under the pressure of events, Villish was obliged to throw everything and leave Russia, returning to discover the estate on the Baltic coast (perhaps only because of this he is still alive). WM-6, his last plane, conceived and carried out not just at the highest level: it was very exciting in almost all cases.

Thought kontristrebitelya in Russian aviamorskih circles appeared in 1916. Its founder was Prof. sailor, captain of the second rank BC Shcherbachev. Gifted remarkable brain, natural technical ability and restless disposition, Shcherbachev offered high command of the sea to make a plane that will be able to land based and large deck ships. This airplane could be used to deal not only with the big enemy seaplanes, and a fighter! The aircraft must have a scheme of ordinary land the aircraft, wheeled chassis, front-engine and pull the screw. The main distinguishing feature of the moder
n car was to be the ability to land on water, and vorachivatsya to base such a method. Shore airfield basing an airplane was to ensure the security of naval bases and ships at anchor near the base. The design was to provide kontristrebitelya advantages over the enemy seaplanes. It gave the opportunity to have a highest tactical flight properties due to reset after the start of a wheeled chassis, strong power, compact and lightweight design, aircraft parts and machine gun armament.

When fuselage scheme for landing on water should be removed or isolated from the sea surface air screw. Willing to resolve this issue by turning the screw axis after the plane stopped and the next it snaps over the motor in a horizontal position. With all of this became a small two-bladed propeller wing front of the cockpit. In such a situation the pilot screw had to sit on the water and produce a post-flight mileage from taxiing to the parking lot. The axis of the screw before the start was set in a horizontal position, becoming the continuation of the output shaft of the motor. To realize the operation of this device was the most suitable stationary water-cooled engine, which has inline arrangement of cylinders, as is the "Hispano-Suiza" of Mark Birkinga (France). Power of the engine is 200 hp This power should be large enough to provide tactical flight features a small plane. For the "kontristrebitelya" VM-6 elected assembly diagram wind bracing vysokoplana with wing area of 13.5 m2. Two-spar wing was made from plywood ribs, which were placed on 65% swing in the direction of flight. The ribs in the end zone to complete the entire stream from the fan started up the directions to the sagittal, frontal parallel to the edges of the wingtips, which were hewn from the transverse axis by 40 degrees. The engine was mounted in the bow, which is slightly expanded to provide the best maritime properties. Hull lines were close to the contours of the boat. The rear of the tapered to the tail of a stronger and different deadrise (starting from the middle part) and had a substantially triangular cross section of the tip facing down. From the bow of the hull to the middle came onboard cheekbones, which smoothly connected to nothing, without planing steps, because taking off from water was not provided (it was not feasible due to the low position screws). The empennage was commonplace.

Office of Naval Aviation Project BM-6 presented September 13, 1917 At first, meant to give the job to kontristrebitel design bureau AIS and Grigorovich, but the case took only Villish, which with the participation of such strong spices like Kostkina (got those. Meltzer factory director) promised to implement the project. Apart from the aircraft, it was necessary to do auxiliary starting mechanisms, which according to the project consisted of the guide rail path, starting carts, which were equipped airplane assemblies and starting systems (poles, hooks, ropes, levers and cylinder with compressed air). For all this, take a long testing of isolated, self-tests before finishing the complex, coupled with a fighter. And coastal buildings, which were needed for specific triggers, and catapult system — seemed entirely feasible. The building of the starting position and the airplane began to fall in 1917 of the environment and well-known political action forced businessmen to significantly speed up the work. And some point had to pause and focus on the construction of the 1st unit only to test it in the air. It was decided to bring it to the test in the onshore version. This option foresaw ordinary screw position on Do not bend the (hard) shaft without the detachable chassis, but with a "seaworthy hull" (as it is envisaged by the project). But even in this form kontristrebitel VM-6 is not transmitted to the flight tests. Revolution broke out … So the idea was abandoned nainteresneyshuyu amphibious combat, which was carried Russian aviators, perhaps for the first time in the world. The plane at that time was actually quite built …

Tactical flight properties kontristrebitelya BM-6 (estimated):
Plane — BM-6;
Year of construction — 1918;
Motor — "Hispano-Suiza";
Maximum power — 200 hp;
The highest speed — 210 km / h;
Time to climb — 8.0 min (2,000 m);
Service ceiling — 6500 m;
Flight duration — 2:00;
Wing Area — 13.5 m2;
Take-off weight — 785 kg;
Empty weight — 571 kg;
The supplies of fuel — 95 kg;
Specific load on the wing — 58.2 kg/m2;
Specific load capacity — 3.9 kg / hp.;
Weight efficiency — 27.3%.

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