The history of Russian aviation. RBVZ-S-20 Sikorsky

"Ilya Muromets" — four-engine bomber — was the basis of CG (a squadron of airplanes). For this operation it needed the aircraft of other classes that allow you to operate smoothly and perfectly in the rear of the enemy.

In the Bureau of Plant "Russo-Balt", under the control of II Sikorski (1889-1972 years), during the period from 1914 to 1917 for completion of CG was released a few aircraft types for different purposes.

At the end of 1915, along with the creation of "Muromtsev" is also fine-tuning the C-16 was created double spy, created for sentinel overflight area prior to departure on a combat mission "squadron." It was a two biplane having gaps between the ends of the lower wing and fuselage sides (in the lumen were only narrow spars), which provided a good overview of down. The airplane was equipped with 150-horsepower engine "Senbim" and received the designation RBVZ-C-17 (or C-17), at the end of the 15th year, built a 2-copies. In the middle of 1916, after the flight tests, both copies were sent to the front.

Was followed by the type C-18 has two engines, which were installed on the lower wing. The crew of the aircraft consisted of 2 persons. In the armies of the Warring States at that time there were real fighters, armed with machine guns firing through the propeller. The highest rate of the best zabugornyh samples was up to 160 km per hour. Because TTT for new fighters have increased significantly. The C-16, developed in the late 14 th year, was outdated, thus so that did not help even more massive one at installation engines. In the middle of 1916 KB RBVZ in successfully solved puzzles to create new types of aircraft (and their successful application in the front) start designing a new fighter which received the designation P-20. In the design, the following stages of the development of the aircraft was specifically Nikolai Polikarpov (lived 1892-1944). According to the flight data and design C-20 came in the number of the most advanced technology 16-17-ies. The highest rate of new aircraft exceeds the speed of all kinds supplied to Russian fighters "Nieuport" and nekordinalno second only to the British fighter "Vickers". C-20 was armed with a synchronous machine gun-type "Colt" belt-fed.

Experimental series (5 pcs.) C-20 built in September and October 16th of the year. It was designed for industrial and military trials. Engine "Gnome Monosupap" (100 hp) provided the project was changed to a 120-strong "Ron." Flights on the first pair of C-20 pilots performed the test center, located near Petrograd to Commandant airport. According to them, the fighter just driven, "was sitting perfectly in turns, was positively stable in the transverse and longitudinal channels Putney … During the climb was also stable, but there was a certain zeal to the left of the slope, which is easy to fix the control knob, and by the subsequent departure — the configuration of the side cargo … "

C-20 framed up by a deep-rooted scheme SINGLE biplane having a rotative engine, wearing a hood open at the bottom, with two-wheeled chassis, wheels which have been planted to a single axle. Empennage consisting of keel rudder, empennage (by referring to the plan — semicircular) consisting of the elevator and stabilizer. The ailerons are located on the upper wing, which had some great chord and scale than the lower. For the top view of the pilot cabin on the trailing edge of the semi-circular cut-produced accepted. The upper wing had the lateral uprights end crashes on the span. Ending for greater rigidity attracted to the lower wing with 2-pairs of the iron bands. The area of both wings equaled 17.0 m2. The area of the upper wing (span of 8.6 m, 1.3 m chord) was 10.2 m2, and the lower wing (size 7.4 m, 0.95 m chord) — 6.8 m2. Frontal sections of the wings — bent plywood socks that were supported by a rare set of diaphragms made of plywood. Cladding units tail and wings — plain. Geometric twist ailerons and wing tips were made in the fashion of whom time. The upper wing is raised above the fuselage on polhordy that provided the pilot front and side view. To the body of the aircraft wing was attached to a 4 uprights. Lower wing spar roots embedded in the hinges to the appropriate nodes frames. The upper wing made of 350 mm forward of the lower. This distance is created by the difference chords as in the plan view on the trailing edge were on the same vertical line one above the other. The fuselage contained the ordinary units and appliances, in all sections of the motor to the tail had a rectangular shape. In the fore part of the fuselage was rounded cylinder engine hood and podkruglen plywood on top of the fairing cutout cockpit to the hood and then up to the tail.

In general, use of a power circuit plane and wood structure with a fabric covering and the board is a replica of the experience of aircraft, congestion designers in the creation of the single-engine light aircraft. This airplane was reflected traits aircraft previous years, which belonged to the European aviation schools. Perhaps this explains the excellent performance characteristics of the C-20 fighter, along with the reliability and simplicity of its internal and external devices. This fighter Sikorsky without exaggeration be considered a good model of a single-engine single-seat combat aircraft since the second half of the First World War.

RBVZ-C-20 1st fundamentally lacked the element of novelty — a stationary engine air or water cooling. The dynamics of the engine of this type could significantly change the structure of the head, in what appeared to motor frame. In addition it would simplify the technique of piloting, as in this case, is excluded impressive torque reaction from the slope arising from the co-rotating rotary engines and propeller. In addition, the dynamic scheme rotary engines, its power was limited to 110-120 hp For greater power to be substantially burdening its construction. These reasons, rotary engines are doomed to futility, have taken into account. In a subsequent RBVZ-With-22 was set stationary engine "Salmson" with the cooling of the air and 150 hp This plane was a remake of the 1st of the most experienced C-20, in which in accordance with the introduction of a stronger power plant were increased size and weight. The main flight characteristics were markedly better. So, for example, the maximum speed is 200 km / h, increased service ceiling and rate of climb. Remained constant during flight. As the weapons used two synchronized machine guns mounted in the head on top of the fuselage sides specifically front of the cockpit. Type of machine guns is unknown.

Fighter C-22, built in the spring of 1917. Aircraft flight tests were conducted in the summer of the same year at the Commandant airport. The upcoming fate unknown to the best fighter Sikorski.

For the very same Igor Sikorsky, as for many other people came Dark Days. Five-year term of the contract, which Sikorski signed with the company "RBVZ" ended in April 1917, and by the end of the same year the plant generally finished work. Some workers went into the reddish Guard. In the confusion of the first months of the newest power is not enough of the commissioners who and CEOs showed adequate competence in technology. Most of them generally did not care about such a thing as "aviation". So, for example, som
eone Larin, one of the managers of the Supreme Economic Council, to which the Smolny Institute was able to break Sikorsky and who offered his help, replied, "a good citizen, we — Revolution and we were not up to the perfume and planes …". Sikorski went to the "collective Director" (the factory committee), where his question about the upcoming employment hopeless answered: "Do what you want …".

Not having huge funds, as all earnings Sikorsky has invested in shares of the company (and owner of the MV Shidlovskiy disappeared), the aircraft in February 1918 received a passport, with a pocket of a few hundred British pounds left in the Murmansk (Murmansk). Igor in March 1918 left Russia forever. In France, Sikorski took up the development of a new bomber commissioned by the Entente, but it had to be suspended because of the war. 30/03/1919, the Sikorsky arrived in North America, where it began a new step activity. In the thirties, walks to him global fame after his multi-engine seaplanes passenger transportation structure tied to Europe and America. In addition, not the least known Sikorsky received and as the creator of the best in the world of helicopters.

Tactical flight properties of the C-20 fighter:
Year Release — 1916;
Another designation — C-XX;
Motor — "Ron";
Maximum power — 120 hp;
Maximum speed at sea level — 190 km / h;
Maximum speed at an altitude of 2000 m — 162 km / h;
Time to climb to 2000 m — 6.3 min;
Service ceiling — 5600 m;
Flight duration — 2.33 hours;
Wing area — 17,0 m2;
Take-off weight — 750 kg;
Empty weight — 550 kg;
The supplies of fuel — 85 kg;
Specific load on the wings — 44.1 kg/m2;
Specific load capacity — 6.8 kg / l. s.;
Weight efficiency — 26.7%.

Tactical flight properties of the C-22 fighter:
Year of construction — 1917
Another designation — C-XXII;
Motor — "Salmson";
Maximum power — 150 hp;
Maximum speed at sea level — 205 km / h;
Maximum speed at an altitude of 2000 m — 175 km / h
Time to climb to 2000 m — 5.03 m;
Service ceiling — 6200 m;
Flight duration — 2.3 hours;
Wing area — 18,5 m2;
Take-off weight — 1030 kg;
Empty weight — 760 kg;
The supplies of fuel — 115 kg;
Specific load on the wings — 55.4 kg/m2;
Specific load capacity — 6.8 kg / l. s.;
Weight efficiency — 28.9%.

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