The history of Russian aviation. The Fighter MB encore

Italian aviator Francesco Mosca Evdzhisto well known in Europe as a pilot-athlete. He was very drawn to the aircraft industry, but at home he was able to open his own office to do a real sweetheart deal.

Russian pilots Jora V. Jankowski and Maxim Germanovich Lerche during his stay in Italy, met with him and was invited to Russia, so that together create airplanes. Mosca came in about a month.

In 1912, the three of them in the shops of the capital of aeronautics company did braced single vysokoplan, who was given the title of "Lam" (the original creators bukovkoy names). The fuselage of the aircraft along the entire length had a rectangular cross section, in front of the trimmed with cloth. The wing of a convex-concave narrow profile was able to jam the tip to control the aircraft from the slope. First on the plane wanted to set Ufimtseva engine capacity of 40-50 horsepower, then the 50-60-strong Russian motor "Kalep." But due to lack of funds on the finished plane set 50-strong slider "Dwarf". The airplane was placed on the level of ideas since then, he went resistant, lightweight and perfectly ordinary doing aerobatics. 14/05/1912, the GV Jankowski to "lam" set the Russian altitude record, which equated 1,775 meters. Satisfied with the success, but not happy with a little bit of their own role in the development of the aircraft, Mosca has left his own companions. Although the triumvirate and broke, our hero did not leave Russia.

In the coming Mosca hit the Ice Palace, where the last bicycle factory "Dux" worked under the banner of the aircraft. Francesco Mosca became the principal designer of many aircraft. Overall management of the factory was in the hands of the JSC "Dux", the head of which was Russified Teuton Moeller. This breeder in the aviation business poorly understood. Specifically, he owns saying: "An airplane is not a machine — it is impossible to calculate!". Muller tried to stick to the production release of used foreign cars. But at the "Dux" built and experienced aircraft. Almost all of them ("Dux" and "Moeller") have been developed by F. Mosca. Naturally, the work done to encourage increased training and enriching experience Italian pilot, the designer and the designer, who eventually managed to reach the receipt of their production base to begin its work and successfully deal with it. One reason was the beginning of the first global. Shortly earlier in Mosca was a regular co-authorship, which led to the profile of his activities.

Mosca before the start of work on the Bezobrazov with the support of the Military Department was able to organize their work, but now, without paying intermediaries or wealthy owners. Not far from Brest railway station (now Belarus station) Mosca founded a small plant, Place in a couple of sheds, and getting an advance from the customer, creating two to three aircraft per month. Pretty quickly he was able to upgrade and expand capacity, often having the opportunity to produce up to 5 fighters such as "Moran-F" and "Nieuport" for the month. In the period from 1915 to 1916 the plant "Mosca" has managed to do one hundred percent of military orders, surrendering to the front of 75 aircraft. Apart from the serial construction of French airplanes, F. Mosca started to develop its own aircraft experienced. This will support the invaluable Mosca had a captain Bystrytsky, military inspector of his enterprise, which, at his insistence in 1915-1917 he became the co-author of "MB" and "MB bis."

According to the draft Double reconnaissance aircraft "MB" ("Mosca-B") was bracing vysokoplanom have 50-horsepower engine, "Dwarf". The installation of the motor more power designers did not count, because these motors were needed at the front of the supplied serial aircraft. The aircraft "MB" in a specific community of schemes aerodynamic assembly "Moran-F" had a fascinating feature that distinguishes it from most units of the First World War — he was a sleeper. The two halves of the wing swiveling front spar, and fit the front edge up along the sides of the fuselage. The stabilizer was formed with a fractured forward. In the folded position, the plane takes up even less space in comparison with the flight configuration, and can be installed on w / e platform for distant transportation, are also put on his gear, towed behind a horse or car and, in the end, simply push the fighters. Apart from this, the car rolled into a "ball", can profitably be based on malehankih airfields near forests or other natural shelter. To lead the embattled one car in advance sheltered from air reconnaissance quite have the strength to 2 persons, for its rollout to the launch pad, start the engine, turn and splitting with stabilizer wings for 35 — 40 minutes. Military, became interested in such a prospect, has allocated funds for the construction of the prototype "MB", which was to be completed in the spring of 1915 in non-convertible version. When the test is stated that "the airplane is easy landing and take-off, obedient to the handlebars, but to implement it as an air scout is necessary to increment the engine power." This model has allowed to create only with the engine "Ron" capacity of 50 liters. with., as implied Mosca and Bystrytsky knowing about the lack of more powerful engines. The military department with all this pointed to the plant "Mosca", that "MB" engine with 80 hp. s. would be more useful than a scout with a crew of 2 persons as well as a lightweight single-seat fighter to effectively act in the protection of large objects, useful for offensive operations.

On the recommendation of the customer unusual aircraft makers have responded promptly. Initiated a series of fold-out scouts, different from the standard most experienced and a redesigned tail wing broke off after the release of 12 specimens that were taken from the satisfaction of military acceptance and up to 1918 were used in combat. Some of these aircraft "survived" to the civilian war and were used as a snow-white and reddish.

Converted from Scouting fighter received the designation of "MB bis" ("Mosca bis-B"). Given plane had significantly lowest weight and dimensions, which further increases its portability, stealth before combat use, also contributed to the decrease in the time required to prepare for the flight. The preparations for the departure of two mechanics made for 25-30 min., And factory workers like that for stacked aircraft did not require a lot of space in the yard for their roll-out of the assembly hall.

Both aircraft were monotonous and interior design. In the forward part of the fuselage was set rotative engine that locked sleek casing. In the front section included: fuel tank capacity of 85 liters., Crew cabin from the wheelhouse. The head portion is formed with wood beams, bolted to the strong, but with all this light farm. Outside were attached to her landing gear, wild boars for the lower and upper wing braces are also positioning elements for a machine gun, "Colt" or the "Lewis". When installing a machine gun in a horizontal position to carry through the swept rotor plane on the propeller blades were put on "fireproof fire" which represent the hardened iron prisms, which were set sharp edge toward the machine gun. During firing the bullet that fell into the screw rebound from an o
blique edge clipper, flying off to the left or to the right of the aircraft. By the shortcomings of the use of cut-offs were treated drop by 8-10% efficiency of the screw and the loss of up to 25% of the bullets from ricocheting at every turn. If you install a machine gun at an angle to fire up the aiming screws hampered in flight and dramatically reduces the time of aimed fire. Two settings of the machine guns on the fighters' MB encore "despite the shortcomings which were used during air combat.

The aircraft "MB encore" demonstrated excellent flight characteristics and "… The results of flight tests of the fighter showed its full compliance with the requirements of fighting the charges …" So, for example, the greatest scab and level flight was 130-135 km / h, the height of two thousand meters was recruited in 8.3 minutes, service ceiling was 4.2 thousand meters. In addition, he has good maneuverability characteristics. The data obtained on the experimental "MB encore" kitted 80-strong engine "Dwarf".

In December 1916, after the plane had adopted, held a special meeting of the Commission for the defense of the country in which an overwhelming majority "MB encore" attributed to the "preferred type of destructive devices" and decided to give the plant "Mosca" big order. From now signed a contract to build 225 aircraft of this type. Coupled with the fact the plant forced the creation of 100 "Nieuport-11" and some of its following modifications to the engines, "Ron" capacity of 80-110 horsepower or 150-horsepower "Hispano-Suiza." The deadline for building 325 fighters have established on July 1, 1917 Mosca received a down payment of 50 thousand rubles.

For this work had to retrofit and expand the plant. So, on a branch of the Red Presnya did, which was double the production area of the enterprise. The work conducted so Makarov, that in the 17th year kazhdomesyachny bring the issue up to 35 aircraft. However, the maximum was achieved only 15 aircraft. The greatest difficulties were associated with the construction of fighters "Mosca-B bis. " Plant by the end of May 17 of the year surrendered just 25 cars. Mosca asked the War Department and asked to postpone the execution of the order also lower kazhdomesyachny production to 10 aircraft. The main reasons for this request, Mosca called the price increase "labor and raw materials" (There was a big war), shortage of inverse funds, difficulties in obtaining bank loans and the fact that the materials and raw materials, have long been ordered not received so far. Property plant "Mosca" was on bail Office airforce, because for a loan on account of orders needed some support. Private individuals and banks to finance the company, "the visitor italyashki" shall be removed, resulting in difficulties with the implementation of the order only increased.

The plant "Mosca" in such criteria were unable to fulfill their duties. The total number of built and transferred to the treasury of fighters was less than 25% of the plan. Italian in a foreign country was not sufficiently energetic for a successful struggle with local officials. In addition, his case is very disturbed routine represent most of the War Department officials, and the business community of the Russian Federation, who preferred airplanes made in Europe, not Russia.

Prior to 1918, was created a little more than 50 fighters, "MB-bis". After Evdzhisto Francesco Mosca went home plant produced a few more of these planes with supplies of engines, the remaining industrial warehouses. What was the fate of the upcoming Bystritskiy not clear. Red Army built aircraft used for various purposes.

Of all the varieties of family aircraft "MB" was the most recent standards of the best "MB bis", mounted with their French engines "Clerget" (power 110 hp…) These machines by increasing the highest power-to have more tactical flight properties, compared with zabugornom fighters.

Very fun to practice "Mosquito" was the subsequent work. Mechanical engineer Kulebakin suggested using common enough slam for firing a machine gun mounted in a horizontal position above the engine. Cutter has been designed for the "MB-bis" on the main areas of the plant. Special semi-circular cams connected to the motor shaft, during the passage of the blade through the line of motion of bullets flying appeared from under the hood, preventing the bolt from being damaged during the shooting. 23-28 July 1917 Kulebakin shutoff system was tested in Khodynskoe shooting range. As noted in the report, "during the shooting … screw machine and no damage from the spray of bullets and shrapnel had. Cutter showed a perfect job. " During the test flight after it was made 220 shots did not hit any plane, no screw, no pilot. Only about 12% of the bullets hit the cams. The device Kulebakin drag aircraft did not increase. The machine gun is not associated with a razor mechanically worked moderately and without annoying regardless of engine speed. Weight clipper set with nodes and the transmission was less than 5 pounds. Power consumption at the drive-shut was pathetic. Its installation is not sought alterations and configurations of aircraft, engine and machine guns, not pulling the introduction of spec. screws and forces could be terminal services units and parts. Unfortunately, the present invention is not applied against the background of the events of 1917 has sunk into the tape …

According to the article Ivnamina Sultanov magazine "Arms and equipment"

Like this post? Please share to your friends: