The history of Russian aviation. The Swan» № 10

"The Swan"! So "heaven" nickname first century has received several aircraft made by one of the pioneers of Russian aviation, fourth pilot of, VA Lebedev (1879-1947). Russian aviator their successes of almost everything has to sport. Lebedev many times won the top prizes at competitions motorcyclists and cyclists. In aviation Vladimir came in 1908, after seeing a demo flights Yankees Wilbur Wright. VA Lebedev the same in 1908 became a member of the All-Russian Aero Club. He was one of the first in St. Petersburg, built a glider and learned to control it. Then Lebedev organized a flying club members in the middle of raising funds for the purchase of an airplane. The fund of the club to the total amount of 2500 rubles were added, and Lebedev went to France for the purchase of the aircraft's office "Ariel". First, he had to learn how to fly the airplane, and later teach others to fly, but at home. While the "ordered" Wright "was built, Lebedev, did not waste time in vain and mastering new business. Vladimir got a job at this company aircraft mechanic. In the test flight on one of the machines built died first disciple W. Wright — Eugene Lafleur. All-Russian Flying Club from contacts with the manufacturers, "Wright" refused and perekomandiroval VA Alexander Lebedev to Farman. Lebedev with Henry Segni, his comrade-in-gliding, headed Mourmelon. 10/07/1910 Lebedev, the pilot was awarded a diploma from a French aviator Aero Club at number 98. Upon returning home, Lebedev became the first instructor flight school All-Russian Aero Club, and later its chief pilot. It should be noted that the diploma pilot from Aero Club of Russia for number 1 was presented, the 07/31/1910 .. Henry Segni, and had taught him (well, and many others) fly V. Lebedev, in hindsight was issued a diploma for the number 4, and even then only on someone's tip.

"Swan number 10" with a huge wing design Q. Lebedev. 1915

In 1912, Lebedev refuses to take up the post of head of the aero club and begins to organize its own aircraft factory.

In St. Petersburg, opened "Workshops Lebedev." Workshops are engaged in repair and the creation of units and propellers for aircraft of various types of motor boats and so on. And engaged in what is now referred to as conversion. A separate window consumer goods engaged in repairing and distribution of all kinds of stuff like pots and umbrellas, all of this was done without any public or instructions from above. Lebedev its profitable institution insured by the unfortunate events, and New Year's Eve 1913 "workshop" with a light hand-competitors envious burned. Soon they were restored, but also after the lucrative insurance stung again.

In April 1914 athlete-entrepreneur rents about Kolomyazhsky racecourse (was renamed Commandant airport), land and building several production facilities, thus giving top newcomer plant that receives the title of "The Company of aeronautics VA Lebedev." This plant in 1921 renamed the "aviation workers," and soon he gets the status of the union of the plant and gets the registration number 47. The plant built the French "Voisin" and "Deperdyusseny", and later, after being mastered assembly area on the coast Krestovskogo Islands, companies engaged in mass production of French seaplanes like "WAT". On the main business area during the First World War, saturated flow repaired and built different brands of aircraft combat mission.

On the basis of the German "Albatross" (first trophy plane was obtained in the summer of 1915) made several improved types which have a collective name of "The Swan". All of these aircraft are different design scheme, and of course numbering. If the acquaintance with "The Swan» № 7, the design of which was attended by independent technical solutions Russian aircraft manufacturers, that the aircraft was similar to the English "Tebloid" Company "Sopwith". The airplane was created as a model of a fighter, but, filled 80-horsepower engine, "dwarf" was accepted by the customer as a training aircraft. Military units have received several "Swan» № 7 and used them as training for pilot training. "The Swan» № 8 was kind of a modification of the previous type. From its predecessor it was different biplane wings and two post box bezpolozkovym chassis. The first instance of this aircraft was a "remake" "Swan» № 7, but the subsequent built anew.

After the trophy was repaired, the German "Elfauge" ("1US"), factory workers dubbed it "The Swan» № 9.

First unique plane, were designated as "Swan» № 10 was first released in 1915 by VA Lebedev, creating a combat unit, perhaps for the first time in the history of the Russian aircraft industry has placed in the circuit design of the airplane and the ability of multi-purpose use, which do not require additional measures to balance and maintain longitudinal alignment. With the inside of the fuselage, empennage, landing gear and synchronous machine gun, which was to be installed in front of a transparent canopy cockpit on top of the head of the fuselage were permanent. To the lower nodes and the fuselage top braced boars two variants could hinged bearing surfaces. The installation of small wings out odnostoechny polutoraplan, which can be used as a single-seat fighter. The upper wing (area 16 m2) was at the ends of conventional ailerons, expanding its scope. On the lower wing (area 13 m2), the ailerons were absent. Both were two-spar wing, drawn from similar plywood ribs with a concave-convex profile. Side Front Carton biplane made of 2-rods having a teardrop-shaped cross-section, which have been suspension the metal wire. Braced central boars were attached to the top of the cross over the rods with the fuselage farm. Step ribs along the span of the wings was equal 875 millimeters. This size is correctly determined the distance between wild boars, in other words, the width of the fuselage, the distance between the side stand, ailerons, wing end cuts, in other words, their scope. The same law of constructing the basic geometry of the subordinate wings of the second version of "Swan» № 10, set up for the air scouts. The airplane can be given the title of "The Swan» № 10 "BK" (great wings). His wings were at a similar scope of different areas: the upper area was 20 m2 (due to the expansion of the aileron), lower — 19.4 m2. Biplane box of this option was a two-post. The lumens between the uprights for the two variants of the aircraft prototype massed cross wire braces. Aileron upper wings were similar and did not depend on their scope. The materials used for the wings: a bent plywood (for the front part of the wing), pine boards and plywood (for box-spar). As plating materials used fabric on the varnish and paint. The fuselage was a longish rectangular farms and tapering to the tail. It consisted of a pair of split pieces. At the head compartment housed the engine, fuel tank and operating the pilot's seat. He had a pivotal farm, and was a welded steel pipes. The tail section had a wood farm, which is in the plane of the frames in all the cells on the sides of the wire was pulled together by braces. Fuselage farm on the top and bottom sides were covered with semicircular fairing made of plywood. Overall weave clot
h with the following coating lacquer and paint to create external surface of the fuselage. The bow of the hull was no exception. 80-horsepower engine rotative "Ron" partly locked cylindrical hood that has a higher part of the small frontal shield. The sides of the engine department were covered board. For besstupechatogo flow forward fuselage at the edges of established smooth contours of the bonnet assemblies round to the flat sides in the form of convex patches that were created by conical sectors. The chassis was made according to the traditional two-post scheme with a single axis of the wheels. Rubber Corded amortization chassis was also adopted for long. The tail assembly was performed by an established design-power scheme: keel, having rudder and stabilizer having two sections of the elevator. Horizontal tail in shape in plan view was radial sector (radius 2 m). By the form on the side of the vertical tail was triangular.

Two aircraft "Swan» № 10 built at the end of 1915 and first of 1916. Polutoraplan "MK" could be used as a fighter, but the power of the motor for this purpose was not enough. A more sweeping version as a fighter could be used, but as a spy he lacked capacity. Flight tests raznokrylyh twins took place in spring 1916 and since they have not shown the desired properties of serial production has not begun. On airplanes flew Lebedev himself. On both machines weaponry has not been established.

Later, VA Lebedev created several own factories and other aircraft. Typically, these were spies. Serial number of the most experienced types with the designation "Swan" reached 25. More well-known and large-circulation were "Swan» № 11 and № 12. But these aircraft are not distinguished features and had unique designs and patterns. Engines "Salmson" with the cooling of the air and a capacity of 150 liters. with. applied to these aircraft were not candidates, and customers had to enjoy the principle of "take what you give." In Russia's own engines were not, and the war with Germany began in 1917 to some stabilization requirements for reconnaissance aircraft. Park fighters replenished by the French and British, and activities Lebedev was to repair of imported cars, and not to the production of new aircraft. Lebedev in 1917, built a couple of factories and started getting huge orders for the construction of aircraft such as "Sopwith". Own creation has been concentrated in the main on the spies' Swan »№ 12. Lebedev was more successful play other people's planes, usually it was "Albatross." In plants Lebedev into trial production was a huge number of aircraft of other designers. Own attempts to create the newest unusual design in his practice was comparable bit.

VA Lebedev in 1918, was obliged to flee from Petrograd to the south, and from there — to Serbia, where he studied French distribution and sale of engines "Ron" and "Dwarf". In 1926, the Lebedev he moved to Paris and intensively involved in the work of the local flying club. For fruitful activity in the aviation field Lebedev was awarded the Order of the Legion of noble origin — the highest merit of France. VA Lebedev died in 1947, far from the homeland, he was buried at the Russian cemetery.

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