The history of Russian aviation. Torpedo Olkhovskoye

Developer and creator of the 1st of the first Russian fighter was a military pilot, Prof. aviator Captain Vladimir Olkhovskiy (lived 1889-1929). From 1916 to 1917 he, as commander of the 5th Air Park near Bryansk, doing extensive work in the workshops (SVARM) of this military unit. The main objective was SVARM repair services, which broke down as a result of failure or damage. Olkhovskiy, having received permission command, not including repair work on their own initiative consider redesign and improvement of aircraft designs that came commonplace procedure in workshops.

With golden hands, head light and natural inclination for art, Olkhovskiy was able to fix it and bring it to the desired state of absolutely everything. With all of this very process of reconstruction motivate him as much as the final outcome, and in some cases even more, especially when the unit got to him the first time. Olkhovskiy swiftly ran from one-time repair work to perfection, and later to the creation of its aircraft design.

One of the first Russian aviator was equipped monoplane "Nieuport-IV» (France), as referred to as "wings Olkhovskoye." Wings Olkhovskoye — ailerons imposed instead of goshirovaniya, in other words, the ends of the wing bias because of their tether tension control wiring. Designer himself flew the unit in July 1916, after it surrendered to the troops. Soon it was remade crippled "Voisin» IA: change gear, rudder and gondola crew.

The plane was made easier, it got better aerodynamics. It was built in one instance. In the second half of the first world spends a lot of other work, but for the coming of the future was more useful experience for the modification of serial "Moran-Saulnier-1."

"Moran" Olkhovskoye had the best flight characteristics in comparison with the initial prototype. This unit is in almost all formed the basis for the new aircraft, which has an unusual design and construction, received the title of "monoplane-Torpedo" or "Torpedo". The new aircraft was a braced vysokoplan, which was intended for multi-purpose implementation. Double option could be used as a light bomber aircraft or spy, as well as a two-seater fighter. The single version (if the rear seat is free) as a fighter, having armed with a synchronous machine gun.

The corresponding feature of the "Torpedo" was split into two parts wing. The left and right halves were separated by a 680 mm scale with the aim of improving both the top pilots review, also for shelling the upper hemisphere in cases when the second crew member moving small arms. The wing was set slightly above the eyes of pilots, limiting the lateral view, but applicable under review and a decent review of the conditions of up to monitor the environment and viewing areas were significantly improved in comparison with the relevant parameters of the French layout.

Also needed to improve the experience, "Moran-Saulnier-1", over which Olkhovskiy worked for about a year. The fact that the commander of the 5th fleet, it is loaded in everyday work on the repair of aircraft for the front, found time to develop, test and fine-tuning of its own fighter "Torpedo" is worthy of admiration.

The fuselage of the aircraft on the new design was the all-wood monocoque, vykleennym veneer. He had only untainted form.

We had a narrow wing of the convex-concave profile. For his monotonous naborki used plywood ribs. At the wing had fabric covering. To cross it was supplied with tether management system buckling tails endings, because the ailerons were languishing.

French engine "Ron", 80 hp. with., temporarily installed on the aircraft, as there was no other engine has a huge capacity. With this engine was to spend only the initial stage of flight tests. Construction monoplane "Torpedo" was conducted SVARM forces, on the dotted unbalanced schedule because of the large employment of workers for the war effort.

In the summer of 1916 worked out the technology vykleyki fuselage of 2-halves and following their connection with self-tapping screws and studs. The assembly of the aircraft completed by October 16th of the year. The device is made in the "excellent" and, according to the plan of developers, it should be good aerodynamics, if not the central cut-out wings with its spacing in two. Over open booths that initiated the massive swirl (due to depressions crew seats and large transparent visors) came two ends of the wing, which made the then unknown designers inductance.

In one of the serene day in October 1916 after a series of several taxiways on the airfield was made the first flight of a monoplane "Torpedo" Curb 80 horsepower engine, "Ron." Monoplane at the specific load on the wing was 40 kg/m2 took off after a small runway will be 50 meters. In flight, the aircraft was stable, but, landing, Olkhovskiy control the plane gave "goat", as came to land against a fairly strong wind. At the time of the tragedy and has broken rudder. Otherwise monoplane "Torpedo" did not actually hurt, and was sent to the repair shop.

Even before the 17-year engine got "Ron" having great power (110 hp.), With whom plane had to have the best data. By that time, was manufactured and delivered to the 5th fleet propeller designed Ol'hovski. It was a two-bladed iron hollow propeller diameter 2600 mm.

Screw the new motor was installed on the aircraft instead of wood screws 2500-mm and 80-horsepower engine. Due to the revision and rearrangement of propeller (outside the engine was shut Townend ring having a bottom cut in 90 °, which was typical for the rotative engines and propeller hub — a broad, blunt cook) changed the alignment plane, and increasing the diameter of the screw was the premise of the distance from the earth to the ends of the blades decreased. Because of this Olkhovsky had to put the "Torpedo" to a superior chassis to change and rearrange the termination racks with some removal of the wheels forward.

In a renovated, also reinforced tail set installed another vertical tail, as in "Moran-Saulnier" (maybe it was taken with the final aircraft). To speed up the flight of reduced wingspan of up to 8.5 meters (from 10.2 m) the circumcision of his wingtips. With such a small wing of the designer load was increased to 50 kg/m2. Empty weight with synchronization and motionless firing a machine gun actually did not change and amounted to 500 kg.

To fly the plane was ready for spring 17 th year. To test the "Torpedo" was created by a special committee, chaired by Captain Nicholas Evgrafovich Popov (1878-1929). The commission includes known at the time the pilots Sergey Karlovic Modrow (built in 1916-1917 and carried out tests of its own fighter), Alexander Prokofiev-Seversky (recognizable aircraft, after the October Revolution, he emigrated to the United States), Albrecht, Slepzov and others. 6-20 March, the Commission had done extensive testing of a fighter. Flights between vernal mudslides were carried out on the airfield breeder AA Anatry in Odessa. The committee members were flying on the unit alternately by transplanting from the back seat pas frontal and vice versa.

The Russian Defense Ministry reported serious and detailed act.

At an altitude of 1,000 meters the highest rate of "Torpedo" was 168.5 km / h at sea level (at 50 meters) — 166 km / h The car gained a height of 2 thousand meters in 8 minutes 30 seconds, and a height
of 3 thousand meters — 17 minutes 5 seconds. The run was 82 meters, mileage — 58 meters. Plane easily reached the ceiling 4.3 thousand meters. Tests were carried out with a load of 155 kilograms (petrol and pilot).

The Commission noted that the scheme and the design chosen for the aircraft, "gives the pilot enough huge field of view," and in general "seems to be completely impressive design with painstaking execution." And further: "The installation of the motor was reliable, good cooling." Speed at the ground Commission has been recognized as "quite satisfactory." The work machine gun (outside of the cockpit, on the right side) was also evaluated as satisfactory. Mechanical device for firing through screw flexible shaft from the motor completely original "(the same notion Olkhovskoye).

Synchronizer would "not be possible for a shot in the sector of the circle, which described by a screw, for all that the propeller blades were in a kind of "dead" space. " The device worked when the motor is spinning, it's very easy, normal and actually sought configurations in the machine gun. The number of engine revolutions at the rate of fire does not actually have an impact. During the tests, it was released two tapes with 250 rounds of ammunition, with all this happened just one hit in screw.

With all the positive reviews of the commission, finding the run cars on take-off and its weight is "too big", recognized plane Olkhovskoye "not applicable in the real form of weapons squads." But "at the upcoming improvements are also allowed relief he may be, will satisfy the requirements for a fighter aircraft."

Monoplane "Torpedo" for mass production adopted and has not been. After testing monoplane Olkhovskoye transferred to the Department of Gatchina flying school, stationed in Odessa. Meanwhile, the plane was pretty perfect fighting machine. Her designs have been implemented many of the principles later adopted for aircraft of this class, and in Russia and abroad. Takeoff and mass, which so horrified Commission, were completely natural and, as shown by the development of fighters, without annoying grew. It is regretted that the plane was only in the experimental implementation.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that Vladimir straight to the end of the 1920s. While traces of his activity and life have not gone with a "light hand" of the GPU (naturally — past the "royal officer"), continued fruitful and successful operation of aircraft. In 23-29 years, he was the first assistant NN Polikarpov to GCO-1 at the plants number 1 and number 25. Olkhovskiy developed a plano-convex profiles for aircraft wings 2IN-1 (CI-1), CI-2, I-3, I-6, I-7, P-2, P-5, TB-2, U-2. Olkhovskiy — one of the first in Russia made wood-fiber monocoque fuselage. Notable aircraft 20-40s 2IN-1, DI-2, I-3, I-6, I-16, and many others have had the same fuselage such as "Torpedo".

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