The history of Russian aviation. Triplane AA Bezobrazoff

Capital Governor-General Ants October 7, 1914 the Russian Army Aviation Command telegraphed:
"Today in Moscow held the first test of the new trimonoplana Ensign AA Bezobrazoff point in a successful flight with preparatory tests immediately after the end of construction."
After that, the Governor-General argued that the warrant officer BEZOBRAZOV "can in the shortest line to arrange a huge workshop not only for their own type, and for at least some other system."

AA BEZOBRAZOV began working in 1913, when the young enthusiast decided to make the airplane own design, which should be stable in the air, but for all that have no horizontal tail, in other words to be tailless. This idea was enticing and exciting, but so extraordinary that even first drawing become a prerequisite of skepticism and hesitation in the middle of most categorical advising well-wishers. Professionals confused and trehkryly tailless tandem and age of the inventor, which did not have the appropriate education and sufficient experience. Some have interpreted his name as "without education."

Alexander in February 1914 showed its own project to Italian sports pilots F. Mosca, who arrived in 1912 in Russia to catch happiness. Then he made a tempting offer Russian pilots ZHoru Jankowski and Max von Lerche together to build a plane Lam. F. Mosca almost became a co Bezobrazoff in the development of "trimonoplana" by running a huge part of design work.

Flying "shelving units" with three and more than a wing at the dawn of aviation, there were many. If not all, most of these aircraft were not fundamentally aerodynamic differences from the planes of other schemes. To provide directional stability and maneuverability, they are endowed horizontal tail, which was established on the bolshennom away from the center of mass of the aircraft. In this embodiment, triplane had no horizontal tail and was a trehkryly tandem with small spacing triplane box height and a large take-out wings on the horizontal axis. All wings had similar profiles and basic geometry. Each wing on the mind in terms reminiscent bukovku "M" stretched to the sides with the same chord for 60% of the span of 500 mm. From internal shotguns aileron end portions have flared shape in plan, also swept ending with blunt end. By the turn of the front edges of the sweep were introduced curvature, shape of bird wings each carrier element. For the wings elected triangular profile with the top 35% of the chord has a slightly concave lower surface. Each wing is structurally composed of 2-halves. The rear and front wings joined in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft, and the average wing, consisting of 2-shortened halves, fastened on the sides of the fuselage. The rear wing was attached to aggressively tail of the case with Y-shaped boar. Wings between a 4-linked longitudinal supports made of iron pipes having circular cross-section. Pipes are arranged in pairs by 60% and 30% of the span. Beams had touched on a mustache simply supported over the rear wing and front wing at the bottom of the hanging. The beams pass through the middle wing through, being fixed to its side members with iron flange-shaped ellipse. Terminations of the longitudinal strength of the box have the same flange fittings. In areas of attachment of each wing to the supports they permeate the vertical profile Sprengel created for the posting of the lower and upper aileron control cables. Termination Sprengel massed on top with ribbons, braces chetyrehsterzhnevym highest fuselage boar, and a landing gear at the bottom. In addition, the network made a diagonal bracing to tie beams between the terminations are in the wings apart from sealing the central Sprengel first wing, harness belts which prevented the spinning propeller.

Chassis — two U-shaped bar, which is attached to the curved bottom rungs that are needed to install the wheel axle and a bunch of cord with a rubber band. The fuselage of the airplane began with a cover that covered the 80-strong engine and "Dwarf", designed by French designers Seguin and hatches. Next there was a compartment in which housed the central box of the motor, which is installed on the oil and fuel tanks.

Triplane Bezobrazoff — a unique airplane, which flew Ivan Orlov in May-June 1917

According to the initial project, the engine was to be installed in the middle of the fuselage with the installation of a longish shaft to the tractor propeller airplane. With all this outrage wished to establish a pilot seat for the engine in the glass enclosed cab with a periscope. This cabin would give spindle streamlined fuselage. But an experienced buddy Mosca he made an objection, and the airplane was created with a conventional fuselage having an open cockpit in which the pilot has a radial view. Front board the cockpit, which was placed on top of the transparent visor made of celluloid, raised himself on a convex cone fairing over the upper fuselage longerons. Given the rise of the factory for installation right before the eyes of flight devices aviator. At the back of the pilot seat inside an airplane single tapered height and width of the tail of the body brace 5 rectangular frames on diagonals, covered with a cloth and covered with boards.

BEZOBRAZOV many times regretted that he could not realize the plan of the round streamlined fuselage, but Mosca whenever Bezobrazoff return to the current reality. In the conditions of the primitive production base, which was located at Khodynsky field in the barn, workshop, vykleit good monocoque was virtually impossible. In addition, the German war started soon, because the lost illusions thrown into oblivion.

The construction of an airplane completed by October 1914, a month after the fighting broke out acts on the front. BEZOBRAZOV own creation beheld a single-seat fighter, but his companion did not share such views, and believed that their plane fascinating on an experimental aircraft. To the surprise of most pilots first flight F. Mosca went very well, without any preparation or podletov and jogging. At the airport rose fairly strong winds during the pilot taxied to a parking space in order to run across the field. Sensing that she asks in an airplane flight, the pilot pressed the gas and the plane just went up to 50-70 meters. Having performed at an altitude of about 250 meters three stable bend around the launch site, Mosca made a landing. Music and colors were not, because no one thought that this 'web' will be able to take to the air.

So significant event AA BEZOBRAZOV could not be happy, because in the beginning of September, he was a staff officer at the front. Return to the affairs he managed only in December 1914 after BEZOBRAZOV languid injured for a long time was in the hospital. At this time his "trimonoplan" was transferred to the Crimea, where F. Mosca aviation school in Sevastopol continued his fine-tuning and testing. BEZOBRAZOV arrived in the Crimea in January 1915 and is already without F. Mosca during the year continued to improve and modifying the hardware, while in June 1916, once again came back to Moscow. The pilot Orlov August 6, 1916 suffered a tragedy during takeoff. The tragedy occurred as a result of damage to the axle — the plane klyunuv nos
e, rolled onto his back. "Triplane" was renovated in March 1917 Subsequent experiments with the airplane stopped. The type and installation tools for the hypothetical fighter Bezobrazoff is not known.

Tactical flight properties of the "triplane" ("Trimonoplan") AA Bezobrazoff:
Most horsepower — 80 hp. s.;
The highest speed — 100 km / h;
Service ceiling — 2000 m;
Flight duration — 2 hours;
Wing area — 17 m2;
Take-off weight — 547 kg;
Empty weight — 388 kg;
The supplies of fuel — 70 kg;
Specific load on the wings — 32.2 kg/m2;
Specific load capacity — 6.85 kg / l. s.;
Weight efficiency — 29.1%.

According to the article Ivnamina Sultanov magazine "Arms and equipment"

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