Such work, of course, are in progress in our country. We are now slightly opened Zahav secrecy over one of the most fascinating developments.
Background to this briefly. All of our tactical missiles and operational-tactical level, hitherto was in service with the Army, — the so-called "inertial" type. In other words, the target are induced on the basis of the laws of mechanics. The first such missiles had little kilometer errors, and the number is normal. In the coming inertial systems were further developed, which reduced the deviation from the target in the next generation of rockets to 10 of meters. But it is within the capabilities of "inertsialki." Come, kick said "the crisis of the genre." A precision, as if there was any, it was necessary to increase. However, whereby the manner in which?
The answer to this question was to give employees of the Central Research Institute for Automation and Hydraulics (TSNIIAG) which initially focused on the development of control systems. Including for different types of weapons. Work on the creation of a missile homing system, as it was called then, was headed by Head of the Institute of Zino Moiseevich Persits. Back in the fifties, he was awarded the Lenin Prize as one of the founders of the country's first anti-tank guided missile "Bumblebee". Were he and his colleagues and other successful development. At this time, was to obtain a mechanism that would provide a missile hit even small targets (bridges, launchers, etc.).
The military's idea to tsniiagovtsev treated first without interest. After all, according to the instructions, manuals, regulations of the missile is first to ensure delivery of warheads in the target area. Because the deviation measured by meters, has great significance, the task is still to be resolved. But pledged as needed several obsolete (already at that time), tactical missiles, the R-17 (abroad they are called "Scud» — Scud), for which the deviation is two kilometers away and acceptable.
Decided to make a bet on the development of optical seeker. The plan was that. Satellite or an airplane picture is taken. It finds the target decoder of notes and its particular sign. Then this image becomes the basis for the creation of a sample that "optics", mounted under a transparent fairing warhead missiles would compare with the actual terrain and find the target. From 1967 to 1973, were laboratory tests. One of the main problems was the question: In what form should be performed samples? Of the several options chosen photographic film frame with 4×4 mm, which at different scales would be captured land areas in order. At the command staff of the altimeter would change, allowing the head of the search target.
But this way solutions prepyadstviya was hopeless. In 1-x itself head come out massive. This construct was completely rejected and the military. They believed that the information on board the rocket must come not by inserting "a film" before the start, when the missile is in the firing position in readiness for the launch and all work must be finished, but somehow different. Maybe transmitted by wire, or even better — on the radio. Did not suit them, and that the optical head can only be used day or while in clear weather.
So, by 1974 it became clear that a need for other ways to solve the problem. This issue was also discussed at a meeting of the Board of the Ministry of Defense Industry.
By this time, the science and the creation of increasingly started introducing computers. Develop more advanced element base. Well, in the department of Persits appeared newcomers, many of whom have already worked on the creation of different information systems. They just offered to make patterns with electronics. Need bortovik, they believed, in whose memory would have laid the whole method of action to launch the target, its capture, hold, and in the end — destruction.
It was a very difficult period. As usual working 14-16 hours a day. Could not manage to make a digital sensor which could read the coded information about the purpose of the computer memory. Trained, as they say, in practice. In the design has not been tampered. Well, in general they are not a lot of people knew. So when were the first tests of the system, and it is a well-demonstrated, for many it is the news came as a surprise. Meanwhile varied sights on the conduct of war in modern conditions. Military scientists have uniformly come to the conclusion that the use of nuclear weapons, especially in the tactical and operational-tactical level, it may be not only ineffective, and unsafe: in addition to the enemy, and did not exclude the defeat of their own troops. It took a fundamentally new tool that would ensure implementation of a charge everyday tasks — at the expense of accuracy.
In one of the Defense Research Institute, a laboratory "Systems precision control of tactical and operational-tactical missiles." At first necessary to understand what kind of production already have our "defense industry", and the first — the tsniiagovtsev.
The calendar was in 1975. By this time, the team had Persits models of the future system, which was small and completely reliable, that is, corresponding to the initial requirements. In principle, the problem was solved with the samples. Now they were laid in memory of the computer in the form of electrical images of terrain, made at different scales. At the time of the flight warheads team altimeter images of these in turn were caused by memory and the digital sensor is removed from each of their testimony.
After a series of successful test system, it was decided to "put on the plane."
On the range … under the "belly" of the Su-17, hitched a model rocket with a seeker.
The pilot flew the plane on the intended line of flight of the rocket motion. Work recorded the movie camera head, which "surveyed" area one with her "eye", that is, through a common lens.
And the first "debriefing". All holding our breath, staring at the screen. First shots. The height of 10,000 meters. In the haze of barely discern the outlines of the earth. "Head" smoothly moves from side to side, as if searching for something. At one point stopped and, like any aircraft maneuvered constantly keeps the center of the frame in the same place. In the end, when the carrier aircraft dropped to chetyrehkilometrovoy height, all clearly saw the goal. Yes, electronics realized person and did everything in her power. That day was a holiday …
'Aircraft' success, many people thought — vivid testimony of the vitality of the system. But Persits knew that customers can only assure successful missile launches. The first of them took place on 29 September 1979. Rocket P-17, launched on trehsotkilometrovuyu range at Kapustin Yar, fell a few meters away from the goal.
And then was the decision of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers on this program there. Allocated funds connected to the performance of work 10s companies. Now tsniiagovtsam no longer had to manually stitch the necessary details. They were resp
onsible for overall system management, preparation and processing of data in the input disk imaging bortovik.
In a single pace with the developers acted and representatives of the Ministry of Defence. Thousands of people were working on an assignment. In terms of a constructive and very few changed rocket P-17. Now the head portion has a peel-off, set it on the handlebars, the stabilization system, etc. TsNIIAGe made special machines input disk imaging, by which it was encoded and then transmitted via a cable to the memory bortovik. Of course, not everything went smoothly, there were glitches. And it is back down: almost everything had to be done the first time. In particular, the situation deteriorated after several failed launches.
That was in 1984. September 24 — a bad start. 31 October — the same thing: head does not recognize the target.
What started here! The meeting after the meeting, the spacing for spacing … At one of the meetings of the Military-Industrial Commission even got work to returning to a research level. Decisive was the outlook of the then chief Grau, Colonel-General Yuri Andrianov and other military professionals who applied for the continuation of work in the former regime.
On the search for the "noise" went for almost a year. Perfected 10s new algorithms for cog disassemble and assemble all the mechanisms, but — dizzy — failure was not found …
In the eighty fifth went to the repeated tests. The launch was scheduled for the morning. Experts at the evening program from again drove on a computer. Before he left, we decided to look around the transparent fairing, which drove up the other day, and soon had to put on the head of the rocket. And then something happened that at the moment has become a legend. One of the designers looked into the fairing and … The light hanging from the side of the lamp, broke inexplicably, did not allow to distinguish between objects through the glass.
The culprit was … a thin layer of dust on the inside of the fairing.
In the morning, "Minghui" in the end the rocket fell into the design space. Exactly to where it sent.
Experimental design work successfully completed in 1989. But research scientists have lasted because sum up the final results early. Hard to say, as the fate of this development coming in, clearly something else: she allowed to study the principles of the creation of high-precision weapons, behold their strong and feeble hand, and incidentally — to make a lot of discoveries and inventions that have already implemented both in military and in civilian clothes creation.
Optical reconnaissance satellite (1) or ramolet scout (2) take a picture of the supposed place of stationary targets (3), then the image is transferred to the CP (4) for the purpose of identification, then digitized image of the terrain with the designation of target site (5), after that it is injected into the onboard computer the head of the tactical missiles (6) launcher (7) makes start-up, after the active portion of the flight the rocket nosecone separated (8) and flies on a ballistic line of motion, then according to the altimeter and inertial cut one optical head homing, which scans the area (9) and, after identification of a digital image pattern (10) on the target is induced using aerodynamic control surfaces and affects it.