October 18, 1721 members of the Synod "had secret reasoning." Having considered the "business", "works" and "rukovozhdeniya" His Majesty in connection with the "eternal peace", concluded with Sweden after the Great Northern War, they decided that they should "invent a decent" for the monarch "from the general to all the subjects face." This "decent" was the decision to "pray for the king," "acceptance of the title of the Father of the Fatherland, Peter stateliness and Ruler of the All-Russian."
Understanding that it is a municipal matter, the members of the Synod, "judged" to say about him "secret" of secular power — the Senate. October 19, it was made by the Vice-President of the Synod of Theophanes Prokopovich. 20, 21, and in the morning on October 22 held a joint session of the Senate and Synod in the Audience Chamber, in other words, in the ceremonial hall of the throne of St. Petersburg, who was in the building, "daub and wattle boards" at Trinity Square. October 22, 1721 (on a brand new style — November 2) in St. Petersburg in the Trinity Cathedral of Tsar Peter I was served up to the title of "Emperor". It is considered that it is in the present day Russian kingdom, Muscovy, officially turned into the Russian Empire and marked the beginning of a new, imperial period in the history of the country.
In the era of the Mongol yoke and senior to him in the middle of the feudal princes held the title of Prince of stateliness. YN Shchapov notes that references to the princes as kings refers to the two great leaders of Russia XII-XIII centuries.: Mstislav stateliness and Andrew Bogoliubsky.
After entering Russia at the mercy of the king Zolodoy Horde (derived from the Latin. Caesar) became known as the majestic Khan of the Golden Horde. The title of the ruler at first pointed to the fact that the holder is a one hundred percent of the sovereign ruler and no one is independent. In other words, the majestic prince, being a tributary of the Horde in the hierarchy, of course, was standing below.
It is, by the way, note that until a certain time (until the reign of Dmitry Donskoi) the legitimacy of the majestic Khan as the chief of the Russian princes in Russia would not be questioned, and the very Tatar-Mongol yoke was seen as God's punishment for the sins that must be humbly endure.
By the era of Ivan III, when Russia freed itself from the yoke and became absolutely independent state, and are the first uses of the stately prince of the title "king" (or "Caesar") in the diplomatic correspondence — so far only in a relationship with a young German princes and the Livonian Order; royal title starts are widely used in literary works.
You could take whatever the title, but foreign rulers could not recognize him — that's why Ivan III and tries royal rank in diplomatic correspondence with smaller states.
In 1489 salting of the Holy Roman Empire Nicholas Poppel on behalf of their own overlord offered the title of Tsar Ivan III. Stately Prince refused, saying that "by the grace of God we are sovereigns in their own land from the beginning, from the first of their own ancestors, and postavlenie have from God, as our ancestors, and we … and placing before that no one is willing, and now is not we want. "
It should be noted that, making the word "ruler" of caesar, Russian leaders felt that title is the same as that of the ruler ("Caesar" in the Byzantine Empire), well after the fall of the Byzantine Empire under the pressure of the Turks in 1453, Russia was perceived as its heiress and the only stronghold of Orthodoxy (or wider — the whole of Christianity, as other Christian denominations were considered "infidels"). Hence the famous "Moscow — the third Rome."
Similarly, the title treated and western monarchs — but not always, and when it was profitable.
In the agreement the Capital of the country with Denmark in 1493, Ivan III was named «totius rutzci Imperator». And the king was named Vasily III in the contract with King Maximilian I, concluded in Moscow in 1514: «Kayser und Herscher alter Reussen». In Latin literacy Albrecht of Brandenburg in 1517 Vasily III was also named «Imperator al Doniinator totius Russiae».
Officially assume the title of king ventured only grandson of Ivan III, Ivan the Terrible. January 16, 1547 the majestic Prince Metropolitan and All Russia Ivan was solemnly crowned with the title of king. In a speech at the royal wedding of the Metropolitan described the high capacity of kingship words of Joseph of Volokolamsk, "tsarie hear, and understand, for they are given by God byst power for you and the power of the Most High, you bo Lord within themselves a place of election on the ground …".
Allowed to take the title of king is much different position diplomatically relations with Western Europe. The grand title translated as "prince" or even the "Grand Duke". The title is "king" or completely translated, or translated as "Emperor". Russian autocrat so get up level with Europe's only king of the Holy Roman Empire.
On the coronation of 16-year-old grandson of Ivan III nobles did not immediately notified foreign countries. Only two years later, the Polish ambassador in Moscow learned that Ivan IV «king and crowned" by the example of his own ancestor Monomakh and then name it "does not take someone else's." After listening to this very statement of principle, the ambassadors immediately claimed the submission of written evidence. But clever boyars refused, fearing that the Poles, having received a written response will be able to obmozgovat objections, and then argue with them will be hard. Sent to Poland runners tried to explain the meaning of the capital changes so as not to displease the Polish court.
Now, read as they land sir our Russian has one, to that metropolitan and crowned him on the crown of the kingdom of Monomakh. In the eyes of Muscovites coronation, so Makarov, symbolized the beginning of the autocratic reign of Ivan the fourteenth year of his reign.
Was crowned kingdom Ivan the Terrible in 1547, but his foreign colleagues did not immediately recognize him this title. 7 years later, in 1554, Britain recognized its undeniable. More difficult was the question of title to the church countries, which firmly held theory of a single "holy empire." In 1576, the ruler of Maximilian II, wishing to draw the Terrible the alliance against Turkey, offered to him in the future throne and the title of "Wshodnia [eastern] Cesar." John IV took quite flegmantichno to "tsesarstvu Greek", but claimed the immediate recognition of the king himself, "All Russia", and the government conceded in principle that fundamentally matter, especially because even Maximilian I recognized the title of king of Vasily III, calling him "the mercy of God Cesar and the owner of all the Russias and the stately Prince. " Even harder was the papal throne, who defended the exclusive right to provide the royal fathers and other titles sir, on the other hand, did not allow violation of the principle of "one empire." This intransigence papal throne is supported by the Polish king, perfectly understands the value of the claims of the Metropolitan Sudar. Sigismund II Augustus presented the Holy See note to which warned that recognition of the Papacy for Ivan IV the title "King of All Russia" will lead to the rejection of the Polish and Lithuanian lands settled similar Muscovites "Ruthenians" and will draw on his side Moldovans and Vlachs. F
or its part John IV pocketed special importance to the recognition of his royal title specifically the Polish-Lithuanian state, but in Poland during the XVI century, and has not agreed to his request.
It is clear that in the correspondence in 1580 the famous Flemish cartographer G.Merkatora the English geographer R.Gaklyuytom Russian monarch was called «le grand emperior de Moscovie».
So, the title of "ruler" was perceived as an equal Russian imperial rulers. However, not all of their colleagues were zabugornye agree — at that time in Europe, there was only one empire — the ruler of the Holy Roman and means, too, was to be the only one.
Directed by Poland False Dmitry I longed to be called the king. In a letter to the Polish King Sigismund III False Dmitry I, «according to ancient custom among the majestic and powerful rulers and emperors", reported on his own reign. He pointed out that he had received a blessing as the heir of "her that our Highness." Then followed an unusual tradition for the previous explanation of the new monarch's title: "We is crowned and anointed with the sacred world of our holy patriarch not only to the dignity of the ruler of our extensive holdings, and the dignity of the king of all the kingdoms of the Mongolian, who with davneshnih times obey our monarchy."
Having examined all the titles of the formula I Falsdmitry in foreign correspondence (letters to the Father, the Polish king and nobles), NN Bantysh-Kamensky pointed out that illumine 1605 in their symbolism is identical titles: "We, the Most Bright and invincible monarch, Dimitri Ivanovich, by the grace of God and Cesar Lofty Prince All of, and all the Mongolian countries, and many other lands belonging to the monarchy Capital sir and the King. " All of the titles claimed by the recognition of the power of False Dmitry I and highest in the middle of the Most Powerful earthly monarchs and pointed to its divine counterpart — the King of Kings.
Clearly marked with the names of the characters, immediately gave rise sharply negative reaction in Western courts, in the middle of the boundary of politicians and diplomats. They are poorly evaluated and contemporaries in. Conrad noted Bussow reaction of foreigners in Moscow: "vanity every day grew … he … It manifests itself not only in the fact that in all the luxury and splendor it has eclipsed all other former kings, but he gave the order to even call himself "the king of all kings." It is curious that this title Pretender initially circulated for internal consumption (in other words, at the court). Stanislav Borsa, referring to the murder of False Dmitry I, concluded: "It seems so pleased God, who did not want to suffer any longer pride and arrogance of Demetrius, who did not acknowledge to himself the equal of any of the 1st emperor of the world and almost equated to God."
The Poles, of course, the title of emperor Falsdmitry rejected. Read more about the history of the False Dmitry I claim to the imperial title can read on our website in the passage from the book of Basil Ulyanovsk "Time of Troubles".
As you know, full of royal title ("Big title") included a list of lands, subject to the king. In 1645, in other words, at the time of death of the first emperor of the Romanov Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich and the coming to power of his son Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the "Big title"Sounded followed by this:" Grace of God, we are proud sir, governor and the majestic Prince Alexei Mikhailovich, Autocrat of All the Russian Federation, Vladimir, Metropolitan of Novgorod and the ruler of Kazan, Astrakhan governor, the governor of Siberia, sir Pskov and stately Prince of Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and others, sir, and the majestic Prince Novagoroda Nizovskaya land Ryazan, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozerskij, Udorsky, Obdorsky, Kondiysky and All severnyya country iversky sir lord and land, and the Georgian kings of Kartli and kabarda land, Cherkasky and the Mountain Princes and many other countries sir and the owner. "
Mention unaffiliated at the time of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia in the title of the king as a surprise. In this case, want to give for the real.
This matter was investigated by GK Kotoshikhin in the essay "On the Russian Federation in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich." Turning beyond the control of the territories in royal title meant illegal claims on other people's prerogative. Such actions could threaten diplomatic weights. Because of this, the royal court was obliged to go to the craft. In reading and writing, addressed to Monsieur Christian, a large royal title was reproduced with a list of one hundred percent of the eastern lands, in the charters in the "busurmanskie country," and, above all, the Shah of Persia "oriental" Titley not indicated. In the unlikely event "like it was written by Titley all … and it is used for all busurmanskie countries have raised the war." Kotoshikhin shows that the Turkish Sultan and the Shah of Persia Russian ruler was written "a little more than Titley not with all, only by" the lord. "In other words, the final phrase in the title remained" and All severnyya ruler of the country, "a phrase as" the land of Kartli and iversky Georgian kings, kabarda land Cherkassky and Mountain princes, and many other countries and the owner sir "was filmed. If you ask about the reasons for the enumeration sequence territories in the royal title of the XVII century, it is possible to imagine that not only the importance and status of the land or their sequence entry into the country of its predetermined, and practical judgment: in the end is to put what is more controversial that when necessary you can always remove it. Taking into account this fact, you can read about what a great title in the XVII century. — not as reflected in the minds of law on the ground or the expression of ideas about the territorial integrity of the country as a means of diplomatic game in a situation in which a certain fragmentation of the West and the East, the existence of two worlds-uh, not good acquaintance of each other because of the relatively weak little enthusiasm for each other and underdevelopment diplomatically and trade ties, given the chance to raise the prestige of the RF power of the kings of their own at the expense of one part of Eurasia in a relationship with another.
As previously mentioned, not everyone in Europe recognized the equality pravitelskogo royal title, and there was no such equality in the relationship between Russ and the Holy Roman Empire. In "Records, perpetrated in Moscow between Russian and Cesarsky yards" Cesarsky envoys extraordinary clearly pointed to the fact that it is in the XVII century. tradition enshrines the status of a supreme ruler over other monsieur and reflected in the fact that not only the Russian Tsar, and the other kings of Europe from the ruler is always spelled the title of "presvetleyshestvo."
In the minds of Russian diplomats and Russian court Alexis task to achieve recognition for their own emperor empire it the title of "Majesty" meant being able to put on a par with the Russian tsar tsar. Virtually international practice of the period the term "government" = "master" = "presvetleyshestvo", a term the same "governor"=" Majesty. "
Problem was solved only after a sharp increase in the Russian Federation in the international arena after the victory over Sweden in the Northern War. In general, it should be noted that Peter and I have called the king until 1721. During his stay in the UK in 1698 the imperial resident Hoffman reported that the Russian monarch all "here referred to as the king of Russia", and after a visit to the king of parliament let someone joke that beheld "the kin
g of the throne and of the ruler on the Roof" — Peter through window watched as a British lord claimed the bill on the land tax. King named Peter and I come from Western Europe, who served in Russia. The only way to it, for example, addressed in numerous letters and projects sparkling French designer Zh.B.A.Leblon.
As mentioned in the beginning, Peter I willfully took on the title of emperor, and it was an initiative of the Synod. It is understood that before this act of the king held talks with some senators and the Archbishop of Novgorod and Pskov, Theodosius Janowski and Theophanes Prokopovich. The talks with the monarch were needed because the government "long abdicated" to take the title, and led to the many "reasons". But "important insights" of senators and bishops have the upper hand and Peter "leaned out".
Maybe this behavior is the king had less than a tribute to tradition and a certain theatrical modesty — did not immediately accept proposed. And, perhaps, for Peter's objections were more weighty motives. After the introduction of the differences between the title of "ruler" and "government" means that our homeland recognizes that the emperor's royal title above — contrary views that existed in Russia since the time of Ivan the Terrible. It's entirely possible that this was not entirely to the liking of Peter I.
It should be noted that Theophane Prokopovych "A Word to the praise … memory of Peter the Great ", noted that prior to the adoption in 1721 the title of" the great emperor, "the title of this" and before that was also called by all. "