In general, the study begins with a small gun body and chamber measurements, as each type has its own specific caliber guns, which must adhere to. Also measured the length of barrel channel and the presence of the desired clearance between the sleeve and the gate. If all standards are met, the instrument is sent to the fire.
Tests begin, usually with determining the level of accuracy of fire and dimensional stability. Taking into account the probable configurations of internal diameter of the barrel, trigger pull, release. To do this, the test tool is a huge number of shots. So makarom verified accuracy.
In order to find the use of guns in extreme conditions, it is frozen, then carry out the shooting. This makes it possible to find how tightly one or another instrument, and whether misfires, as will be feeding the cartridge chambering in its proposed use guns. The same tests are carried out with water — do not tear a gun, dusting with sand and water.
In the process of testing and inspection is carried out on the strength of. The gun thrown onto concrete from a height of 1 to 1.5 meters and constantly hammer cocked. So Makarov, it is checked whether the case will open the gate and did not shoot a gun in the fall.
Approximately the Macarena, not so long ago at the site in the suburbs were conducted demonstration tests of small modern guns — Russian Kalashnikov AK-74 assault rifle and South American M-4. The main objective test was to ensure that the mark to hit the target, regardless of what standard he inspects. First step foresaw fire on a leaf-imitation body armor. Caliber and that, and other similar instruments of approximately — 5.5 mm. With all this acquired results diametrically inverse. Holes left by the Russian machine gun, did not even have a mark on the board. The second step is meant shooting at a target speaker with a view to determining the accuracy of fire. M-4 showed great accuracy in a single shot. At best shots of the queue was an AK-74. So Makar, the results of 2-step tool is approximately equal.
Apart from the comparison of the guns in accuracy, destructive power and accuracy, there is another fundamental quality — no misfires. Because the conditions were made for extreme shooting. Both standard were frozen to -50 degrees, then data standards were thawed and subjected to freezing in the second time. As a result of testing in extreme sub-zero temperatures, it was found that the AK-74 is able to shoot without misfires, at the time, as the M-4 in a couple of shots coming into complete disrepair.
Kalashnikov rifle adopted a specifically Russian troops after field tests in 1949. Despite the fact that the automatic revision sought to increase the accuracy of fire, the commission still recommended it to start in a batch creation.
The history of the creation of the Kalashnikov assault rifle began in 1942, when Russian troops were captured by the first samples of the German automatic rifles MKb.42 (H) by 7.92 millimeters cartridge. In 1943, as a result of the study of the automaton, as the South American M-1 carbine, Russian command decided on the immediate need to develop their own set of weapons under the crotch of cartridges that would have allowed ground forces to conduct an effective fight at a distance of 400 meters. Development of a new type of instrument began with the development of specific new cartridge, and in the same 1943 all the organizations that have been developing tools, drawings and properties received a new cartridge, which the designers have developed Semin and Elizarov. Chuck was a bottled sleeve length is 4 centimeters and was armed with a bullet of 7.62 mm, vesivshey 8 g. Under the new cartridge, it was decided to develop a number of types of guns — machine carbine with manual reset and self-loading rifle. In 1944 he was selected for the test machine Sudaev AC-44. After its completion, it was decided to manufacture small series of tests carried out in 1945. The tests were conducted as troops stationed in the German countryside and parts of the terrain of the USSR. Despite the fact that the results have been very successful, reducing the mass of troops sought guns. After that, the next step was carried out tests in 1946.
At this time there is Sergeant Kalashnikov, who after getting injured in 1942 in a time of healing was able to create a sub-machine gun, which has an unusual design. He was sent to the passage of the upcoming service NIPSMVO near Moscow. There, he introduced two years later another of his development — self-loading rifle, very similar to the South American rifle M1Garand. When the competition was announced for the creation of automatic Kalashnikov, and it took over the role. In 1946, its benchmark, along with several others, was approved for the creation of prototypes. As a result, there was automatic, known as the AK-46. As a result, this benchmark test was considered worthless for continued testing. But the creator managed to reach the reconsideration and approval at its subsequent revisions.
He decided to revise its constructive tool. As a result, a newcomer was ready to step testing a new machine that actually had nothing to do with the AK-46, but it was very much like automatic Bulkin. In general, all of the major design elements were borrowed from other types of tools: the trigger mechanism — the Czech rifles Holec, the placement of the bolt inside the receiver — the machine Sudaev, safety lever — the Remington rifle.
It must be emphasized that a similar copy design solutions not only not forbidden, and strongly supported, since all mental property, in general, like everything else, there were general in the Union belonging to the people. In 1947, new tests have been carried out, as a result of which a Kalashnikov rifle was found in the middle of the best presented and was sent to the batch creation.
Automatic Kalashnikov — is automatic tool with vapor-automatic, magazine-fed, and the equipped cooling of the barrel with air. The trigger mechanism — a hammer type that allows a fire bursts, and single fire. Selecting the shooting is a special lever. The receiver is part of armed thread on which to install the compensator for the growth of accuracy. The thread can also be installed muffler.
South american carbine M-4 was created on the basis of an automatic M-16 rifles. This rifle has the highest accuracy of fire due to the high velocity ammunition, high-quality steak and a small impact. But at the same time because of the more complex design of the gas tube and the machine-frame he is very sensitive to the ingress of mud.
It should be noted that a similar design to the gate, who was walking in the frame with the smallest gap, it will often be exposed to contamination from the release of the powder gases, and therefore will not be released sleeve. You can only remove it by cleaning rod from the receiver side. In similar situations are unavoidable significant delay in the conduct of the shooting. And as skewed cartridges happened every few shops, the effectiveness of guns, respectively, decreased.
During the conduct of military operations in Afghanistan, there was a large amount of evidence of American fighter that the M-4 is not reliable in a fight that led to a rather huge losses.
Because the South American government decided to abandon the procurement of non-competition based on this type of gun. A more powerful argument for refusal — these are the results of tests of several types
of guns, carried out in the past year. By the level of safety of M-4 finished last after automatic rifles HK416, XM8 and SCAR.
Despite the results, the Defense Ministry announced that the M-4 has proven itself in combat, and the number of misfires nekordinalno. But at the same time, recognizes the need to improve the Pentagon part carbine in enhancing the spring mechanism to eliminate misfires. Tests of the upgraded M-4 is scheduled for the summer of 2012. It is worth noting that some U.S. military units in 2004 changed the M-4 carbine assault rifle on the HK416 and the finalized SCAR.
Automatic carbine M-4 was adopted in 1994, and over the years it has actually not been upgraded.
Each of these 2 kinds weapon has its pros and number of shortcomings. AK-74 reliable, unpretentious in operation, easy to use, has a small price. At the same time, it has not entirely successful ergonomics.
And he and the other type is obsolete because it is planned to substitute a new species. But it is in the future, well, at the moment it is unlikely anyone will be able to ensure that this new tool will Bole effective than the AK-74 and M-4.