Northern neighbors of the Sumerians to interfluve — the Akkadians, who created powerful states of Babylonia and Assyria, borrowed their gods from the Sumerians. More than that — the Sumerian language has long been the language of the Akkadians created scriptures and mythological stories, although the Sumerians to the second millennium BC have disappeared, and their culture absorbed the culture of neighboring peoples.
We have heard a great poem about the creation of the universe, the gods, the earth and man — "Enuma Elish", written in Babylon, three thousand years ago. This unique monument gives a complete picture of the views of the Akkadians to the origin of all things.
It appears entirely new idea that the gods, as in humans, there was a succession of generations, and every generation of the gods is far superior to the power of the previous one. There is also a magnificent description of the battle of old and new gods. But the main goal of "Enuma Elish" — an explanation of why the Babylonian god Marduk gained supremacy over the other gods. It is interesting that there is a version of the poem, created in Ashur, the capital of Assyria, and it takes the place of Marduk Ashur — patron deity of the Assyrians.
This evidence of the desire of the masses Akkadians highlight the main deity of ancient gods — the same way as the power at the time the final transition to the sole rulers — kings. The cut goddess Tiamat — ancient goddess Akkadians. This is the embodiment of chaos, the primordial element, the creator of the first of the gods, with whom she also had to join the battle. According to myth, the god Marduk's own body cut Tiamat in two, making one of the sky, and from the other — the land. More often than not this goddess represented in the form of a humanoid creature, but as a monstrous dragon, or the seven-headed hydra. "Solar Child" was the name of Marduk — god of the new generation, who collected the properties and power of many of the old gods. Marduk sway over people and other gods of the heavens, he has all wisdom, the art of healing, spells, commands the water element and vegetation. On top of it — a courageous warrior, the only one of the gods, who decided to fight the armies of Tiamat and win. For this he gets the right to rule over the gods.
So Marduk gains power not only by inheritance, but by right of the strongest. Marduk characters were an ax with the blade, reminiscent of the crescent moon and a dragon. Lord of the heavenly gates. Among the natural deities Akkadians especially esteemed Adada — the god of thunder, wind, storms, as responsible for the disastrous, and for fruitful force of nature. He obeyed, and floods, and the rains that give life fields. The Babylonians worshiped Adad in form of a bull — a symbol of fertility and the indomitable strength and fury. The greatest of the female deities of Babylonia and Assyria Ishtar was recognized — the goddess of fertility, love, and at the same time, strife and war.
Symbol of Ishtar in the sky was the planet Venus, which is depicted as eight-pointed star, and on the ground — a lion. This goddess was considered the patron of kings and women of easy virtue, with its cult connected with lots of bizarre and bloody rituals. Ishtar is fickle and treacherous, it often destroys their lovers — the people and the gods, so the hero Gilgamesh, Ishtar, which, according to myth, offered their love, the goddess responsible abrupt failure, incurring her wrath.
The bas-reliefs and sculptures of the Babylonians and Assyrians Ishtar always portrayed with arrows on his back. In addition to the gods, the Akkadians believed in a great many spirits — vicious and supportive people. These creatures are considered children demoness Lilith, born from the union of the first man. The word "Shedd" means "hairy." Akkadians also believed that the Shedd transformed souls of people who were wicked and dissolute life.
Be that as it may, these "small demons" had to live in harmony, otherwise they shall take every man hurt, sent his illness and misfortune. Most often Shedd portrayed in human form, birds or small winged bulls.
Category: Mystery stories