These days we are all wallowing in the ocean of information, often with difficulty distinguishing lies from the truth — we live in such times. Man drawn into a whirlpool of various facts and arguments, and get yourself out of it is beyond the power. Especially when it comes to some very interesting and mysterious subject. For example, such a mesmerizing as the origin and destination of the Egyptian pyramids.
This magazine "Echo of the Planet" talked with Victor Solkin known Russian Egyptologist, founder of the Association for the Study of Ancient Egypt "MAAT" and a member of the International Association of Egyptologists.
Victor, for you, of course, no secret that the age of the pyramids — one of the topics of debate among people interested in the mysteries of ancient Egypt. In particular, a very popular belief that these unique structures have appeared in the Nile Valley long before the origin of Egyptian civilization. One reason — the lack of any inscriptions were inside the Great Pyramid. What is your professional opinion on this?
First of all, people who are hyping version, I immediately want to explore the history of the ancient world. But they will not do this, and will continue to look "sensational" TV show dedicated to the "scandals, intrigues, investigation."
Curiously, the incredible number of hypotheses about the secrets of the pyramids, take root in our country — the West, the situation is quite different. Let us call things by their names: there is much less of quacks stories! But not all so simple. The fact is that the traditional Egyptology — the science of three languages: English, French and German. And, unfortunately, only a tiny percentage of research translation and translated into Russian. That's where the legs grow at different theories.
But let's not live in isolation from reality: the rest of the world in the age of the pyramids is undeniable. Everyone has long obvious that the oldest of them — is the famous pyramid of Djoser Nechereheta, which was built in the XXVII century BC, and the last one is the "young" royal pyramid of Pharaoh Ahmes I came around XVI century BC in Abydos . By the way, Djoser — the honorary nickname meaning "sacred" and the name of the ruler was just Necherehet. So, after a period of Ahmes I pyramid building Egyptians refused the royal necropolis acquired new shapes, becoming the Valley of the Kings — is rocky gorge with underground tombs. And this format is preserved until the end of the classical Egyptian civilization.
With regard to the Great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, one of the largest modern geological studies of these structures was conducted in 1992 by a reputable company Shell International. In the course of these studies confirmed that traces of stone, the nature of organic matter in the rock, and so on — everything points to the first half of the third millennium BC, that is, on the very date that are consistent with the generally accepted historical time frame appearance of sacred objects.
— Many versions and extends about the creators of the pyramids. In particular, it is often said about certain pratsivilizatsii, which left these facilities Egyptians "inherited." In this regard, as the indicator of a time period, some scholars point to the erosion of the Sphinx suspicious. But fans of extraterrestrial life, as we know, claim that people helped build the pyramids aliens, because of the structure and today the imagination with the scale, complexity, design, purpose unknown. Why, do you think it happened in reality?
— Hypothesis of the so-called pratsivilizatsii have no foundation. During a detailed geological study of the above Shell International, revealed that the Great Sphinx erosion was caused by wind, not water — the same wind erosion and damaged the walls of many tombs in Giza. So the timing of creating pyramids remain the same: the third millennium BC. Supporters version of the alien intervention I also omitted to earth: plates do not arrive and the blocks are not moving. Pyramid — the work of the people — namely, the ancient Egyptians.
They used nummulitovy limestone — a breed that includes fossilized organisms. It is a fact that is not disputed, so no concrete in ancient Egypt was not. But this version is also quite popular.
Pyramid builders were not slaves, as is often written in the textbooks, and freemen, who are actively recruiting royal house to work during flooding of the Nile, which, as we know, lasted three months. At this time, life in ancient Egypt died down — to engage the peasant economy and crafts was impossible, people are happy to go to the service of his Pharaoh. It was a great honor for them. Let us not forget that the ancient Egyptians were very religious.
Hard work on the construction site of their king was perceived by them as a great blessing and opportunity to get closer to the future — eternal — life to Most Lucent governor, enter into his suite and worthy of a better fate somewhere near the gods.
Where information has been received about the builders and during construction, you might ask. Pyramid — is an object that is never "silent". All around is full of text, you just need to know how to read them next to the royal pyramid always been mortuary temple and a vast necropolis of people close to the Pharaoh. A special place is occupied by the tomb of the great architect. In most cases, we know the names of the architects. So, in these graves were found detailed descriptions of how the construction of the pyramids went from what the provinces were recruited workers, brought from limestone. , Numerous papyri with detailed estimates: how many provisions and clothing required for the maintenance people as bulls was necessary to move the stone slabs. Even know that for every thousand builders had a team of three or four doctors. Being extremely meticulous, Egyptians all meticulously recorded.
On uncompleted pyramid complex XVI century BC in Zaviet El Ariana we know, what was the logic of a complex system of ramps, which blocks to great heights. And this example is not the only one. It is also worth mentioning the project NOVA, has recently implemented the American and Japanese experts, in which a model of the pyramid was built using only ancient technologies in a very short time and with the participation of a limited number of workers.
And how many people are actually employed in the construction of some of the pyramids, we also know from the original ancient texts. For example, in the construction of the pyramid of Pharaoh Amenemhat III at Dahshur, this XIX century BC, worked 40 molders bricks, 50 clay carriers, 600 porters bricks, sand, 30 porters, 250 masons, 1500 porters stone blocks, 200 boaters, 600 workers, and could move blocks of stone, 1,500 laborers. Total pyramid 75 meters high with a length of 105 meters of the base and a vast, beautifully trimmed dungeon built 4770 people. By centuries, Oriental-rigid system of control and organization of labor give incredible results.
I can not mention about the discovery of an outstanding American archaeologist Mark Lehner. In 1982, he discovered a huge necropolis royal pyramid builders. It is clear that the work of these people have been very dangerous: for example, a person could crush plate or he could fall from a great height. The bodies were all buried here are the typical injuries incompatible with life. In addition to the cemetery found Liner and barracks of raw brick, in which builders lived. In the barn, even preserved fossils of bread and fish.
In addition, historians know many examples of how the construction of the pyramids was not possible until the end when it became clear that the building made inaccurate and may soon collapse. So that nothing human ancient architects was alien — they also made mistakes. All of this information long ago studied and described in the historical literature. The only problem is that in Russia, in fact, the data, unfortunately, did not get popular — they are known mainly specialists area.
— What did was the main purpose of the pyramids? After all, none of them has not been found any trace of graves.
The fact that the pyramids were designed exclusively for the burial of the king, and sometimes family members, shows a variety of authentic sources. First of all, this archaeological data in virtually all the pyramids were found fragments of elements of traditional Egyptian royal tombs, mummies, sarcophagi and boxes Canopy — vessels for internally that do not just have a precise dating, but sometimes even been built into the very architecture of the burial chambers of the pyramids . That is, they were there originally.
Also, we know from the ancient Egyptian "Pyramid Texts", which describes in detail the function of the pyramids, and their symbolic mission. In addition, there is evidence of Arab historians of the Middle Ages. Thus, the Caliph al-Ma'mun, the grandson of the legendary Harun al-Rashid in 820 tried by all means to find the royal treasures in the pyramid of Khufu. In the case went to pick and heated vinegar, erodes limestone. "In a narrow channel was found a coffin-like statue of a man, carved out of green stone. When the coffin was brought to the Caliph and removed the cover under it was the body of a man in golden armor, adorned with precious stones. In his hand he held a sword that has no price" — that the Arab chronicler wrote XII century Al-Qaysi.
The idea of the pyramid — "action" as it was called the ancient Egyptians, — is to try to bring some semblance of the original hill land, created by the Supreme Deity. In Egypt, there were various cosmogonic system, but they have in common is that they are associated with the notion of the primeval waters of the ocean, the chaos of Nun, in which the uncreated, lived dormant spirits, deities and everything that subsequently appeared in the universe. At some point, there is a creator God, who taketh out of the ocean first piece of land — with him and begins our world. And he has a pyramid structure.
Understand what it means for the ancient Egyptian pyramid, help texts found, for example, on a gilded top of the pyramid of King Amenemhat III, this part of the design called piramidionom. It is carved text on behalf of the deceased Pharaoh, in which he says that the eyes look to the east, the sun, and that, just like every day on the eastern horizon repeated the act of creation, when the light goes in the sky, and he wanted to ask the sun god to revive its essence. That is a pyramid — it is an attempt to return to the original times and revive the king in another world as an immortal spirit Most Lucent.
Pyramid also is the last legal wife of Pharaoh, into the womb of which he was immersed. This is such an allusion to the cult of the Mother Goddess. More detail the whole ideological background is known to us from above "Pyramid Texts," which with XXV century BC were inscribed on the walls of the burial chamber. These texts are made up of about seven hundred sayings that contain magic spells and mythical descriptions of the dead. In fact, they were supposed to help the dead king to overcome the complexity otherworldly reality, climb into another world, to reunite with their ancestors and become a solar satellite solar same god.
In addition, the pyramid is the key pillars of the Egyptian economy. In those days the Egyptians there was no money was bartering. Since pyramid perceived living things, they were fixed for plots of land, herds of animals, different values. By our standards, they sometimes had quite breathtaking state! As a result of the pyramid turned into a sort of city-forming objects around which entire communities were formed, emerging markets. There are lots of documents in which the fixed, from our point of view, funny — as a pyramid sends a gift to another, say, a herd of elite bulls, and in return receives vegetables.
— You mentioned the magic spell on the walls of the pyramids. And what can you say to those who believe in that world famous Lord Carnarvon and the archaeologist Howard Carter, as well as some of their colleagues who worked on the excavation of the tomb of Tutankhamun, were victims of the so-called "curse of the Pharaohs"?
By this theory, I'm a joke. Let's start with the fact that the story was not so much death, and those who happened to be easily explained by natural causes. Carter died in old age, having lived quite a happy life, and Carnarvon died from an infection, accidentally zanesya disease to cut the mosquito bite. But that is not the point. Ancient Egyptian royal curse was never intended to reduce the earthly life vandal: it extended to the state of man after death — eternal life. That's what was the main thing.
In the "Pyramid Texts" says something like: "If you encroached on my pyramid, built for me and my spiritual twin — the" ka, "then I submit to you in the court of the gods and you will have the most terrible punishment — you'll be devouring their own filth and will cast into oblivion. " According to the ancient Egyptians, there was nothing worse than a second death threat when a person deprived of a chance to become an immortal spirit after death and remain in the cane fields, is an analogue of paradise.
Curse was slightly different in private tombs. People were afraid that the tomb may pull apart on the rocks — it's quite often the case. Therefore, it is common here is a mantra: "If you destroy or assign my tomb, he shall be against you left on the sand, a snake on the ground and a crocodile in the water." But note, it was just about the destruction and appropriation of the tomb, and not that it can not be disturbed! That is, as such disturbance is not perceived as a serious crime.
In the understanding of the Egyptian pyramid was a complex ritual mechanism, and the man had nine constituent entities, one of which was a divine one "ah." The objective was to help the deceased tomb cleansed from the dust of the earth, out of the tomb and join the world of the gods. Therefore, over time, as it is not a mechanism was needed and turns into a place of memory. This is very important: the man alive until his name is remembered. In this regard, by the way, from the point of view of the ancient Egyptians, Carter and Carnarvon would still very honorable people — yes, they have disturbed peace of the pharaoh Tutankhamun, this sacrilege, but then they brought him name the world!
— As we discuss the hypothesis and the version, can not remember about this: that the Egyptian authorities hinder learning the incredible secrets of the pyramids, not allowing access to some of them, and that, for example, under the paws of the Great Sphinx, the dungeons are stored unique artifacts, which can turn representation of humanity about its origin.
Under the paws of the Sphinx, alas, no sensational "knowledge" is not. There's no nothing. But water. Two years ago, the Japanese appeared through the soil geomagnetic radar and found that at a distance of two meters flowing salty groundwater. This is a huge problem. A denote it by the way, when in Egypt began construction of the Aswan Dam. Now the water is pumped continuously from the Sphinx.
As for the fact that some objects Egyptian authorities closed access, it is also understandable. Tourists — malicious people, they would just tear off a piece of "in memory". For example, the pyramid of King Unas is closed, of which for the last thirty years, visitors persistently "make" beautiful pieces of green pigment, which were covered with inscriptions. In exchange for the tourists discovered nearby pyramid of Pharaoh Teti, where the pigment is not and otkolupyvat therefore nothing. Still, with a strong desire can get a lot of directions.
There is a clear price list to visit closed areas. Pay two thousand dollars for a group of ten people — Come and see. It is clear that such a price filter set intentionally, but the monuments will be more whole. Do not forget that even the moisture causes respiratory pyramids some damage. By the way, today in Egypt is very well aware of the value of their heritage. But it was not always. Egypt gradually started to come to this understanding until the end of XIX century. Even Muhammad Ali, the famous Egyptian ruler of the time, when the French and German consuls asked him for permission to take out any items that asked them why they need it. He honestly told that it is a very beautiful work of art, to which he said no, no, cunning Europeans simply this your Europe does the same quality of stone!
Imagine what it was a colossal failure to understand what possessed? But now, the second generation grew Egyptian Egyptologists, and Egyptians understood how rich possess. No wonder in the recent dramatic events, when the country was covered revolution, people ring surrounded by museums, the temple of Karnak, and other important facilities to protect them from vandals.
— Victor, and what then, in your opinion, is the mystery of the pyramids? It can not be, even if you do not believe in any "abnormal" versions of their origin.
— Pyramid — are the places in the world where there is a separate space, its unique atmosphere, different from that which surrounds us. When you look at these amazing structures, when before the mind's eye sweep millions of human lives, you unconsciously immersed in a state in which you begin to think about such important things as the meaning of life, death, immortality of the soul. Feel, what, in fact, is our young civilization. In the bustle of modern people do not explore the fact that our life is transient. And here you suddenly distinguish the voices from the past and better hear his own heart. That is incredible, poignant mystery of ancient Egyptian pyramids.
Category: Mystery stories