Who built the Wall of China?

A group of British archaeologists, led by William Lindsay, the fall of 2011 could make a sensational discovery was found part of the Great Wall of China, which is located outside of China — Mongolia. The remains of this huge structure (100 km in length and 2.5 meters in height) were found in the Gobi desert in the south of Mongolia. Scientists have concluded that the discovery is part of the famous Chinese landmarks. In the materials section of the walls are wood, earth and volcanic rock. Building itself dates back to the period between 1040 and 1160 years BC.

Back in 2007, on the border of Mongolia and China during the expedition, organized by the same Lindsey, was found a significant section of the wall, which is attributed to the reign of the Han dynasty. Since then, the search continues for the remaining fragments of the walls, which finally ended in success in Mongolia.

Great Wall of China, we recall, is one of the largest monuments of architecture and one of the most famous defenses of antiquity. It runs through northern China, and is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

It is believed that it started to build back in the III century BC to protect the state from the raids of the Qin Dynasty "northern barbarians" — the nomadic people of the Huns. In the III century BC, during the Han Dynasty, the wall again, and it was expanded to the west.
Over time, the wall was destroyed, but the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), according to Chinese historians, the wall was restored and strengthened. Those of its parts, which have survived to our time, were built mostly in the XV — XVI centuries.

For three centuries, the Manchu Qing Dynasty rule (from 1644) protective structure dilapidated and almost all collapsed, as the new rulers of the Middle Kingdom does not need protection from the north. Only in our time, in the mid-1980s, began restoration of sections of the wall as tangible evidence of ancient origin of statehood in the lands of the North-East Asia.

Some Russian researchers (President of the Academy of Sciences of the fundamental AA Tyunyaev its soulmate, Honorary Doctor of the University of Brussels Semeyko VI) doubts about the accepted version of the origin of protective structures on the northern borders of the state of the Qin Dynasty. In November 2006, one of the publications Andrew Tyunyaev so formulated their views on the subject: "As you know, just north of present-day China, there was another, much more ancient civilization. This has been confirmed by archaeological discoveries, particularly in Eastern Siberia. Impressive evidence of this civilization, comparable to Arkaima the Urals, not only has not been studied and understood world history, but do not even have a proper evaluation in Russia itself. "

As for the ancient wall, then, as the Tyunyaev "loopholes in large parts of the wall are not directed to the north and south. And it clearly shows not only the most ancient parts of the walls are not reconstructed, and even in the recent photographs and works of Chinese figure. "
In 2008, at the First International Congress "Dokirillovskaya Slavic pre-Christian Slavic Writing and Culture" at the Leningrad State University named after AS Pushkin Tyunyaev a paper on "China — the younger brother of Russia", in which he presented the fragments of Neolithic pottery from the eastern part of North China. Depicted on pottery marks were not similar to Chinese characters, but showed almost complete agreement with the Old Runica — up to 80 percent.

Researcher on the basis of the latest archaeological evidence suggests that in the Neolithic and Bronze Age people of western part of the North China were Caucasoid. Indeed, across Siberia, up to China, found the mummy Caucasians. According to the genetics of this population was the ancient Russian haplogroup R1a1.

54-18-01-13B This version tells the mythology of the ancient Slavs, tells the story of ancient Rus moved to the east — they headed Bohumír, and their son Slavunya Skiff. These developments are reflected in particular in Veles book that the reservation does not recognize academic historians.

Tyunyaev and his supporters point to the fact that the Great Wall of China was built by the same European and Russian medieval walls, the main purpose of which — protection from firearms. Construct similar facilities began not earlier XV century, when on the battlefield appeared cannons and other siege weapons. Earlier XV century in the so-called northern nomads had no artillery.

Based on these data Tyunyaev suggests that the East Asian Wall was built as a defensive structure that represents the boundary between two of the medieval state. It was erected after the reached agreement on the delimitation of the territories. And this, according Tyunyaev confirmed by card at the time when the border between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire was held on the wall.

It is a map of the Qing Empire, the second half of XVII-XVIII centuries, presented in an academic 10-volume "History of the World." On the detailed map shows a wall that runs right on the border between the Russian Empire and the empire of the Manchu Dynasty (Qing Empire).

Map Asia XVIII century, made the Royal Academy in Amsterdam, identified two geographic education in the north — Tartary (Tartarie), in the south — China (Chine), the northern boundary of which is roughly along the 40th parallel, that is right on the wall. On this map, the wall is indicated by a thick line and signed «Muraille de la Chine». Now this phrase is usually translated from French as "the Wall."

However, the literal translation is somewhat different meaning: muraille («wall") in the construction of the preposition de (noun + preposition de + noun) and the word la Chine express items and accessories wall. That is the "wall of China." If by analogy (eg, place de la Concorde — Concorde), the Muraille de la Chine is a wall, named after the country that Europeans called Chine.

There are other translations from the French phrase «Muraille de la Chine» — «Wall of China", "wall is separated from China." After all, in an apartment or in a house we call that wall that separates us from the neighbors, neighborhood wall, and that wall that separates us from the street — the outer wall. The same we have borders and title: Finnish border, the Ukrainian border … In this case, the adjectives only indicate the geographical location of the Russian border.

It is noteworthy that there was a medieval word "whale" — tying poles that were used in the construction of fortifications. Thus, the name of the district of Moscow China Town is given in XVI century for the same reasons — the construction consisted of a stone wall with 13 towers and 6 gates …
According to the same as outlined in the official version of history, the Great Wall of China started to build in 246 BC at emperor Shih Huang-ti, the height was 6 to 7 meters, the goal of building — the protection of the northern nomads.

Russian historian Leo Gumilev wrote: "The wall stretches for 4000 km. Its height is 10 meters, and every 60 — 100 meters rose guard towers. " He also said: "When the work was completed, it was found that all of China's armed forces is not enough to organize an effective defense on the wall. In fact, if each tower to put a small force, the enemy will destroy him before the neighbors get together and have time to file a help. If, however, to place less often large groups, the gaps are formed, through which the enemy quickly and quietly penetrate into the interior. Fortress without defenders — not a fortress. "

From the European experience that the ancient walls of age over several hundred years, do not mend and rebuild — because the materials for such a long time gaining tired and just fall apart. But with regard to the Chinese wall was fixed opinion that the structure was built two thousand years ago, and still survive.

Will not go into the debate on this issue, and just use the Chinese dating and see who and against who built the different sections of the wall. The first and main part of the wall was built before Christ. It runs along the 41-42-degrees north latitude, including along some sections of the Yellow River.

Western and northern borders of the state of Qin only to 221 BC were the same as the size of the wall, built by that time. It is logical to assume that this site is built not residents of the kingdom of Qin, and their neighbors to the north. From 221 to 206 BC wall was built along the borders of the state of Qin. In addition, at the same time by 100-200 km to the west and north of the first wall was built a second line of defense — another wall. It just could not build the kingdom of Qin, as it is not controlled then the land.

During the Han dynasty (from 206 BC to 220 AD) were constructed sections of the wall, located 500 km west and 100 km north of the previous ones. Their location is consistent with the expansion of territories controlled by that state. Who built these defenses — southerners or northerners say today is very difficult. In terms of traditional stories — the state of the Han dynasty, which sought to protect themselves from militant northern nomads.

In 1125 the boundary between the realm of the Jurchen and China took place on the Yellow River — is about 500-700 km south of the city wall was built. And in the 1141 peace treaty was signed, under which the Chinese Sung Empire acknowledged himself a vassal of the Jurchen Chin State are required to pay a great tribute to him.

However, while the land of China proper is located south of the Yellow River, in the 2.100-2.500 km north of its border was erected next section of the wall. This part of the wall, built from 1066 to 1234, goes through Russian territory north of the village next to the river Borzya Argun. Then in the 1.500-2.000 kilometers north of China was built by another section of the wall, located along the Great Xing'an.

But if on the nationality of the builders of the wall can nominate only a hypothesis because of the lack of reliable historical information, the study of style in the architecture of this defensive structure can appear to make more accurate assumptions.

Architectural style of the wall, now located in China, captured features built "handprints" of its creators. Elements of the walls and towers, a similar piece of the wall, in the Middle Ages can be found only in the architecture of ancient fortifications of the central regions of Russia — the "northern architecture."

Andrew Tyunyaev offers to compare the two towers — from the Great Wall of China and of the Novgorod Kremlin. The form of the towers is the same: a rectangle, slightly narrower top. From the wall and the inside of the tower and the other is in, covered with round arch, laid in the same brick as the wall and tower. Each of the towers has the top two 'workers' stories. In the first floor of both towers made krugloarochnye window. Number of windows on the first floor and that and the other towers — three on one side and four on the other. Windows height is about the same — about 130-160 centimeters.

At the top (second) floor loopholes. They are in the form of narrow rectangular slot width of about 35-45 cm number of loopholes in the Chinese Tower — three deep and four wide, and in Novgorod — 4 deep and five wide. The top floor of the "Chinese" tower, by its edge are the square holes. The same hole exists in the Novgorod tower, and from the ends of the stick rafters that hold the wooden roof.

The same situation in comparison China town and the tower of the Tula Kremlin. The Chinese and the same number of towers Tula loopholes in width — to their 4. And the same number of arches — 4. On the top floor between the large loopholes are small — the Chinese and the Tula towers. The form of the towers are still the same. In Tula tower, as well as in China, the use of white stone. Equally satisfied vaults: the Tula — gates, the "Chinese" — inputs.

For comparison, you can also use Russian Nicholas Gate Tower (Smolensk) and the northern city wall Nikitsky Monastery (Pereslavl, XVI century), as well as a tower in Suzdal (mid-XVII century). Conclusion: The design features of the Chinese wall towers exhibit almost exact analogy of the towers Russian Kremlin.

And that says a comparison surviving towers of the Chinese city of Beijing with its medieval towers of Europe? The city walls of the Spanish city of Avila and Beijing are very similar to each other, especially in the fact that the towers are very common and have little or no architectural devices for military purposes. Beijing towers have only the upper deck with loopholes, and laid out in the same height with the rest of the wall.

Neither the Spanish nor the Beijing Tower, do not show such a high similarity with watchtowers Wall, as it often towers of the Kremlin and Russian fortifications. This is food for thought to historians.

Stanislav Igumentsev.

Category: Mystery stories

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