Alexander S. Shishkov, a prominent statesman and public figure of the nineteenth century, the admiral and the Secretary of State, serving faithfully for four kings, Minister of Education and President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is the author of priceless works, the significance of which has not really understood until now. One of them — "Slavyanorussky korneslov" the moral potential of the Russian language. Chapter of this book we are publishing today.
Speech delivered by the President of the Russian Academy of Science annual meeting in solemn
Our language — TREE, breed adverb OTHER SECTORS
Be multiplied, but increase zeal for Russian word and laborers, and in the audience!
I honor our language so ancient that its sources are lost in the darkness of the times, as in the sound of his faithful imitator of nature, that it seems, she was his, so abundant in the fractured thoughts on many of the most subtle differences, and at such an important and simple telling them that each person can special, decent title due to his words, as with loud and soft, that each tube and pipe, one for excitation and one for the tenderness of hearts, may find it decent for the sounds.
Finally, such a right that observant mind often sees it as a continuous chain of concepts from one another by birth, so that the chain can still rise from the latter to the original it is very remote link.
The advantage of this accuracy, the continuous flow of thoughts, visible in words, so great that if a careful and industrious minds opened, explained the first sources as widely spilled Sea, the knowledge of all languages at all lit to light hitherto impenetrable. Light that illuminates every word primitive that produced his thought; light disperses the darkness of false imprisonment, as though the word, these expressions of our thoughts, get your value from arbitrary to let the sound of the hitch concepts.
Who takes the trouble to enter the immeasurable depth of our language, and every word will refer to the top, from which it comes, one goes farther, the more will find clear and nesomnitelnyh to prove it. No language, Especially of the newest and European, can be an advantage in this and our own. Foreign slovotolkovatelyam, to find the original thoughts in used words they should use our language: it is the key to understanding and resolving many doubts, which vainly in the languages of their search will be. We ourselves, in many words used by us, revered for foreign, they would see that they are only at the end chuzheyazychnye, and on the root of our own.
Deep, although very difficult to study our language in all its area would be of great benefit not only to us but to all foreigners, baking to achieve clarity in their dialects, often covered with impermeable to darkness. When seeking in our language of the original concepts this darkness and they would have gone and cleared. For it is not the word of men should honor every nation arbitrary invention but a common kind of start current source, reached through the ear and memory of the first ancestor to the last child.
As the human race from the beginning, flows like a river, and the language with him. Nations multiplied, dispersed and largely faces, clothes, customs, habits have changed, and the languages are also spoken. They stopped but people do not have the same human race, as well as the language, not prestavavshy flowing with people, not ceases, with all its changes, to be an image of the same language.
Take one word from his father in all over the globe scattered dialects. We see that it is in all its varieties, is not special, every nation invented, but the same thing all the repeats.
This conclusion requires a great and long-term exercise, finding a set of words, but Daunting work leading to the discovery of light from the signs to express our thoughts, there are unfounded fears, loves darkness more than education.
Science of language, or rather, the science of words that make up language, contains all branches of human thought, from the beginning of their generation to the infinite, always, however, to wit predvodimogo distribution. Such a science must be the first decent man, for without it he can not know the reasons for which ascended from concept to concept, can not know the source from which the flow of his thoughts.
If the upbringing of boys want him to know, from what made the dress that he wears, hat, worn on the head; cheese that eats, how did not need to know where the word he says?
One can not but wonder that the science of eloquence, graceful human mind fun and entertainment at all times cited in the rules and prosper. Meanwhile, as the basis of her, science language, always remained in the dark and obscurity. No one, or very few dare to enter her mysterious cave, and then, we can say no more permeable at the gate of the first of its limits.
The reasons are obvious and these things are not easily overcome.
— Latest languages, who took the place of the ancient, primitive losing speech and eating only their industry can no longer be true guides to their principles.
— All ancient languages except slavenskogo, became dead, or little known, and even the latest pundits and try to acquire knowledge in them, but their number is small, and information in a foreign language may not be as extensive.
— From the depths of antiquity often flowing channels, pausing, lose track of its own, and its finding requires UT great effort of mind and thoughts.
— Hope to commit this work with due racheniem can flatter a man because of his age is short and the expected benefits not otherwise can mature as a long-term exercise of many learned men.
— Science of language, although closely connected with the science of eloquence or even verbally, but rather it is different. The first delves into the origins of words, looking for connections from one idea to another, in order to clear and precise basis to establish the rules of grammar and vocabulary make slovoproizvodny, the only one showing of language in all its procedures and the device. The second skill is content only approved words, trying to compose them pleasing to the mind and a way of hearing, without any concern for their original meaning and origin.
Start looking for a light in dialects of all ages and nations, the second did not extend their research on the present.
Prosody teaches the mind to shine, thunder, seek fiction, jewelry. On the contrary, the mind, to practice in the study of language, looks for its clarity, a sure sign to the discovery of secret evidence it started, is always lost in the darkness of the changes, but without finding that he ceases to be the result of gifted mind beings since ancient times the current thinking of the flood.
Language with purity and correctness of his will power and tenderness. The dignity of the court judgment is mind works and knowledge, not ignorance or sense poison backbiting. Our language is excellent, rich, loud, powerful, profundity. Should only know the price of it, to understand the composition and strength of words, and will make sure that it is not other languages, but he can educate them. This ancient, original language is always a teacher, mentor, meager, to whom he told his roots for the breeding of these new garden.
In our language, delving deeper into it, we can, without borrowing from other roots, plant breeding and sumptuous vineyard.
Jezliah at the Russian Academy of monarchic generosity gives hope that over time, the success of hardworking minds led Serene mind, will open the rich language of our sources, will be removed from this diamond is in many places covering its bark, and show in full the shining light.
PEOPLE WANT to ruin, destroy it LANGUAGE
Go up to the highest tower, take off roofs from houses and see what was going on. Where to start? With education. Is there any other than the very poor, which would have brought up our children are not French? These things used to increased and intensified so that already have to be a hero in order to defeat prejudice and not follow the general course of things! Try to say that our language, science, arts, crafts and even liked damages adopted by misfortune all rights.
Angry and reckless claw your eyes out. Those that are softer and more intelligent, would you argue, "Do not you say a vain? When better to learn a foreign language, but in the Childishness? Child playfully learn to speak first, then read, then write, and as French must needs (note that expression), will finally write as smoothly as he had been born in Paris. " It was in this very idea, and it is the dominion over us and our slavery.
What is true enlightenment and reason told to learn a foreign language? In order to acquire knowledge. But then all the languages needed. Plato wrote in Greek, Homer, Demosthenes, in Latin, Virginia, Cicero, Horace, the Italian Dante, Petrarch, in English, Milton, Shakespeare.
Why do without these languages we can be, and we need the French want? Clearly, we do not think about the benefits of language: otherwise what we all others, and even his own before so despise the French, that they hardly mean the we, as in French, if not speak it as a natural French ashamed to light Show?
Thus, we are not in the mind and not for the good teach it, what is this other than not slavery?
Will say yes because he must need that became common, and commonly used in Europe. I'm sorry about Europe, but even more sorry for Russia. , Therefore, perhaps, Europe, and drink the bitter cup, that before that weapon in French, the language was already defeated them. Read the re cognizance French book "The Secret History of Modern French court": there is described as their ministers, having dinner with the Prince of his Ludwig talked about ways to eradicate England. General use of French, said one of them, Portalis, serves as the first foundation of all relationships that France has in Europe. Make, that in England also spoke French, as in other lands. Be careful, he said, to destroy people in the state language, and then, and by the people. Let the young Englishmen are immediately sent to France and trained in a French language, that they may not say otherwise, as in French, at home and in society, in the family and away: that all the decrees, reports, decisions and agreements were written were in French — and then England will nasheyu slave of.
That's the argument of one of their statesmen, and is very fair. If Frederick II did not despise his own language, if used every power to retain its national pride, the French Revolution would only be in the corner of his terrible. Imaginary their philosophers have not turned so many heads, the French do not have walked out of the kingdom into the kingdom.
What does this, not as a common language of razliyaniya who overrode their minds our minds?
But let the other European lands and return to his homeland. Thanks to the holy faith Russia is not like that.
However, the French prefer to have all the others, not for him pocherpaniya of knowledge, but in order to chat on it. What are the consequences of that are born? Him who his grammar of natural language knows not a lot of time needs to learn to read in a foreign language. On the contrary, to tell them how its natural, from infancy to continually deal with them. This prevents you know your own language, of course, is not one that you have learned on the street, but that what is preached in the holy temples of God, and what we find in the books of the University to Nestor, from Igor's song to Derzhavin. These things will take you to many related information to Russia. You might learn a lot too much about the French postal homes and Paris theaters, festivals and alleys, but very much desired will not know about his own country. You all this sacrifice for the pure pronunciation of French.
Look: your young son to get a better and learn more, or does not say, as with all, and all in French, with the teacher, with you, with my mother, a brother, a sister, Madame, with guests, at home, on the street in the carriage, at the table, while strumming, teaching, and went to bed.
I do not know the language in which he prays to God, perhaps, at no. Starting from the four or five years to be in the hands of the French, he trains his tongue to clean accent their speeches, your ears to the art of making their expressions, and your mind to the sound and meaning of their words. Do not you think that the habit, and especially from the early years to start, has no power over our heart, mind, soul and taste?
In the tenth year he had memorized and read Rasinovy Kornelievy poems, but no Russian writer did not read the Psalms, Nestor, Lives of the Saints, and had never seen before. The thirteenth year, he starts to argue with his teacher, who are more pleasant words naskazhet traders fashionable things and actresses. Between the fifteenth and osmnadtsatym year he had a profound philosopher. Talks about education, which, according to him, is not that, that farmer could plow judge to judge, merchant trading, shoemaker sew boots. No, but the fact that they all know how to comb his hair, dress up and read in French prose and poetry. Immortality of the soul, he never thinks and believes the immortality of the body, because healthy eating and against ten. Often judge the moral things, and most exalted freedom, which, in his opinion, that is, not to be considered nothing sacred, not to obey nothing but their passions. In the twentieth or twenty-fifth year of your death he is the heir to your estate.
Oh, if you're ten years through to get out of the coffin and look at him! You would see that it is produced from the land proliyaniem sweat ten thousand hands wealth wasting two or three or five of his cheating foreigners. You would have seen him a huge library of all kinds of French books, decorated rich portraits of Helvetius and Diderot.
And your wife and your portrait, not angry, put to the attic and brought only when no laugh like you were dressed strangely. You would know that it is not only in your grave never was, but in the church where you are buried, or should I say neither. You would see that he was on his grandmother, barely breathing, she laughed and said to her: "Lusha Feodorovna, say something about the old days." You would see that he can not be either a soldier or a judge, or a friend, or husband, or father, or master, or guest. You would see …
After all this, you would have comforted that he is good, red and is fluent in French?
Habit, and the prevailing opinion is so strong in this human bondage take it against their beliefs mind, violently, as if a magnet is drawn into the vortex of public prejudice.
Multiply that outlandish your teachers, mentors, friends, adepts unremitting their inventions, tricks, inventions in all these things we nourish, support, sustain.
Meanwhile, they lead us to glory, but in a completely opposite direction. We can about where they lead us to conclude from the fact, how they have brought.
Slavic ancient, indigenous, important, our great language, which brought us the morals of the case and the laws of our ancestors, on which the church service, faith and preaching the word of God, this language is abandoned, despised.
Well from this? Feofanova Georgieva sermon ought to remain immortal, thunder in the later offspring and colleges be Russian rhetoric, like how the Greeks and Romans were the words of Demosthenes and Cicero, — these sermons not only had many and rich media, such as in the other lands with their smaller writer mi done.
How many people in Russia read Voltaire, Cornet Leah Racine? A million or so. How many human age reading University, Cantemir Sumarokov? First reading one thousand people or two, and the last two are unlikely to rack up a hundred and something.
There will there be a writer, where careful and long work no one reads? No! There in no one is born the idea to make something solid, important. There, we will not find the hard-working people who before his graduate work, and a thousand other writers will read about the best of them are drawn, and his own art with the consent of their arguments. Only time will show hunters write small compositions which do not require either exercise science or knowledge in the language. They can be Sumarokov verse to say that they "When born, and then die."
In these circumstances, our language will be more buried in oblivion, spoil and upadana literature. But without language and literature can the spread of science? Can there be enlightenment? Can thrive even arts and crafts? No! Without language incomprehensible science, laws gloomy, absurd art, handicraft rude, and in a word all with no view, no image, no soul. Language and Slovenia needed not only for the science, law and arts. Every craft, crafts and trades of their own light shines from them borrow his perfection.
Their language upadana because he preferred another. With the decline of the native language is silent invention that does not grow in any sorts of art. Meanwhile, other nations take advantage of this and do not stop to various means of averting our attention from themselves and pay it on their craft.
One hundred years ago, we started to learn from foreigners. Well, if our great successes? What fruits collected from them? Maybe, say, expansion of land, victory, win! But it was not, they taught us. Without natural courage and love for the Fatherland, we would not win a victory at Poltava. No! This is not the fruit of their instruction. In this they are more likely to practice than would have wanted to teach us, if only we could. I think it would give them dearly, that our soldiers were not Orthodox soul, not a Russian heart, not copper chest.
A hundred years not one year. Time would have in such a long time and we ourselves become proficient. But in the meantime educate and train us all foreigners. Our houses, buildings are built the same, and dress shoes us, our wives, sons and daughters, they are the same. Without them we would not know how to hang curtains or chairs to arrange, no bonnet, no coat, no boots to wear themselves. Our children to stand up straight, to bow, dance, horseback ride, look into her glass as they teach. Orchestras and theaters, as they entertain us. At least, our dishes are prepared in the kitchens of our Russian cook? No, and then they do the same!
Is nature endowed foreigners most excellent intelligence and abilities? Is she his mother, stepmother, and we? Who would think it? Is that who do not know the Russian people, savvy, all capable.
Where a foreign language is used rather its where foreign books are read by more than their own, there is silence in the literature all fades.
When we're on one of the two gardens we let our attention, then the mind, and hearing, and sight, and taste to cleave unto him, from what the other will suffer. Be patient, do not cease to plant, prune, breed, multiply good, to destroy evil: you will see that it stretched over time and will be great.
The people of the same as a garden. Not turn away from the sight of his works, they fall in love at first imperfect, preferably his alien, he settled in his ambition, revive jealousy aroused his self-respect. Then find a natural talent writing, will increase, rise, become more skillful and finally reach perfection. But as long as we will not have a national pride, their own merits loving, until then we'll just have to watch how do foreigners. Your mind will be inaction, spirit nepredpriimchiv, eye neprozorlivo, inexpert hands.
Foreigners often favor us names des barbares (barbarians), des esclaves (slaves).
They lie, but we feed them to the cause. Could he have respect for me, who taught me, clothes, clean, or better said, robbing, and without whose guidance I can not set foot step?
After overthrowing the yoke of alien language and education, to say to them: "How? We barbarians century famous for its customs and weapons, and you are not barbarians, the horrors of the Revolution took away their glory at the very hell. How? We esklavy, obey God's elect the supreme power, and of you, do not esklavy after infernal liberty, that brought your murderous hands on the elderly and infants, finally crawl when you are forced to stick to obey! How? We, the unenlightened, honor faith, the only source of virtue, only a bridle passions, and you, the enlightened, and trample her very being of God, not by miracles he created the world, but for some Robesperovym! How? We're having a root, an ancient, rich language, let us prefer him your lean, compiled from different languages adverb! "
So it must answer, not thinking, "Where do we chase after you! You and the guys speak French! You know how to do and bonnets, and head to spear, and flowers to pick up flowers. For the sake of Paris, do not back away from us! Always be our teachers, naryazhatelyami, obuvatelyami, poteshnikami, even when your countrymen are we burn and destroy! "
If our opinion of them will always be so, then put off the care of their own sciences, arts, crafts. Let us lay in store gold and to pay them for all the things themselves do not know. We are not for gain fame, but live for money.