Ancient calendars and age of the earth
The idea that the Earth emerged millions, perhaps billions of years ago, quite new. It was formed in the late XVIII — early XIX century, after the publication of the books of Hutton and Lyell. These scholars introduced the idea, known as the theory of uniformity, based on the assumption that natural processes have always proceeded as slowly as in our time, and, therefore, the shape of the Earth was formed gradually over endless millennia. In the framework of these concepts was no room for either relatively recent six-day creation, not for Noah's Flood.
The authors of the theory of uniformitarianism (which served as the basis for the theory of evolution, the following) considered themselves entitled to deny the Genesis record. Some dubious attraction theory — rather philosophical than scientific — led to its almost universal acceptance. But what is known about the age of the Earth our ancient predecessors?
Of particular interest in establishing an accurate chronology of its history showed Anglo-Saxons and Britons. And although there are reasons to critically respond to some date in their systems of chronology, we still have unequivocal evidence that they believed in the youth of the world (its recent creation) and the Flood. For example, the version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, known as the Parker Chronicle (Corpus Christi MS 173), states that from the beginning of the world until the year AD 6 5200 years have passed. Laud Chronicle (Bodleian MS Laud 636) gives a slightly different dates for the same period from the Creation — '11 AD Reason for the discrepancy may be in error or copyist, or the origin of the versions from different sources. However, both chronicles agree that '33 AD, the year of the Crucifixion, 5226 was the year of creation. In other words, the Anglo-Saxons believed that the world was created about 5200 BC In addition, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and found this statement: "From Adam to the Flood was 2242 winter." It would be interesting to find out where the Anglo-Saxons took the number 2242 from the Creation to the Flood — Vulgate (Latin translation of the Bible) gives a figure of 1656 years for the period , converging in this well-known to us drevneiudeyskim text. After the Anglo-Saxons were not familiar with the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Bible), which defines the period between the Creation and the Flood in 2256 years. Their calculations, however, coincide with the Brythonic, has come down to us through Nenniyu from the beginning of the world before the Flood, 2242. Irish, by contrast, is considered the date of creation of about 4000 year BC However, the Irish chronology of some of the problems are related, but they belong to the period between the Flood and the invasion of the Milesians. Bishop Usher (1581 -1656) in the book Annalis Veteris et Novi Testamenti, identified 4004 BC as the date of creation, and from the 18th century is a figure appeared in the commentary to the Bible.
An outstanding scholar Joseph Scaliger (1540-1609) most famous for his book De Emendatione Tempore, published in 1583, which paved the way for modern history — the science of chronology. By the time this science has declined, it is so enmeshed in the complexities of what has become almost inapplicable in practice. Scaliger set himself the task or to improve it, or alter completely. In De Emendatione Tempore he rightly argued that the current Gregorian calendar, introduced in Europe in 1582, was a very awkward tool to establish the chronology of the events of the past. The extreme complexity of the calendar led to errors, some mistakes entailed others. So Scaliger determined to solve the problem, and the solution was simple, like all brilliant. Instead of specifying that an event has occurred on a certain date before or after Christmas, calculates the sequence number of the day, when it happened (it is interesting that it is a count of days is in the Book of Daniel and Revelation). However, if the account is maintained daily, it begs the question of what time to start counting? The answer is obvious — from the first day of Creation.
But when was the first day? Scaliger tried to resolve the problem by focusing on the three pillars, underlying all the calendars on the solar cycle, the lunar-solar cycle and Roman Indiction (fifteen cycle calculus). In simple terms, the solar cycle lasts 28 years, the lunar-solar cycle — 19 years, and the Roman Indiction — 15 years. Scaliger realized that probably should be moments in time when all of these three cycles begin simultaneously. Carefully considered, at what stage each cycle at the time of counting, he led a countdown to the moment when the beginning of all three cycles coincided. It was the year 4713 BC By simple arithmetic Scaliger has determined that the beginning of cycles coincide every 7980 years (the number obtained by multiplying 28 by 19 and 15). Beginning of the period of joint cycles, which he called the Julian period, in honor of his father, Julius Caesar Scaliger, began in 4713 BC and will end only in the year 3267 AD On this foundation Scaliger raised his chronological system. For the sake of convenience, it identified January 1, 4713 BC The first day, leading the dates its history from him. The fact that the three cycles (solar, lunar-solar and Roman Indiction) simultaneously begin in 4713 BC, is important from the point of view of the Bible, as in Genesis 1:14 says it is certain that, in addition to the ability of give light, the solar system and the stars are designed to ensure that we can measure it by days and years. In other words, God created a giant clock, and it is natural to assume that the Creator was launched them so that they can be used to determine overall and age of the universe. However, before you assume that Scaliger determine the exact date of creation, remember that he based his calculations on the contemporary values of the solar and lunar and solar cycles, as they were in 1582/83, respectively. They do not necessarily coincide with the pre-existing values. We constantly witness the infidelity of the hypothesis of uniformity. Happened many disasters that could change the cycles in unpredictable ways. At the local level (the planet Earth) took Flood and other geological disasters that can change the rotation of the Earth and, therefore, — the length of the day and year. Moon was going through its own local disaster that could affect the length of the lunar month, and the universe as a whole, must be significantly "wear out" over the past six thousand years because of the inexorable action of the second law of thermodynamics.
There are a lot of documentary evidence about the changes that have occurred in the Calendar directly in the post-Flood era, and later (see, for example, Exodus 12:2). Why are these changes needed? Distortions in the motion of the Earth, moon and stars, and, therefore, changes in the calendar, apparently, occurs not gradually over a huge time (according to most researchers of this newfangled object), and a jump — in times when for one day of action calendar approaches, and for the next — gone. We had to immediately make changes to correct the inconsistencies suddenly appeared. Indeed, if the distortion in the calendar, especially the moon, accumulate gradually, as we are trying to tell, why reform of the calendar, correcting these distortions, also introduced gradually? It is not enough to assume, as does the majority of writers on the subject of our contemporaries, that the drafters of the ancient calendar were just poor observers were not aware of the theoretical foundations of astronomy and so were miserable calendars periodically need correction. If the people in those days really created a calendar, which is unsuitable for use because of the mistakes made, they would have found it for a year or two of its launch and would not wait for centuries before the bug fix. If they were so stupid and ignorant, it is unclear how they were able to cope with much more serious problems.
The Mayan Calendar
Among the people who allegedly did not own any higher mathematics or theoretical astronomy, the Maya were from South America. Maya, just as Scaliger, were counting the days to solve the chronological and genealogical problems they face, restoring its own ancient history. Some modern scholars concerned about the fact that the Maya perfected their days numbered about 6 centuries before Scaliger just started thinking about it. We know that Scaliger was a genius, but for some reason no one is talking about the genius of the Maya. But why? Why modern authors argue that the Maya had no theoretical astronomy, no system of pure mathematics — despite numerous facts to the contrary? At Chichen Itza (Mexico) is the ruins of a giant Mayan Observatory, corridors that are oriented to the sun, moon and stars. With this and other similar observatories, the Maya could more accurately predict lunar and solar eclipses, calculate the synodic cycle of Venus with a precision that has been achieved by us only recently.
But, perhaps, in this madness is his method. Try to correlate the Mayan number system and Scaliger. The first day of the Maya day falls on a 584,283 Julian Scaliger cycle, corresponding to our calculus August 10 3113 BC (Thursday, according to my calculations). It is significant that the Maya, despite their cyclical concept of time, nevertheless believed that a disaster has destroyed the world and marked the end of the previous era, was caused by water — and numbered his chronology of the disaster. In other words, they looked like the end of the previous flood era and the beginning of another. This fact is very interesting. Counting system Scaliger, as we recall, gave him the year 4713 BC, and is more than likely that it approximately corresponds to the year of creation. Maya, however, start the calculation is not of Creation, the Flood, and the event in their non-Scaliger, a frame of reference refers to 3113 BC Subtracting 3113 from 4713, we get 1600 years — the period between the Creation and the Flood, which is remarkably correlated with a period of 1656 years, determined according to the Scriptures (in chronological Vulgate). So it is not surprising that modern scholars reject this information, as well as mathematics, astronomy and the Maya.
If I were an atheist, I would have acted the same way!
Category: Mystery stories