All XVII-XIX century British hounded us Turks. In the end, our homeland was at war with Turkey in the Russian-Turkish war of 1676-81, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1686-1700, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1710-13, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1735-39, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 -74, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-91, in the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-12, and in the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-78. In addition, Turkey fought a war against Russia in the Crimean and the First World War. So Makar, a total difficulty of 10.
First XIX they incited us to Napoleon, with whom, as with Germany in 1939, we had Tilsit contract signed in 1807. In 1805 he almost invaded the UK, but then the British were able to pull in the war against Napoleon, Austria and Russia. Russian-Austrian advent of Napoleon forced to move to Bavaria and then in Bohemia, to defeat the Allies on November 20 (December 2) in 1805 at Austerlitz. But in 1812, the efforts of the agents of the English influence, Napoleon decided to invade Russia.
We also forced the British to speak in a foreign expedition of 1813-14 period. What we have benefited from this campaign? Eternally rebellious Poland? Strengthening of Austria and Prussia, who became a century our enemies? Yes, all of this was paid for by several tens of thousands of Russian lives. After 1812, Napoleon is unlikely to go back to Russia. But he would have to focus all their efforts on the UK. Many scoff at Admiral Chichagov have missed Napoleon on the Berezina (carefully about it here). In fact Paul V. Chichagov acted by a secret instruction Kutuzov's plans which did not include the capture of Napoleon. If Kutuzov it was necessary, he would have seized Napoleon else first of November in Smolensk, where, coming from Moscow, he went through Borovsk Vereya, Mozhaisk Vyasma and after the defeat of Maloyaroslavets. Kutuzov was a supporter of the RF output from the war immediately after the restoration of Russian borders. Anglophobia Kutuzov believed that the elimination of Napoleon as a political figure first grist to the mill of the British.
In 1807, Mikhail Kutuzov was a supporter of the Peace of Tilsit, and join the Continental blockade. In December 1812 he opposed the Overseas campaign, and when he was obliged to obey the orders of the governor, upset, fell ill and died.
Udavsheesya escape Napoleon put an end to the reputation Chichagova. Offended by public opinion, but bound by oath not to divulge the plan Kutuzov even after the death of it, Chichagov was obliged in 1814 to go abroad. He died in Paris on 1 September 1849.
And in the years 1853-56, the British themselves in alliance with France and Sardinia planted in the Crimea, blocked Kronstadt, 6-7 July 1854 was subjected to nine-ship artillery shelled the Solovetsky monastery. A 18-24 August 1854 the squadron of Admiral Pryce (3 frigates, 1 corvette, 1 brig, 1 steamer, total — 218 guns) tried to capture Petropavlovsk. The city was defended by the Russian garrison under the command of Major-General Zavoiko, numbering several hundred, with 67 guns.
August 20, suppressing fire 2-batteries, the British landed troops numbering 600 people south of the town, but the Russian squad in the 230 counter-attack fighter threw it into the sea. August 24 Allied fleet defeated the two batteries on the peninsula and landed a big landing (970 people) west and north-west of the town. Patrons Petropavlovsk (360 people) to hold the enemy, and then threw back his counterattack. The British and their allies lost about 450 people, Russian — about 100. Defeated, August 27, Allied squadron left the area Petropavlovsk. Ended in failure, and the British troops in the Gulf of De Castries.
Only in the Crimea British managed to achieve of success: August 27, 1855 Russian troops, not yet exhausted all abilities defense, on the orders of commanders left very devastated the southern part of the town of Sevastopol, the defense of which lasted almost year — 349 days. It should be noted that the siege of Sevastopol led the Anglo-French-Turkish-Sardinian troops totaling 62.5 thousand people. The same number of defenders of Sevastopol was 18 thousand soldier and sailors. So do not rot royal regime and technological backwardness of the Russian Federation have become a prerequisite defeat at Sevastopol, and the numerical opponent an advantage in three and a half times. The advantage of the numerical explained and defeat the enemy of Russian troops in the Battle of the Alma River — 55 thousand Allied fighter against 34 thousand Russian, in other words, less than 1.6 times. This is taking into account the fact that Russian troops were advancing. In a similar situation, when Russian troops were advancing, with the numerical advantages, they were victorious. So it was in Balaklava battle, which the Russian won, having suffered the smallest loss than the opponent.
Russian commanders blamed for not doing enough frisky introduction of technical innovations — at a time when our opponents were armed with rifles, our troops continued to use shotguns. But not enough people know that our army rifled guns were then and are not necessary — he Nicholas I invented a bullet that is assigned to a counter-rotation of the airstream. This bullet-range one and a half times higher than in range of a bullet Minya fired from rifles. And if it were not for the early death of the ruler, it may be the development of tools could go in a completely different way.
But, despite the fall of Sevastopol, the Russian Federation expelled from the Crimean peninsula and the British failed.
Samples of the British continued to beat Russia in the twentieth century. At the beginning of the century they supported Japan, which without this support will not be able to win over Russia. Soon after the revolution, December 23, 1917, was signed the Anglo-French agreement on the division of spheres of future military action and are as follows, in the spheres of influence of Russia: in the area of England entered the Caucasus and Cossack regi
on into a zone of France — Bessarabia, Ukraine and Crimea. In the criteria, when the old Bolshevik army forces already collapsed, and reddish The Army has not yet been created, the British tried to grab at the RF principle the main points to be used as starting positions for the upcoming expansion. On March 6, the British troops had been landed in Murmansk, August 2 of that year, British troops have planted in Arkhangelsk, and August 4, British troops had occupied Baku.
But a closer look only to the Russian war with the British were in the first months of the second World War — between Hitler's attack on Poland and the defeat of France. After the signing of the Molotov — Ribbentrop British began to consider the Russian alliance partner of Hitler and, as it should, your opponent.
In fact, immediately after the outbreak of war in Germany and Poland, in which the USSR took part in September 17, 1939, to attend to the Anglo-French allied to the Baku oil fields and search for possible ways to remove them from damage.
By the beginning of the second World War, the Baku oil industry gave 80% of high-grade aviation gasoline, 90% naphtha and kerosene, 96% of automotive oils of the total production in the USSR. The theoretical possibility of an air attack on the Russian oil fields for the first time has been reviewed in September 1939, the liaison officer between the General Staff and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France Lieutenant Colonel Paul de Villelyumom. On 10 October, the Minister of money France Paul Reynaud placed before him a certain question: Can the French Air Force "to bomb Syria nefterazrabotki factories and oil refineries in the Caucasus." In Paris, meant that these plans should be very splotchenno with the British. Salting the U.S. in Paris William C. Bullitt, last, by the way, at one time the first U.S. Ambassador to the USSR, was also informed about the plans of the French government Edouard Daladier and other French politicians in connection with the signing of 19 October 1939 on mutual assistance contract between Britain, France and Turkey. He telegraphed to Washington to discuss in Paris on the ability of "the bombing and destruction of Baku." Although the French and coordinate their plans with the British, the latter not far behind them in developing their own similar projects.
January 11, 1940 the British Embassy in Moscow reported that the action in the Caucasus could "bring Russia to its knees in no time," and bombed-Caucasian oil fields can cause the USSR "knockout punch."
January 24th Chief of the Imperial General Staff Gen. Edwin UK Ironside — the one which headed in the years of military intervention in the English goal Arkhangelsk-War Cabinet memorandum presented "The basic strategy of the war," which pointed out the subsequent: "in determining our strategy in the current environment will be the only solution considered partners in Russia and Germany." Ironside emphasized: "In my opinion, we will be able to provide effective assistance in Finland only in this case the Russian attack on the ability to more destinations and what is especially important, dealt a blow to Baku — the area of oil to cause a severe crisis in the city the Russian Federation. " Ironside gave himself to report that these activities will inevitably lead the Western allies to war with the USSR, but in this situation it is considered quite reasonable. The document stressed the role of the Royal Air Force to implement these plans, and specifically stated that "Our homeland is very economically dependent in the war against the supply of oil from Baku. This area is within the reach of the distant bombers act, but on the condition that they are able to flight over the territory of Turkey or Iran. " The question of war with the Soviet Union ran to the very highest levels of the military and political leadership in the Anglo-French bloc. March 8, came out very fundamental event in the context of preparing for war with the Russian Union of England and France. On this day, the British Chiefs of Staff, presented the government with a report entitled "The military consequences of military action against Russia in 1940 year. "
By the beginning of the second World War, the Baku oil industry gave 80% of high-grade aviation gasoline, 90% naphtha and kerosene, 96% of automotive oils of the total production in the USSR.
March 20, 1940 in Aleppo (Syria) held a meeting of the French and British commanders in the Levant, where it was noted that in June 1940, will be completed the construction of 20 airfields first category. April 17, 1940 Weygand reported to Gamelin, an air strike that training will be completed by the end of June — beginning of July.
30 March and 5 April 1940 the British had made reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union. Shortly before sunrise, March 30, 1940 "Lockheed 12A" rose from the Habbaniyah base in southern Iraq and headed northeast. Was sitting behind the wheel of the best pilot of the royal air force reconnaissance Sydney Australian Cotton. Task set before the crew of 4, commanded by Hugh Mac-Feil — Cotton's personal assistant — was aerial reconnaissance Russian oil fields in Baku. At an altitude of 7000 meters, "Lockheed" to circle the Russian capital of Azerbaijan. Automatic cameras snapping shutters, and two crew members — the paparazzi from the royal air force — were doing more hand-held camera shots. Closer to noon — after 10 hours — spy plane landed in Habbaniya. Four day or later, he again took to the air. Now he made a reconnaissance of the refinery in Batumi.
But the plans of the Anglo-French command were destroyed by a German coming to France.
May 10, a day the start of hostilities in France, Churchill became Prime Minister. The British consider it a lifesaver Kingdom in a difficult moment dared to resist Hitler. But the facts show a turnaround: Churchill signed the surrender only because Hitler did not offer it. Churchill was g
oing to surrender even before the war not only in France, and Belgium. So back on May 18, when the Anglo-French forces in Belgium have not yet been cut off and pinned to the sea, Churchill put it on the Parliament discussed the issue of where to evacuate the royal family: in Canada, India or Australia (House of Commons, Debates, 5th Series , Vol. 360, Col. 1502). He insisted on a 2-recent versions, because he thought that Hitler would seize the French fleet, and in a short time, and gets to Canada (Gilbert M.Winston S. Churchill. Vol. VI. Lnd. 1983, p. 358) . And on May 26 in communication with the head of the Foreign Office by Lord Edward Frederick Lindley Wood Halifax, Churchill said: "If we could get out of this mess, giving Malta, Gibraltar and some African colonies, I would have jumped at the opportunity" (Chamberlain Papers NC 2 / 24A). But apart from Churchill in the government were active and more than defeatists. On the same day, May 26, Halifax suggested that the mediation of Mussolini in the signing of the armistice (Hickleton Papers, A 7.8.4, Halifax Diary, 27.V.1940).
Fuel to the fire and pour defeatism press neutral states. Since May 21 the Swedish press reported that Germany has not 31 torpedo boat, as it was in reality, and more than a hundred, either of which will allow her to sit on the English-saving value by 100 people. The next day, the same newspaper, citing a source in the German generals, wrote that the Germans set on the shores of the English Channel long-range guns, under cover of which want to land a day or for a day. This source is likely threw the Swedes misinformation, fabricated in the office of Walter Schellenberg. But the psychological effect was enormous. Canadian Prime Minister even suggested Britain to evacuate this dominion of the British kids aged 5 to 16 years. The proposal was accepted only in part, because the entire British transport was already occupied by the evacuation of Dunkirk. In Canada, decided to send only 20 thousand kids of the most respected families.
British position was more than unbalanced. In the UK there were only 217 tanks and 464 aircraft possessed by fighters and 491 bombers. In addition, only 376 aircraft were manned (Liddell Hart B. History of the Second World War. New York, 1971, p. 311). If the Germans did not even landed troops, but simply offered to UK unquestioning surrender at the end of May 1940 it would have been accepted by the majority of the English Parliament. But the moment the Germans lost.
It's no secret that all pochetaemy Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, in his own father's legacy of Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill (1849-1895) was, among other things, manic-depressive psychosis. This disease manifests itself at times advancing mood disorders. In normal cases, it takes the form of alternating phases — manic, expressed unreasonably happy mood, and depressive. Typically, the disease attacks are replaced at intervals of good health. So now, for the first interval of the overall health of June Churchill came depressive phase. June 4, he wrote to former Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947): "You and I are unlikely to live to see the best days" (Cambridge University Library, Stanley Baldwin Papers, Vol. 174, p. 264). A number of 12, going from Paris after a regular meeting with Reynaud and Weygand, he said, already mentioned here Ismeyu Hastings Lionel (1887-1965), the future general (since 1944), Baron (1947), and the Secretary General of NATO (1952 — 57): "You and I will die in three months" (Harvard University, Houghton Library, Sherwood Papers, fol. 1891).
Specifically, depressed mood Churchill was the latest blow to hopes Weygand organize resistance to the Germans on the narrow strip of the coast of the Bay of Biscay, with the support of naval artillery strong French fleet. Specifically, guided by this plan, Weygand recommended to transfer the government, not just anywhere, but specifically in Bordeaux — just on the coast of the Bay of Biscay.
Soon the depressive phase of the Churchill ended by the twentieth of June. Started manic. And now, Churchill, speaking in Parliament on June 23, said the astonished MPs that Britain would fight to the bitter end. Was based on what was Churchill's confidence in victory?
The fact is that in these days of it struck an excellent idea to try again to force Stalin to think that Hitler, having finished with France, to attack Russia. More May 20, 1940 Russian side was informed of the intention to bring to Moscow with the "research" mission "commissioner" Sir Stafford Cripps. Soon becomes Ambassador Cripps instead to go on holiday more January 2 preceding Sir — Sir William SIDS. And in June 25 through Cripps Stalin Churchill receives a letter in which the Prime Minister of the broken country with an unarmed demoralized army, has not anyone, and Stalin, a hand of friendship.
Stalin did not accept it, but at that Churchill did not calm down. He decided to provide information about Hitler that hit him in the back preparing Stalin. Such information is British. Priemuschestvenno through the French press and a neutral, unobtrusive Hitler tried to throw from the date of signing of the Molotov — Ribbentrop Pact. So once October 15, 1939 in an editorial the French newspaper "Temps" stated that "the position won by Russia, are a constant danger to Germany" ("Temps", 15 octobre, 1939). A little later, in December 1939, "Epoque" wrote virtually the subsequent: "The plan is grandiose Russian and unsafe. Their ultimate goal is the Mediterranean Sea" ("Epoque", 4 decembre, 1939). One of the episodes of this propaganda campaign was mentioned above, and the spread of the Havas agency forged the minutes of the Politburo.
Do not fall behind on their own French colleagues and overseas press. In the January issue of the journal State Department official appeared the following lines: "Turning the troops from the east to the west, Hitler must constantly be on the lookout" ("Foreign Affairs", January, 1940. P. 210). But truly large scale such statements in the neutral media have gained in the period between the end of combat operations in France and Germany's attack on the Russian alliance. Hitler made every effort to assure that Stalin wants him poruha. And Hitler believed it. Already January 8, 1941 Ribbentrop, Hitler said: "The UK is kept only hope of aid from America and Russia. Diplomatically training Britons in Moscow is clear: the purpose of the UK — is to throw the USSR at us. Simultaneous intervention of Russia and America would have been very hard for us. 'Cause you need kill the danger is in the embryo. " That is why the main prerequisite for contract violations Hitler nonaggression efforts are specifically British. Specifically, the United Kingdom, saving themselves from imminent defeat, was able to redirect the anger of Hitler to the east.