The use of armed forces at the present stage there is fighting in local military conflicts, role in international peacekeeping and counterterrorism operations. Success such missions are carried out with the participation of special operations forces (SOF) — a native of troops, created to carry out complex tasks in the most demanding criteria. Such a branch is created or formed in all the advanced countries, notably NATO countries.
Based on the analysis of data from public sources, it can be argued that the formation of a cooked MTR are the U.S., Britain and Germany. Means, it is reasonable to make out the process of acquisition SWAT specifically in those countries.
The troops of special purpose (GSP) in the United States were made in 1952. They were intended for a series of special operations, among which the organization of guerrilla warfare and sabotage activities in the terrain of the enemy. Already in 1983, to join the GSP and the management of mental operations units, was created 1st Special Operations Command Army U.S. Army. This measure was justified by the acquired experience of combat in Vietnam.
From the very onset of the MTR America they were closely interacting with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), in which the puzzles comes the creation of a network of agents to conduct mental processing of the local population.
Features of the combat use of U.S. special forces determine their composition and preparation. The selection of the MTR U.S. carried out only on voluntary basis and only from the American people. With all of this, volunteers may be persons only males who have the rank not lower than sergeant 1st class with no restrictions for longer life and no conviction of the last contract. Future student, before write a report about the desire to serve in the armed forces CCO should undergo parachute training. In addition, volunteers are presented to the following requirements: over 2 years they have to serve in the armed forces, to have a full twelve-year course of secondary school education, the highest rate of the mind (over 110 points or 100 points if the candidate has a perfect foreign language) obtain clearance to work with hidden documents. In addition, prospective candidates pass the initial check for physical training — they have to swim in the shape of shoes and 50 meters, with 2 Minutka 52 times to be wrung from the floor, 62 times to raise the body from a prone position on the back, run 3200 meters in top form at 14 52 minutes. Test exams candidates are within 3 weeks.
Persons who have passed the examination, shall be credited to the qualifying courses that work at the school MTR, where he is preparing them as future professionals of special forces.
All students are receiving basic training for the MTR, which is carried out in two steps (first — 13 weeks training in military occupational specialties, 2nd — 5 weeks, of which 3 weeks passes reinforced individual training and 2 weeks in preparation already in the division). Further, in three steps, performed course Enhanced training — 12 weeks.
All students in the learning process should take a course of lectures on survival. In addition, they learn abilities forgery, learn the rules of conduct for interrogation and in captivity, learn how to get away from persecution and from captivity. In the process of mountain training students are introduced to the main means of transportation in the criteria of the mountains, insurance, working with nodes and rope, etc. The result of the training programs from the general to become a student of the acquisition of certain knowledge from two or three majors, provided the states MTR. At the end of the course the students overestimated training, in order to consolidate the acquired knowledge and skills in practice, are sent for service in the upcoming squad "Alpha."
Special Forces Army British designed for reconnaissance and implementation of special events on the ground the enemy in times of peace and times of war. The primary constituent of the MTR of England is SAS (Special Air Services — a special Airborne Service (CAS) of ground forces. 1st SAS units were formed in 1941. In 1941 — 1943 SAS troops spent a lot of successful operations in North Africa.
After the end of the second world war (late 1945), these parts and units have been disbanded. But soon the command of the British forces came to the conclusion that the possibility of armed conflict, such as SAS unit will play an important role. As a result, in 1947, the regiment was "Bohemian arrows" (The Artist Rifles) Territorial Army of England was transformed into the 21st SAS Regiment. From now begins the post-war history of British MTR, taking part in all the armed conflicts that have led the country in the postwar period: Malaysia, Brunei, Oman, Yemen, the Falkland Islands, Borneo and the Persian Gulf. In 1952, when England was at war in Malaysia on the basis of the "Malayan Scouts" was formed by now recognizable 22nd SAS Regiment.
Now the army of England, there are three special purpose regiment (21st, 22nd and 23rd). 22th Regiment absolutely staffed, and 21 and 23 minutes are a cropped and are part of the Territorial Army. Personnel staffing the CAS is also on a voluntary basis from the troops of all services and arms of the armed forces, including the military-women. In addition, there is a practice set of Gurkhas — soldiers of the kingdom Nepal. Volunteers who choose to serve in units of MTR must be severe enough motive to serve in the SAS and its proper moral and psychological endurance, their health must comply with inflated medical requirements, in add
ition, they must have good physical shape to be able to teach discipline training, active and confident within themselves, also have the ability to find long-term isolation and work in a small team. Age limits are 22 — 34 years for officers and 19-34 years for other categories of servicemen. Also, the candidate must have excellent properties with the last duty station and be prepared spices.
British SAS uses to test their own candidates more impressive selection tests, which only exists in the world. They have been specially designed Makarov, so check very physical and moral training of the candidate, to bring a recruit up to the border of complete exhaustion, as this the only way to find whether any eligible candidate to serve in the SAS. The selection process obmyslen so that those who do not fit, to screen out as quickly as possible.
Preparatory Course selection for 4 weeks and consists of several marches, during which candidates must show their commandos good physical endurance and ability to accurately navigate the terrain, resourcefulness and perseverance in achieving the goal.
Before the examination candidates to provide a week so that they could gather strength and prepare for tests. Because during the 1st week of military pay special attention to training crosses, increasing their distance from each of days. Further all candidates undergo medical commission and pass a physical training test: conventional-arms test which contains the group march in full gear at a distance 2.5 km (elapsed time less than 13 minutes) and a single cross the same distance (less than 11.5 min). The one who did not pass the medical commission or failed to meet a standard that will not be allowed for the upcoming test. Next, getting gun, uniforms and equipment, the candidates are sent on a training base training center in the mountains of South Wales, where he held the entire course selection.
The first three weeks are referred to as adaptation, and the fourth — the control, with all this for candidates from among officers of the control is the third week, and during the fourth ("an officer of the Week"), testing their capabilities as managers.
The selection begins with a march in a group at a distance of 10 km. Each pack bears (18 kg) and rifle (4.5 kg). The first week of march ends at 23 km, which must be overcome in less than 4 hours and 10 minutes. During the second and third week of solitary marches are held at the same distance. Candidates must demonstrate the ability to focus on areas on the map and without it, go out at certain points. They were forbidden to go to the group, and move on roads and transport use. The control week anticipates the epitome of 6 singles marches on very rough terrain, the length of which in turn increases from 25 to 28 km, and the weight of the knapsack (without guns) from 20.4 to 25 kg. When a candidate arrives at the checkpoint before it put different objectives: to disassemble and assemble an unfamiliar foreign standard small tools, to describe the relevant details of the countryside through which he passed, etc.
The final (second) it produces a march with a knapsack weighing 25 kg at a distance of 64 km. This distance must be overcome in less than 20 hours in the selection process focuses on each particular candidate, rather than the group, which averages 120 people. With all of this, each volunteer must rely only on their own strength, as instructors will neither help nor hinder him anything, they only provide the right information and it will make sure the security at the time of the route. None of them under any criteria will not give the candidate a character from which to understand whether it is true or it does fit in a standard time.
Total for passing each course selection statement serves about 200 people, and selected 140-150 soldiers. Screenings at all steps achieves 90%, ie once a year is taken and sent to a course of basic training 12-15 people, including officers.
Both the positive side of the course selection to the British SAS to highlight its simplicity, it does not require significant monetary costs and the introduction of a huge number of personnel.
Physical activity can select the most deserving for an upcoming service in SAS. Candidates who successfully passed the course selection are sent to the training center for a course of basic training, where they are expecting even more complex tasks. Training course takes place in 3 steps (24 weeks): the first step (14 weeks) — Study framework of special operations and reconnaissance. The second step (6 weeks) — the strategy, methods of sabotage and reconnaissance, mine-subversive training, fire training, communication, survival in extreme conditions, the behavior in the event of capture, medical training, preparing for combat in the tropical undergrowth. Third step (four weeks) — Airborne training (for those who are not qualified parachutist).
The first step is completed basic training course "Taking into captivity." With all of this study methods of escape in different steps (after the capture of prisoners, while escorting and with space for prisoners), the behavior of the interrogation, the output of the blocked area during combing areas, methods of dealing with dogs. Increased attention in practical training sessions during the interrogation rules of conduct drawn to the fact, that the military did not disclose hidden information, namely, did not know about the task, composition and location of the patrol. They have the right to read only his name, rank, serial number and date of birth. On the other and can not be: NAC should always be sure that "her people" do not "will crack" under heavy pressure and not betray your own comrades.
In the unlikely event that such military expelled from the CAC and sent to a former post. Techniques and tools that SAS uses for these tests, mostly classified, but is perfectly clear that this process is at the physical level and intellectually debilitating. But it makes it possible to reveal the internal helplessness candidate. Of course, it's not using any physical torture, but at the same tricks used in excess, bordering with real intellectual torture. Seasoned investigators and instructors do everything to bring recruits from the state of mental balance and break it without even touching it with your finger. Sometimes they do not use such methods and: a "prisoner" of snow-white noise near the source, which in sufficient power of sound can damage the metal handcuffs chained him to the rails are used railway tracks, poured gasoline cadet, leaving nearby fireplace, etc. Those who pass the test, pass tests on the subjects passed. In the case of successful delivery of set-off is sent to the cadet training center in Brunei, where the six-week training course for military action in the tropical undergrowth. During the lessons focuses on a sense of direction in the criteria for closed areas and testing survival skills, weapons training in the criteria of restricted visibility and at close distances, and strategy within the group during the reconnaissance, ambushes, and in case of contact with her. The second step is completed many days
of exercise, during which students will show in the group acquired all the skills and abilities. In the near future is also carried out training for combat operations in the town, and desert.
After returning to the training center all students who do not have qualifications parachutist, are submitted to the final step of basic training — Course airborne training on the basis of the Air Force. Within 4 weeks, candidates undergo a course of ground training and produce eight jumps with positive opening of the parachute with a C-130 aircraft from a height of 300 meters and the second following jumps are made to the freight container and instrument, and the eighth — NIGHT MODE. Upon completion of basic training soldiers are assigned to one of the platoon of SAS. Regardless of the previous titles, all new recruits to the CAS receive the title — the ordinary, although currency security is obtained at the level of their own previous salary. Despite the fact that they are enrolled in the SAS, the entire 1st year is considered to be candidates for a trial period during which they can be fired with or without the help of others to leave at any moment. During the 12-month trial period, they undergo additional, in-depth training on their own specialty in the group and specialization platoon (parachuting, amphibious, mobile, mountain).
Any of the four military group has its own specialty: a medic, demolitions, radio operator and translator. In the coming they study for at least two specialties that provide universal military preparedness SAS.
In 1996, the German armed forces, on the basis of the 25th Airborne Brigade, was created Special Operations Command, bringing together all the MTR Bundeswehr.
The selection of troops in the German Army SOF — Kommando Spezialkrafte (KSK) is carried out among the personnel of the Bundeswehr. The age of the candidate should not exceed 27 years for officers and non-commissioned officers — 32. The maximum age for service in the KSK is 38 years old. Step basic course selection and training of candidates in the KSK lasts three months and are based on the methods of the British SAS and the U.S. team "Delta".
After the end of the three-month basic course soldiers are sent to the unit KSK special meaning for the passage of a 3-year course of specialized training. Such a long-term training programs from there in any special forces in the world. It includes reconnaissance and commando, infantry, paratrooper and medical training, training in communication and training activities in the mountains and winter tests in the training center. Over the 3-year period of study in the student gets the opportunity to more specifically examine a number of military specialties.
Personal structure CSR is trained and exchanges of experience in counterterrorism group Border Protection Germany — Grenzschutzgruppe-9, also at the training centers NATO training commandos and special operations units of other states. Only after successful completion of the 3-year course of special training to personnel of German Special Forces is given the status "ready for a fight."
Bachinskiy V.V.Sily U.S. special operations and advanced states of NATO, Odessa, 2008. — 92 pp.