Help allies provided so far as: on the one hand, takes action to the Bolsheviks gained a decisive upper hand, but on the other, so white and could not overthrow them.
"We do not trade in Russia" famous words of General Denikin. This is the answer to the question about the causes of the defeat of the snow-white movement. Reading the memoirs of the Whites, inadvertently struck by the spiritual nobility of these people. It's the Patriots, the Russian people to the bone. Risking their lives, they busy themselves trying to save his homeland. The generals realize the struggle against Bolshevism as its own duty as a continuation of service to the country, that they shall be white-haired their whiskey, and chest showered orders. The leaders of snow-white movement, without exception, make the same mistake that will cost them a defeat. They are considered "allies" of the Russian Federation the same generous people like themselves, and confer properties that the gentlemen from London and Paris was not in sight.
If the generals Krasnov and Denikin and Wrangel, at least in general terms, to represent himself, who is involved in the destruction of, they would not expect from this side of no help in her recovery. If the leaders of the movement were aware of the snow-white backstage arrangements Entente with the Bolsheviks, if looked suddenly into the black room of Western missions in Moscow! If they knew, by what means and grows stronger grew the Socialist Party and the Bolsheviks!
If, if, if …
"For the stateliness, the One and indivisible Russia" — toasted Whites who fought against the Bolsheviks. And do not think about the fact that for more than 100 years of British policy goals were completely different: "For the feeble, crushed and broken Russian"! Anglo-Saxons, pursuing diametrically reverse goal could help Russian Whites? Oh, and "helped", adhering to the true self-interest. A snow-white heads of the movement did not want to notice, did not want to think about the reasons for their treacherous behavior of yesterday's "brothers but Arms". Instead of a gradual realization in life elimination of RF beheld Denikin, Kolchak and Wrangel only paranormal things and weird behavior of the Entente.
Now is the time to remember those legends plainclothes war that had developed over the past decade. They were interested in the development of the West, who wanted to hide their tracks, and the Bolsheviks, "miracle" to stay in power. The first was the need to disguise their assistance to Lenin in the seizure of power in her upcoming hold. The second principle was unusually zabugornye hide the roots of what happened coup and increase their own rewards in the win. So what are these legends? They can be divided according to the terms of appearance: on the old "Russian" and the new "anti-Soviet."
Russian historiography has left us a legacy of a whole bunch of cliches, myths about our "allies" in the Entente:
♦ myth first: foreign intervention has been carried out, aimed at overthrowing the Russian authorities;
♦ second myth: "union" in the civilian government supported the war of white and gave them a huge help.
In today's "anti-Soviet" presentation of the picture will be slightly different:
♦ third myth: in the civilian war 'allies' support of good-quality snow-white;
♦ fourth myth: bad Reds kept the Germans.
And the "new" and "old times" legends prototype far from reality. Take, for example, the current bulge thesis supported by the Bolsheviks Germany. If silly to take it on faith, on looms nezamudrenaya scheme Germans bad, and the British and the French, not helping reddish — great. Plain and simple. In fact, for this easy conclusions about the whole heresy war and civilian clothes lined up. Russian scheme of modern features small details. Open though what our tutorial before 1985, and you will read that in the civilian war and "allies" and the Germans kept bad snow white and the great reddish managed to break all of them only advanced Marxist doctrine under the wisest of the Communist Party. Well, we will investigate.
Let's start with the first myth: it was carried out foreign intervention aimed at overthrowing the Russian authorities. To clarify the situation, we turn to the sources: "In the course of 3 years on the territory of Russia were armies of British, French, Japanese. There is no doubt that the most miserable challenging these 3 powers would be quite enough, so that in a few months, if not weeks, to defeat us. "
This formulation of Lenin. Ilyich is difficult to argue with — he is right entirely. In a few weeks, could the British and French to strangle the Bolshevik Revolution. But then again on the world map would appear more our homeland. Then there would be plainclothes war. Not destroyed factories, could not be destroyed thousands of km railway routes, hundreds of bridges. Remained alive millions of Russian people would have been born yet millions of kids, and to this day people stately country would be united and indivisible. Objectives of British intelligence were diametrically opposite …
It's hard to believe, but foreign intervention, which began in Russia, as we are led to official historians, to overthrow the Russian government, but kicked off "the call" and with a light hand Lev Davidovich Trotsky. The honor of the first British fighter to take our northern ports. Practically speaking. Port of Murmansk and Murmansk railways were built in 1916 to supply Russian military equipment and supplies from Britain and France. By the time the RF out of the war with Germany in the ports of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk have accumulated millions of tons of military cargo. Specifically, the presence of military ammunition gave "allies" beautiful formal pretext for interfering in the affairs of.
Lenin, maneuvering between the Allies and the Germans, selects the second — type of cooperation. To comply with external standards Bolshevik government played an appearance on Russian soil "allied" troops, as a spectacle. Everything has been agreed at the backstage negotiations, but the Petrograd could not just invite the invaders — it would've been a good deal. In Murmansk, at the time the rules Sovdep, whose chairman was the last docker Alex Yuriev. When Marshal Mannerheim, the Germans broke through the Finnish Bolsheviks came the theoretical possibility of an attack on the Germans, Finns and Murmansk. March 1, 1918 in St. George telegraphed Petrograd about the situation and said that the English Admiral Kemp offers all aid, including military force, to repel a possible attack the Germans at the port. Now the situation was different — local comrades require support. In response, Comrade Trotsky instructs Yuriev "to take at least some assistance to allied missions."
On the roads of Murmansk since 1915 were British battleship, cruiser, and 6 minesweepers — they comped ships with military cargoes delivered of. Landing troops did not represent any problem, the British were practically just have to get off the deck on the saved.
In other words, the Minister of the Russian government, the right hand of Lenin, the only one apart from Lenin was aware of all the secret agreements, gave the nod to fit British invaders. Funny picture is just theater delirium: Allied fighters have to defend "German spies" Lenin and Trotsky from the same German troops …
Global policy for the kind of frowning, Favourable gazed at the destruction of the Russian Empire handful of resolute Bolsheviks. To understand this, look at the pretty one very curious document. Bolshevik "News" right of all global editions printed "Fourteen Fri 'U.S. President Wilson. This is his proposal of Germany and its partners to make peace. They placed first in January 1918, in other words, in the midst of negotiations in Brest.
Agree proposals for peace is always good. This is only a small, but hope that millions of men would return to their spouses and children, and millions of women will not wear the black widow's scarves. Generous impulse of a peacemaker, but fundamentally realize that still offers specifically South American president. Previously, it appeals to Germany were like an empty declaration. Now Wilson is very specific and detailed. Walk straight through the document, setting out its essence. In parentheses give the translation: change the language on human diplomatic. So, fourteen Fri Wilson that so admired the Bolsheviks.
1. It is necessary to start peace negotiations (See the terms of the surrender of Germany and its allies, they are on).
2. Freedom of navigation (German submarines should break the British blockade and end the stoke "union" ships. Blockade of Germany itself can last.)
3. Freedom of trade (South American economy is full of products, they need to be taken to the ruined Europe, it is hampered by the same German U-boat).
4. State guarantees of disarmament to the minimum compatible with the state security (Opponents of the Entente must disarm).
5. Fair resolution of all colonial claims (So that such disputes were gone, all the colonies from Germany will take away your favorites).
7. Belgium should release and return (At the expense of Germany, of course).
8. Unleash the area of France (Alsace and Lorraine to Germany must give France).
9. Italy need to improve border (In other words, to add to her pieces of the Austrian countryside, which was calculated to provoke a war Serbs).
10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary should receive the broadest autonomy (In other words, Austria-Hungary should break up and practically do not exist).
11. Occupied by the Germans and Austrians, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro should release. Serbia also provide access to the sea (Again due to the poor Austrians).
12. The Turkish Ottoman Empire region should receive sovereignty, other peoples of the empire, too (The end of the Ottoman Empire, its decay); Dardanelles should be open for free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations (Full control over the Straits of the "allies").
13. It must be cast beyond the Polish government, with free access to the sea (This can be done only from pieces of the Russian and German countryside, Poland will give the German port of Danzig (Gdynia), and cut off from the rest of Germany's East Prussia).
14. There must be a general association of nations created (Later the League of Nations, the modern United Nations).
All direct and clear. But where is the question of the Russian Federation? This is item number 6. We purposely missed it. There it is just a question of us. But read this last point is best. At the end. That is to say, for better understanding and assimilation.
6. The release of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia, which guarantees her the full and free cooperation of the other nations in obtaining full and unimpeded ability to take independent decision on her own political development and its public policy and providing hospitality to her in society free nations in the form of government, which she herself chooses.
That's it. Are you aware of something nibudt shestislozhnom this sentence? Read it again. Again, do not you understand? Can you try again. Though worthless. No thought in this mass of letters and no words. Not counting one — save for himself, a lover, a free hand. It turns out fun: Belgium return, Romania free and Poland make Serbia an outlet to the sea. And what about the Russian Federation? She — "The most full and free cooperation of the other nations in obtaining full and unimpeded ability to take independent decision." In other words, nothing! Nothing at all, not counting blank or non-committal words.
Wilson's statement in the part of our country — the best illustration of the exact orientation Lntanty the elimination of Russian statehood. Help any of the warring sides in the civilian war impossible — will of the Russian should be free. It implements the Reds a lot — all the warehouses of the royal army, all military factories in their areas. And given rifles and machine guns snow-white — this intervention. Do not give the men and means for the integrity of — this will also be a violation of "free will". And Lenin virtually all the treasures of the State Bank.
In such a situation, the final struggle of white and the Reds can be predicted in advance. In fact, the mufti war has not really begun, and fighters for the restoration of the Russian state is thrown. " No wonder print the message Wilson Russian newspaper, so happy and so the Bolsheviks — by crisp white will not. This declaration gives a free hand in making All actions against Russia. You can explain everything, whatever you want to say: we tried and — on the text of this six-story pile of empty words.
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
After about All participants in the war, but about all the abandoned poor, about Poland and Belgium, Serbia, and Romania, writes U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, directly and indirectly. Only about Russian abstract and vague to the maximum. Why? Because if you write in fact, it should be able to follow about: Russian countryside release, the usurpers of power to drive and hold new free elections under the supervision of an international commission, and then convene An old Constituent Assembly. Let him decide how to live on the Russian Federation. As such, the Russian Federation, Lenin and the Bolsheviks have no place, and at least some other government does not recognize the separation of state border regions, the falling away of Ukraine and the Caucasus. We will be back home majestically One and indivisible. And claim their own role in reparations and indemnities favorites in the First World War. Restoring RF negate all the efforts and costs for its destruction. It turns out that it is impossible to write about the Russian South American president directly. And so it is possible to organize colloquia and debates on the interpretation of the text of Wilson's sixth cloudy Fri, dedicated to Russia. Come on, who realized that such a "Providing hospitality to her in the community of free nations in the form of government, which she herself will choose?"
— rebellious Chief
The real concern "allies" will cause the other facts. To hit the Russian economy, for transformation of the country into ruin need plainclothes war and someone has to start. But the courageous resistance of the Cossacks of the Don and the generous impulse of the first volunteers were soon over. It seems that neither the Cossacks were not bad, against the whole of the Russian Federation, they could not resist. Dissatisfaction with the Bolshevik government was, but it was not poured out into open armed struggle in other areas of the Russian land. Smash the Cossacks, Bolsheviks kill the tiny volunteer army of General Kornilov, and all will end. Civilian war, destructive and cruel — will not. Then the roar of the funeral for the "union" plan will hear the words of Lenin's article "The Immediate tasks Russian authorities": "But, basically, the task of the oppression of the resistance of the exploiters has been resolved."
Not enough utility from the fact that the British and French secret services managed to bring to power in Russia extremists and experimenters. The usual logic of the municipal government will force rapidly Lenin and his associates not to destroy, but to see. Imagine for yourself, as previously returned to his strength Our homeland (even reddish), if the war ended in civilian clothes, so really it began. Or would it did not exist …
Fuel for the civil war, we have presented concrete "allies." The role of a spark in a powder keg played our brothers-Slavs: Czechs and Slovaks. Now they are citizens of the 2 different countries, and then there were the subjects of one Austro-Hungarian Empire. During World War II soldiers and officers felt sympathy for the Slavs of Russia and preferred to surrender rather than fight "for the Kaiser and the monarchy." Surrender fighter Czech nationality has become widespread. At one point on the side of the Russian Federation organized a descent run across more than 2-thousand soldiers and officers of the 28th Regiment of Prague together with all the weapon and ammunition. It is from these valiant warriors was formed body, which, like gasoline canister thrown into the smoldering fire caused an explosion and a full-scale war on the territory of Russia.
Our homeland after October deducted from the political map of the world, to be with her more than anybody is going. Including change their orientation and brothers Slavs. Management requests that the Czechs by the French government and President Poincare on the recognition of all Czechoslovak military units part of the French army. Consent has been obtained, and in December 1917 the Czechoslovak Corps in Russia was formally subordinated to French command. The Bolsheviks did not mind, what with the fact that two awesome military division, trained and equipped by the Russian Treasury, have been declared part of the French Army! (In practice, this French and Czech troops showed no unusual slowness in coming to Ekaterinburg, where waiting for his own terrible fate family of Nicholas II. then their deliberation becomes clear and understandable.)
Then began scheming. It was announced that the Czechs will go to the Western Front, but for some reason not through Murmansk, as previously planned, but far more expensive — in Vladivostok. Thanks so much zig-zag path echelons of the Czechs stretched over a large area — the Volga, the Urals and the whole of Siberia. Why did they decide to meddle in Russian divisions and rebellion replaced in order to quickly leave the territory of the Russian Federation? The answer is simple — "union" representatives gave them money. Of course, not every ordinary soldier, and their management. March 3, 1918 Czechs organization "Council of State" has received the first installment of the French consul in the amount of 1,000,000 rubles. March 7 — 3000000 swell the coffers of the Czechoslovak divisions, March 9 — 2 million more, March 25 — 1000000, 26 March — 1 million total French consul gave less than a month 8,000,000 rubles. There were other charges. In the newspaper "Prukopnik Freedom" is a total figure of assets acquired: 11,000,000 118 thousand rubles. And that's just from the "grateful" of France. The British also planted 80 thousand pounds.
That languid carriage rolled to the edge, someone has to push. Czechoslovak revolt began in Chelyabinsk — housing several officers were arrested by local security officers "for communicating with the counter-revolutionary elements." In response, the Czechs seized the station and claimed the release of their own countryman. May 25, 1918, signed by Trotsky issued an order to disarm the Czechoslovak parts that need to send the gun, but it was too late. Disciplined troops 40000th Czech housing rapidly seized a huge area. Around them are grouped together and the national anti-Bolshevik forces. Practically speaking, a large-scale war of mutual annihilation of Russian pas began specifically with the Czechoslovak revolt. Later awards Czechs and Slovaks do not forget grateful Entente hurry to carve out an independent Czechoslovakia was drinking.
The fire ignited the Russian civil strife. The main thing now for the "allies" — do not give him die out. Velye needed as a means of weakening the greatest of the Red Army. Because of their need to cheer and support. That war lasted longer as possible, so that the Russian Federation is released as can be harder …
Understanding the logic of behavior of the British and the French, we just learned and the absurdity of the second myth: the "union" of the government supported the war in civilian clothes of white and gave them a huge help. Not to be unfounded, we will begin to understand exactly. At first — in the definitions. What is the help? "Assistance in anything, in any activity; support" — says our dictionary. Let's deal was a "support", whether rendered "assistance" Whites.
Let's start with the diplomatic and government support. This is a very fascinating subject. In my head there is a small tradesman disorder. Because the Bolshevik historian called the "usurpers" and "invaders" of power, then the unsophisticated reader develops a memory, that reddish Russia have captured the legitimate government. As can be seen, they were rebels. In fact the process of taking power by the Bolsheviks Kerensky was so well prepared that capture the country, it had not beat the reddish and crisp white! Specifically, they were rebels against the central government of Lenin. In such a situation indescribably principle for fighters with Bolshevism was the legitimation of their actions. It was necessary to show exactly what they are legitimate authority in Russia, and seized the Russian Leninists — occupiers and offenders. In such a situation, only the recognition of a foreign government could snow-white to give it that of "legitimate" status.
That's why the "allies" almost to the end of the plainclothes samoyu war is not officially recognized nor 1st snow-white mode. Reds are also not accepted, and it Lapan London and Paris complete freedom of maneuver. All the pieces of the breakaway Russian Empire, is recognized in England and France in a matter of din.
The head of the British Government Lloyd George was also frank: "The need to promote Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin is much less controversial issue, that they are fighting for a united Russia. I did not specify whether this motto policy of England. One of our majestic people, Lord Beaconsfield, beheld in a large, powerful and majestic of, rolling like a glacier towards Persia, Afghanistan and India, the most formidable threat to the British Empire. "
A white executives expect when minions awake the conscience of the Western world and they fomoglasno declare who is the legitimate government of the Russian Federation. It was very fundamentally, because the recognition longed for a lot of consequences:
♦ white had the opportunity to use the money that belonged to the royal and the Provisional Government, the rest in the West;
♦ Bolsheviks seized the embassy on the area had to be closed;
♦ contacts "alternate" ambassadors with Lenin and Trotsky could no longer be carried out officially;
♦ Russia's population has received a clear and understandable signal, who favored the victorious powers (hope to overcome in a real fight with the whole world could not even the most hardened communists).
This created severe conditions for the defeat of the Reds and the victory of white. But this is just what was necessary to avoid. Especially when it was revealed persistent aggressiveness Russian generals and their reluctance to trade in the interests of their own country. After all, the creation of "health" cordon between Russia and Germany was one of the mandatory Schley British policy. To do this, created in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ukraine, Poland and Finland. Should break away from the Russian Federation and other tasty morsels: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Central Asia. Admit the supreme ruler of the Russian Federation, Admiral Kolchak separation from her all that want to separate the British, he would have for their sweeter Lenin, that so often terrible talent show organizer.
So, we made sure that the political support for Snow-white movement has not received. With the help of the military situation was even worse. First, in June 1918, Trotsky said one of the workers of the German diplomatic mission statement: "We are almost dead, and now it's up to an undertaker."
Can only be overcome by the Bolsheviks frisky organization of the Russian army. You need to hurry — Trotsky and his assistants shootings and persuasion complement the commanders of the Red Army. Soon unruly gangs threaten to transform into a disciplined force. But as long as it does not, march on Moscow promises to be easy. The Red Army will give up, run across to the side of a snow-white. The main thing — to show that the Entente support Snow-white movement, yet give little arms and equipment — and the victory is in the pocket. And expect Krasnov and Denikin help. But its still no. Since the end of frisky plainclothes war "allies" is not necessary. Nor do they need an easy victory Whites. For them the best option: a long painful struggle, which lost in the whirlwind of the fleet, the economy and the royal family. Our homeland will disappear by itself …
Nearly nine months, the most difficult first few months, "allies" Snow-white movement left alone with your own destiny! At a time when Lenin and Trotsky did not have a real fighting force, "allies" did not give any white-own troops or weapons or means. General Denikin about it reads as follows: "The main source of supply to February 1919 were captured by us Bolshevik supplies." He was echoed by Baron Wrangel: "Supplying the army was purely accidental, priemuschestvenno through the enemy." And poorly organized (so far) of Russian troops in surplus. So it is best to understand first civilian clothes armed parties to the war, it is necessary to imagine that the Reds have been adopted the whole multi-million dollar royal army, while white-only that they have seized the Reds! 'Perceived shortcomings cartridges occasionally tragic dimensions — says Denikin. — Uniforms — some old clothes …
Sanitary supplies may be considered non-existent. No drugs, no bandages, no laundry. There are only doctors who are powerless to fight the disease. " Here is a snow-white army: lousy, barefoot and without ammunition. Only when the other side has grown reddish army — went supplies of arms and ammunition. In another reddish swiftly defeated a snow-white …
But perhaps the British and French soldiers were given for the Russian guns instead of money? Can not send troops — but the money-that can give? "From allies, contrary to established opinion, we have not received a penny" — debunks the myth of General Denikin.
Further in his memoirs, Denikin draws the sad picture. Apart from the soldering received the Volunteer Army soldier currency allowances in 1918 — 30 rubles per month, officers from lieutenant to commander from 270 to 1000. A living wage for the 1st working while 660-780 rubles! But the officers and the soldier of the family, the wife and kids. They can expect a poor, hungry existence. And — not a penny from the British and French …
Let's return to the Russian North. After the Red Guards and British soldiers fought together with the Finns, the situation has slightly changed. The White Guards staged a coup, and Archangel appeared the government under the chairmanship of former narodovoltsyamy Tchaikovsky. Soon it was replaced by a military dictatorship of General Miller. But the crux of the matter does not change. The power belongs to the Russian North are not Russian, and British. And they do not rush to attack the reddish Petrograd. Their very different tasks. Chief among them — the systematic control of the liquidation of. All other current actions are dictated by the performance of this basic goal.
By August 1918 the Entente soldier in the North for more than 10 thousand. And they move on Petrograd. According to the latest as well write the history books. But to our surprise, there is a limit when the same books we read that slowly, "strangle" very young Soviet republic, develop British troops amazing agility. For two months they have moved into the Russian countryside as much as 40 km away! Moving at a snail's speed, despite the lack of resistance from the Reds. Later, and just braked. General Marushevsky, the last chief of staff of the Russian army of the Provisional Government, one of the managers of the Whites in the North, as explained this situation: "The Russian military command has been deprived of autonomy and has executed the designs union headquarters. Weight my instructions to the need for coming, especially on the Dvina and Murmansk fronts, the Allies were rejected on the grounds of scarcity and insecurity forces people sympathetic to the Bolsheviks. "
In a curious book "civilian war 1918-1921" can easily find the facts of interest to us: "… After a long lull in November 1918, the enemy (British) tried to advance along the railroad Arkhangelsk." And further: "The slowness of the initial actions of British command is allowed to gather sufficient command of Russian forces to protect Russian Northern theater"2. Slowly probing the soil, "allies" moving forward, but meeting little resistance of the Red Army, immediately stop. The motivation of such an unusual "speed" of the movement of British extraordinarily fascinating. It turns out, of success for the coming of the British commander, General bullet must have at least the last five battalions. You compare the value of these 2-values:
♦ 5 battalions (several thousand fighter);
♦ salvation of.
If you give a bullet the 5 battalions, he will take the Petrograd Bolsheviks will be broken, plainclothes distemper finish and worn Our homeland breathe freely. Unparalleled magnitude. But you probably will not be amazed to learn that neither the British nor the French command was unable to give the right of the troops. Russian military leaders who wrote the book "civilian war of 1918-1921", carefully narrate "march" of the English against Petrograd, but their story is rapidly beginning to remember a bad anecdote:
"We turned to the highest military court allies — Marshal Foch. Last consider it appropriate that the United States sent the 5 battalions of America's right to Arkhangelsk. But the U.S. government has rejected the request. So Makar, the question of sending 5 new battalions in Arkhangelsk has grown to international action … Poole stood and waited. "
Backroom agreement "allies" with the Bolsheviks led to unusual difficulties. Neither the British, nor the French have no free 5 battalions. Their armies are several million people in the court in November 1918. Global war is over, but free from all the Allied troops there for some reason. Email or no 5 battalions — decides not to anyone, and the U.S. President Wilson.
♦ The one signed in December 1913, "the Federal Reserve Act."
♦ The one that formed the Federal backup system that created the world's monopoly bucks.
Which is impossible to build until there gold ruble and gold German mark …
Will the President Wilson agree to send troops to crush the Bolsheviks those that help eliminate bolshennuyu continental empire, rich in gold ruble? They are fighting for the "world revolution", eliminate rivals Anglo-Saxons. It is not hard to guess that Wilson does not own accord. 5 battalions are not. The Bolsheviks can not worry about its own northern front …
It takes another year. Here in the second half of September 1919 "allies" is rapidly evacuated from the Russian North. Do you think that will make the Brits with numerous military supplies, piled up on the piers of the northern ports for which they Tipo and landed in Russia? Knowing the real purpose of the British, you just guess.
Before leaving the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk "allies", instead of to transmit supplies and Russian missiles, drowned all the equipment. "There have been burned or thrown into the water cars, airplanes, missiles, ammunition, fuel and a huge amount of any outfit, in other words all of what the Russian troops as needed."
"Processed in it in broad day or, at the sight of numerous spectators, leaving the funeral remembrance of me" — says a witness. After the departure of the British supply was conducted in the literal sense of the word at the bottom of the sea. Not so long ago, in the program "Time" showed a report from Arkhangelsk. The port began the recovery and liquidation of the huge amount of ammunition and ammunition lying on the days of the bay. Risking their lives, divers take out all this kind of rusted water. So here it is supplies, recessed British autumn of 1919, and not "echo" Lofty Russian war.
So what did was help the Western democracies Whites? What is the support, which is constantly read as heads of the UK. France and the U.S., and now they say modern historians? Reading the memoirs of white generals, one can see directly into the back: The Anglo-Saxons did not help. The first global war was over. The "allies" left a lot of ammunition and various military details, relevant only during the fighting. Denikin asks to transfer the property to him is useless. The answer is negative: "The French are not willing to provide us with great stores, and its South American left after the war and formed the shy stuff, do not pay off the cost of storage and overdue hasty liquidation."
Funds were not given free tools did not send. So what say the history books than did helped "allies" snow white? The answer is as simple as a sentence: nothing. "We were not a logical, if the French are very inert, but the economic affairs of France also do not communicate … This was not helping, but just barter and trade " — Says General Denikin.
The whole "union support" — it does not help in the ordinary human sense, but PURCHASE! All the supplies are bought for money or change in raw material, which is rich in our homeland. Appeared in crisp white and gold army: the summer of 1918 in Kazan, the White Guards seized half of the supplies of gold of. Later, gold was sent to Kolchak — hundreds of tons of gold, platinum, silver, jewelry, a fantastic sum of 1 billion 300 million gold rubles (in prices of 1914). By these means, even for purchase from "allies" something was very difficult.
And the whole situation was a nightmare that Kolchak and Denikin nowhere to take the gun and equipment, except as their. Trade was not a win-win. One side is always obmanyvaladruguyu. This is not about inflated prices and poor product. We are talking about a system of direct betrayal, when one party in advance of their planned action harms another. That's just one example. After the sending of one or two transports with pathetic amount of supplies ultimaticheski French government declared General Denikin knows that "Forced to suspend a military stockpiles" If we "Will not accept liability — to put on a befitting amount of wheat." It is in the midst of the fighting. Do not pay enough ammo for you I will not give. So says a Russian "union," the French government. This unblemished betrayal. But Myagenko General Denikin as softly wrote in his memoirs, speaking of France: "In the end we did not get any real help from her, neither stiff diplomatic support … no credit, no supply. "
Already, it seems, all kinds of "aid" and "assistance" we have touched. But one still forgotten. Could the "allies" assist crisp white army thoughts and ideas. Plainclothes war — and it is a struggle thinking in its purest form. Who better propaganda, that the enemy will decompose faster, so go for the vacillating and uncertain. To understand the background of defeat the Whites, you just need to read their papers, read the slogans and ideology with which the Russian Whites were in a fight. What does offer a nil return for Russian Bolshevism? Let's read. Here is the first political appeal to the Russian Volunteer Army men from the pen of General Denikin
"Volunteer Army has set itself a task of saving the Russian Federation through the creation of strong, patriotic and disciplined army and fierce fight against Bolshevism, focusing on all public-minded circle of people. Future forms of the municipal building army leaders (Generals Kornilov, Alexeyev) does not prejudge, placing them at the mercy of the will of the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, convened on the Establishment of the country's legal order. "
Let's fight the Bolsheviks, to risk their lives. For what? It is not clear. But here in Omsk was installed military dictatorship of Admiral Kolchak, who declared himself the supreme ruler of Russia. He disbanded the local talkers "Constituent Assembly" and immediately after taking power in November 1918, produced the manifesto:
"All-Russian provisional government collapsed. The Council of Ministers has the full authority and handed it to me, Alexander Kolchak. By adopting a cross that power only in heavy civilian war criteria and complete disorder of public life, I declare that I will not go either way on the reaction or on the disastrous path of partisanship. The main purpose of putting his own creation efficient army, victory over Bolshevism and the establishment of law and order, so that people could freely choose the form of government, which he pleases, and to fulfill the majestic ideas of freedom, now proclaimed throughout the world. "
What did we litsezreem? Again, go breathe for "majestic ideas of freedom, proclaimed throughout the snow", "so people could freely choose the form of government, which he likes." Someone, somewhere, we sometimes this line of Russian "militia" of a song is best characterizes the policy documents of all white-managers. It's like they are afraid to say glowing words that light up the hearts of patriots and light up eyes listless and demoralized people. As if something prevents them from utter such words. Either someone is stopping you?
"The Socialist Fatherland is in danger!" — They say the Bolsheviks, gathering workers to fight against Denikin, Kolchak and Yudenich. "For the majestic idea of freedom!" — Kolchak meets them. What is he? When the Russian people feel the whole chest this air of freedom, for which now need to breathe? In February, when the streets of St. Petersburg police officers and gendarmes were lying with a fractured skull? During the reign of Kerensky, when chaos and anarchy spilled into the streets? Never been to Russia. Russian people do not breathe the air of freedom, and therefore the white-suited slogans for the U.S. to France, but not for Russia. Specifically for this reason that the "allies and imposed them *. Therefore, there was no "triumph" Whites in the country, and was triumphant Russian power!
"If white peasant army put forward the idea of the king, we would not have stood a week" — Utter later Trotsky. The whole point of the "union" of politics — to lead the fight against the Russian Bolsheviks. To help determine the lack of monarchist slogans, preventing the emergence of thoughts of its restoration, but not to provide any assistance. Russian patriots to lead the fight to guide it to the desired channel itself. Headed to the struggle to eliminate.
As a result, almost all the memories Whites betrays confusion: for common questions farmers, for which they are at war, and that is the power of the common man snow-white, educated officers find it difficult to answer. Because of this no one knows the answer. All white against Bolsheviks. That is clear. But the what they do not know anybody …
Historians we always sang that "snow-white army" Dark War "again, we are preparing the royal throne." Lied! Neither snow-white army did not put his own official goal of restoring the monarchy.
Since then she would not have received from the "allies" nothing. At the first suspicion of "reactionary" howl raised Western newspapers, in unison with them outraged activists "democratic" opposition. After all, Russian soldiers abroad with Bolshevism are all the same person, who for half a year of rampant democracy under Kerensky was able to rapidly and well damage the country. One of the most prominent members of this cohort — Boris Bakhmetiev.
Cadet, Dr. St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, in the crematorium which burned corpse of Rasputin. In the years of the Provisional Government — Deputy Minister of Trade and Industry, April 1917, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation are salted in the United States. Since no Bolshevik, nor any other snow-white government of the Russian Federation United States did not recognize, then came a fascinating situation diplomatically. Sovereign Bakhmetiev represented Russia and the government, which has not been and never will no longer be. And not just imagined, and that the individual (!) Dispose of the assets of the Provisional Government, aimed at one time in the United States for the purchase of weapons there. Amount in Bakhmet'eva was significant — about 50 million dollars. To understand the magnitude of this amount, you can compare it with the gold of supplies in Spain, taken out of the NKVD during the Spanish civilian war in the Soviet Union: 500 million dollars.
Tremendous resources disposed of moderate sovereign Bakhmetiev. For the good of the homeland, of course. Of this amount, it is:
♦ pay interest taken by Russian loans in the United States;
♦ white-assisted governments.
The exciting thing about that, of the same funds Bakhmetiev financed the South American Expeditionary Force in. So Makar, South American fighters, so not done enough to fight the Bolsheviks and so very true helped organize the export of Russian property abroad, were in the same drink again at Russia's expense. President Wilson was for such care Bakhmet'eva very grateful, and the next leaders of the country have given Bakhmet'eva South American citizenship. The private second homeland "temporary" salting rapidly became a very rich man.
So rich that so far on the interest from his capital contained nainteresneyshy archive. His full title: Bahmetevsky archive Russian, East European history and culture. Almost — the archive of snow-white movement. This is more than 200 boxes of documents relating to Wrangel. It is almost 500 boxes of archives of the Russian Embassy in Washington. This is the personal archives of Denikin, Yudenich Miller. The whole history of the struggle for the restoration and salvation of our country. All these treasures are only a percentage of the capital of the founder. How to Alfred Nobel's his Nobel Prize. How Bakhmetiev earned a lot of money, as usual in the U.S. Dr. Colombian Institute?
We will not suspect pochetaemogo Ambassador of impropriety. Without a doubt, he has appropriated for itself a cent of those 50 million, handed out at its own discretion. When in Siberia and the Right Socialist Aksent'ev Chernov, Cadet Bakhmetiev means they give. Came to power Kolchak — finished. Is not got nothing, and General Denikin, when he led a death struggle with the Bolsheviks. But his successor, Baron Wrangel was assisted in the evacuation of troops from the Crimea. To fight Bakhmetiev funds are not allocated to its end gave. And for myself built a small little factory moderate match, which made him a millionaire. Where the funds for the construction of the enterprise? For sure, he took a loan. Interest-free and non-refundable …
The modern legend of plainclothes war even more remote from reality than their "Russian" cousins. Recall these simple inventions:
♦ in the civilian war 'allies' support of good-quality snow-white;
♦ bad Reds kept the Germans.
If debunking of the first thesis can dedicate a thick volume, the second question we touched on only in passing. Military aid and assistance tool Germany Bolsheviks actually provided. Well, sympathy German officers apparently not on the side of the Reds. Colonel Drozdowski, one of the brightest characters over a snow-white movement, first in 1918, in the midst of peace negotiations with the Bolsheviks, Germany, formed a posse and went to General Kornilov to the Don. Had to go along with the German troops, and from time to time directly by them occupied areas, "weird things at us with the Germans: accurately recognized allies, promoting, strict correctness, in clashes with the Ukrainians — always on our side, the undisputed homage … — Wrote in his diary Drozdowski. — We pay serious correctness. "
Evenly sympathy ordinary officers converted to politics. The Germans support the anti-Bolshevik Georgia and Ukraine. They begin to establish the case and the rebellious Cossacks Krasnov. This is from the "allies" will not get any rifle chieftain or the 1st bullet. Germany behaves differently. But, in general, the word itself Ataman Krasnov, "Everything lay in the army of the Don in the fragments and ruins. Ataman's Palace was the Bolsheviks so polluted that settle it immediately without repair was impossible. Churches were desecrated, destroyed many of the village. "
The Bolsheviks come to the Cossack villages are pushed to the south of the Russian Federation and the German part. Position in Russian Cossack affairs called strong obscene little word, sounding very similar to the title of the 1st fur. Reddish wave preparing to flood the village. Need to do something urgently. And here Ataman Krasnov solved by unprecedented step: immediately after his own election, May 5, 1918, he wrote a letter … Kaiser Wilhelm! Ataman decided to make contact with the head of an aggressive power. For a long step phenomenally brave.
Pay attention to date. Brest peace has long been signed. And here Krasnov offers Germans alliance against the "lucrative" for Germany, Russian authorities. Germany's response was immediate. And the positive — a day or three, May 8 in the evening, to the chieftain was the German delegation. The Germans said they had no aggressive targets are not intended and are interested in the fact that on Don restored as quickly as possible in order. Krasnov himself in one of his own speeches before the Cossacks said bluntly: "Yesterday's external enemy, the Austro-Germans, entered the Army to fight in alliance with us with gangs of Red Army, and establishing the Don complete order. Knowing the strict discipline of the German army, I am confident that we will maintain good relations until such time as the Germans would have to remain with us for a protection order, and until we do our own army, which itself will be able to safeguard the personal safety and security of every citizen, without the assistance of foreign parts . "
So whose allies were also Germans, Reds or snowy? June 5, 1918, the German authorities have reported the official recognition as a chieftain of state power. Pay attention: the "allies" until to 1920, in other words, almost three year did not recognize any One snowy government. Germany did it in one month!
Atman Nikolaevich Krasnov
Then — began "interstate" cases. Germany did not rob the Cossacks, not trying to rob them as sticky, using the moment. Germany begins to correct trade. "In the beginning dealt with the currency exchange rate. For the German mark was given 75 "Don" cents "- says Ataman Krasnov. In liberated from the Bolsheviks Rostov-on-Don was founded mixed Dono-German export commission to regulate trade issues. Don started to get sugar from Ukraine, and then had to start getting scarce, and other products from Germany itself.
The head of the Don Cossacks took the path of Lenin and was able to agree with Germany. For its broad back and he was able to rebuild and equip his Cossack army. The gun and ammunition were purchased and the Germans. Germans in occupied Ukraine were truly inexhaustible supplies of Russian weapons. His Germans and sold, and more precisely changed by the prescribed fee: one Russian rifle with 30 bullets — one peck of wheat or rye. Small tool offer is not limited to — the Red signed a contract for the supply of airplanes, guns and shells. During the first half of the month the Germans gave Don, Kuban and Volunteer Army 11651 trilinear rifle, 46 guns, 88 machine guns, 109,104 artillery shells and 11,594,721 rifle cartridge. In the Army of the Don were deported even languid gun in a parcel previously denied the Germans. In addition arsenals Krasnov increased with 100 machine guns, airplanes 9, 500 thousand rifle rounds and 10 thousand shells.
Until now I have not seen anywhere else either 1st mention of the joint military operations against the Germans and the Bolsheviks, the Whites. But well established that in the battle near the town of Red Natayskom together thrashed German troops, the Don Cossacks and the Volunteer Battalion of the Army. The Germans were smashing the Bolsheviks and without the help of others. Krasnov wrote: "The Germans themselves with considerable losses reflected a reckless attempt Bolsheviks planted on the spit and Taganrog Taganrog take. The Germans are not particularly willing to engage in battles with the Bolsheviks, but when the military situation it sought, they acted completely determined, and Don people would have been quite a measured for the band, which was occupied by German troops. The entire western border with Ukraine on Kantemirovka to the Azov Sea, extending more than 500 miles away, was not dangerous at all, and the government did not keep Don has nothing 1st fighter. "
Is it possible to talk about the fact that the Germans supported the Bolsheviks? Facts lead us to recognize that the Germans were not allies of Lenin and his comrades, and their enemies Cossacks. And where were the French, the British, the Americans? Rumors about their planting walked constantly. The voice of this is not only white officers and Cossacks, and the Red Army. Krasnov wrote about it: "The Bolsheviks knew, of course, about the events in the west, and led at the same time wide propaganda that the allies would never be of any help to Denikin, nor the Don Ataman, as the democracy of Western Europe with the Bolsheviks at the same time and will not allow , that its fighters have gone against the Bolsheviks. "
The Germans were helped in the main Cossacks. Only just because it did not prevent the Cossacks and showed no hostility German army. Assistance would be provided and the Volunteer Army of Denikin. If only … No resistance and rejection of it even General Denikin. Cossack Colonel Polyakov, who fought in the ranks of the Don Host, estimates the lost capacity as follows: "Both then and now I have no doubt that the leaders of the Volunteer Army take a different course in regard to the Germans, we would jointly by the Germans quickly managed to use the rich supplies of Ukraine and the Romanian front, in the short term to make a true army, what, move in the depths of the Russian Federation, just to cope with the Bolsheviks, who did not have time, as you know, no organized reliable power. "
But the leaders of the anti-Bolshevik forces, determined the policy of white, like blind kittens, be faithful "allies" and waited patiently for their help. They were great people, but it is very bad policy. Chance to escape the Russian Federation was, but for his own use was necessary flexibility Lenin. And to understand what exactly the "allies" of Russia are interested in its liquidation, and its "enemy" Germany can really help. But not figured out not realized …
And later came in November 1918 — and Germany was no more. From this period and tool support can be provided only by the Allies. That's where the "allies" and showed their real face. They stare at par forces look after, that white does not suddenly become stronger than the Reds. The British and French all the way to behave unpredictably: that sell, do not sell. Adjust the trickle of supplies.
Time comes Kolchak, Denikin will help you when choke Denikin, Kolchak will help. Help "allies" do not go to where it is needed at this point. Pyotr Wrangel shows: "The promised foreigners broad support was beginning to show. In Novorossiysk without annoying arrived laden with artillery and engineering equipment, uniforms and medicines steamers. Recently, the expected arrival of a huge number of airplanes and tanks. " It is precisely at this moment when Kolchak ran with acute shortage and ammunition. Since all equipment sailed to Denikin, Kolchak and not to!
Tap supply is expanded, but the flow is quite poor. "The military continued to receive supplies, although in amounts customary for missing security of our armies, but still it was the main source of their power-to-date" — this is Denikin on the same period in the second half of 1919, when the British "generously" stuff with it instead of dying Kolchak. Adjusting the supply stream was fairly common thing. Need to reduce — to delay the negotiations, read about the complexities impartial. Need to speed up the supply — do not say anything, but you're taking the necessary tool rapidly. Many of the 10's tons of gold have been focused Kolchak abroad, but deliveries were delayed response. Already in 1919, he stated: "My world — they are not interested in the development of a strong Russia … They do not need. " But the supply was all to the same bastards "allies." After all, what other vendors do not …
You try to plan a major offensive, bearing in mind such factors as incomprehensible delivery schedule guns. Maybe in September will bring "union" gun ships may in October, and one never knows — not quite bring. Or not deliver to you, and Denikin in other words not in Siberia, and the Volga. In response to your smile and utter bewilderment that-nibudt about "chaos on the Trans-Siberian Railway." And your soldiers shoot still needed. And bandage the wounded and worn-out tool change. On the other side of the trenches — reddish. Their all the warehouses of the royal army. The guns enough food requisition taken away from farmers, farmers themselves were driven into the trenches. The Red Army even worse, fed and clothed. Number of times more than you have. To wage war well in parts of the commissioners sit, who will run-shoot. Try to defeat the enemy without such permanent military supplies on enthusiasm.
But even with the Reds also have gold. After all, gold in store opponents among themselves divided almost in half. And they go the supply of arms to the Bolsheviks. Only in secret, in the backroom agreements. It is difficult to find direct evidence, circumstantial come across quite often. Dr. Sutton writes, "What data are available on the State Department that the Bolsheviks were supplied weapons and equipment. And in 1919, when Trotsky publicly advocated anti-American speeches, he immediately asked the Ambassador Francis to bring the South American military inspection teams to study the latest Russian army. "
No wonder Lenin proclaimed the control of the Red Army Trotsky seems that just a magician and illusionist. In the middle of 1919 in the Red Army had 1.5 million soldiers, at the end of 1918 — the least 400 million hungry ruined country for eight months dressed, shod, armed and fed more than a million new fighter. Where does all this equipment come from? It was bought and sold by the British, the French and the Yankees. More simply nowhere to get it: otymat and expropriate is not for anyone, and can be purchased only at the favorites in World War II.
As "allies" of white-assisted (part 2)