The main component of the nuclear shield of the Russian Federation are the strategic missile troops destination (SRF). They accounted for 375 missiles and 1,259 nuclear warheads. These forces are distributed between the 11 divisions. In service with the Strategic Missile Forces are following types of missiles: R-36MUTTH/R-36M2 (SS-18) — 58 pieces, carrying 10 nuclear warheads, UR-100NUTTKh (SS-19) — 70 pieces of carrying nuclear warheads to 6, Poplar , mobile (SS-25) — 171 pcs, 1 nuclear charge, the Topol-M silo (SS-27) — 52 pieces, Topol-M mobile (SS-27) — 18 pieces, the RS-24 mobile (yars) — 6 pc, 3 bearing on nuclear charge. More than 90% of all land-based nuclear weapons are in the minute readiness for launch.
The creation of R-36MUTTH and R-36M2 engaged CB "South" (Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine). R-36MUTTH were put on combat duty in 1979-1983, the R-36M2 in 1988-1992. These two-stage liquid-fuel missiles are capable of carrying up to 10 nuclear warheads and are the most powerful means of missile shield Russia. Plans for development of the Strategic Missile Forces imply saving on alert missiles R-36M2, provided that the term of their service will be extended to 25-30 years. They will be able to remain on duty until the year 2016-2020.
Rocket UR-100NUTTKh (SS-19) was created by NGOs Engineering (Reutov, Capital Region.). These complexes have taken up on combat duty in the years 1979-1984. These two-stage liquid-fuel missiles are capable of carrying up to six warheads. At the current time, some have been removed from service. But a number of missiles on the results of the tests will continue to remain in service a couple of years, their life has been extended to more than 30 years.
Topol (SS-25) — subterranean missile system, developed at the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology. These mobile systems supplied to arm from 1985 to 1992. Complex three-stage solid rocket carrying a nuclear warhead 1. Issue missiles produced Votkinsk Machine Building Plant, at the present time complexes begin to be decommissioned due to the expiration of the service launch. On the basis of this complex was created Topol M (SS-27) and the future development of the RS-24 (SS-X-29). Topol-M was created in 2-versions of mine, and mobile home. Mine complexes began to come into service in 1997, he entered the mobile complex of forces in 2006 and 2010 are first in the armed forces were given the first RS-24 complexes in the mobile version, received multiple warheads with 3 warheads.
As of December 2010, the Russian Navy included 12 strategic bombers belonging to 4 different types. All these strategic submarines carry 160 missiles with 576 nuclear warheads. Of them in the Northern Fleet is 6 submarines of Project 667 BDRM "Delfin" (located at the base of Gadzhievo) armed with SS-N-54 missiles carrying nuclear warheads to 4. Russian Pacific Fleet has 4 more an old submarine project 667 BDR "Squid" (village Vilyuchinsk, Kamchatka) with RSM-50 missiles carrying nuclear warheads to 3. One submarine Project 667 BDRM is being repaired, it is expected to return to service in the current year.
In addition the Navy has a submarine of Project 941 "Akula", which has been refitted to carry out tests of new missiles SS-N-56 "Bulava", other boats of this type were decommissioned due to the end of the life of the missiles. Also in the fleet is a brand new nuclear submarine of project 955 "Borey", which is to get to the weapons latest ballistic missile "Bulava", which can not pass the test program from municipalities. For this project laid by two submarines, specifically submarine of project 955 "Borey" should become the backbone of modern strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Navy.
According to experts on alert constantly Approximately 20% of strategic submarines, ie at least two submarines carrying about 100 nuclear warheads. Additional part of the submarine bases on their own is in duty with the ability to launch missiles from "wall", ie straight from the docks. Although completely without saying that in such a situation submarines are vulnerable not only to nuclear, and for ordinary weapons. In this case, lost the very meaning of creation is very similar to the fleet of expensive vehicles, the main feature of which is the highest survivability through covert placement in positions to launch rockets.
Strategic aviation of the Russian Federation
Russian strategic aviation is concentrated in the 37 Air Force and has 76 strategic bombers 2-types: the Tu-160 (13 pieces) and Tu-95MS (63 pieces), capable of carrying up to 844 long-range cruise missiles. All of these aircraft are armed with long-range cruise missiles Kh-55 and Kh-55SM (2500 and 3000 km. Respectively). These missiles entered service in 1983, is currently being performed at JSC "VMP" AVITEK "in Kirov. Missile is flying at subsonic speeds at low altitude as, rounding terrain. Created for the destruction of fundamental strategic ground targets, the coordinates of which advance known.
Strategic air base — it turboprop bombers Tu-95 MS, Tupolev developed and commercially produced from 1984 to 1991. There are two types of similar machines MS6 Tu-95 and Tu-95 MS16, the first is 6 cruise missiles in the bomb bay, the second is able to take an additional 10 missiles on pylons under the wings, which is affecting the flight range missile
Jet supersonic strategic bomber Tu-160 was also created in the Tupolev and mass production from 1984 to 1992 and in 1999 the establishment reopened in Kazan. At the current time in the ranks is 16 bombers, 13 as part of the strategic nuclear forces. Armament bombers contains 12 long-range cruise missiles X-55, located in the bomb bay.
Russian strategic aviation focused on the 2-aerodromes. 22nd Guards languid Bomber Air Division in Engels (Saratov region). Owns a 13 Tu-160 and Tu-95MS 23. In operation also comes Regiment tank
ers Il-78 stationed in Ryazan. 326 languid Bomber Division posted in the Khabarovsk Territory in Ukrainian. The division is armed with 40 Tu-95MS
Tactical nuclear weapon
We should not forget that in addition to the strategic nuclear forces is non-strategic, which we have in the country are covered zaavesyu lurking even more than the South American. According to estimates of professionals in Russia there are about 2,000 such vehicles. Unlike tactical nuclear weapons that unlike strategic it is not located on the media, and are in stock in the storage mode, and act as a carrier not special and ordinary basic standards arms. Zabugornye experts estimate the Russian arsenal of tactical nuclear warheads to 8,000 pieces.
Status and prospects
Causes why combat readiness of strategic nuclear forces:
Expiration of service 80% of intercontinental ballistic missiles in the Strategic Missile Forces.
The elimination of most of the destruction and nuclear railway missile systems.
Strategic Aviation focuses on the 2-aerodromes with separately stored warheads.
Excessive commissioning missile "Bulava", which should be the main type of weapon of strategic nuclear submarines.
Partial lack of cash cover most part of the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, which increases the mobility requirements of the nuclear triad.
Start of operation of the stations of the latest generation of missile warning in the Krasnodar Territory and the Leningrad region.
From 2006 to 2008, the orbit was deduced 4 satellite "Cosmos" series of early warning system "Eye."
All strategic nuclear submarine project 667 BDRM and some 667 BDR soon underwent secondary repair with partial substitution of modernization and missile
Resumption of the Tu-160 and its strategic aviation flights in remote areas patrolling around the world.
The commissioning of the new mobile system, curb missile RS-24 "Yars".