It all started back in the second half of the XIX century.
In 1865, the Paul Mauser retired from real military service, which he held at Ludwigsburg arsenal, where he managed to not only mastered the design features of the various types of contemporary weapons, behold their advantages and disadvantages, and understand the requirements for military weapons used in combat criteria.
After demobilization in native Paul vorachivaetsya Oberstdorf. The city in which it June 27, 1838 was born and immediately after the initial school, 12-year-old child, he went to work as an apprentice at the Württemberg royal arms factory, which already worked as a blacksmith by his father and four older brothers. It is here that he learned the first rudiments of the case, which, as will be coming in, will devote his entire life.
Vorachivaetsya to start stretching for long years difficult and thorny path of saturated searches distressing errors, encouraging findings and decisions.
Exceptionally in 1871, the light appears Rifle "Mauser" that Paul did together with his older brother William. Even in this, the very first, had become relevant to all of the following models of rotary shutter. Naturally, it had flaws. Single shot rifle did not have a kicker, and therefore Spent cartridges are removed from the receiver shooter hand. But the first attempt did not come out lumpy. Top quality Mauser 71 was proved popular series of awards shows. In Sydney (1879) and Melbourne (1880) received the award rifle. In 1881 in Stuttgart — a gold medal.
Logically, the "71st" interested in the military. She, along with Berdan rifles (Our Fatherland, 1871) and Nat (France, 1874), was one of the first 4-line "malokaliberok" with a bolt action, taken into service under the "metal" chuck. The Prussian military department has established the creation of a rifle in his arsenal in Spandau. 26 thousand copies of this model China has purchased 100 thousand ordered Wurttemberg. These orders were given to take money, so necessary for the continued improvement of the Mauser 71.
1906 Paul Mauser with a product that has immortalized his name
And about the fact that the need to improve the design, the brothers had no doubt. The booming strategy of warfare put on the agenda of the day or the increase rate of the gun. Plainclothes war in the United States (1861-1865) has demonstrated advantages in front of breech-loading magazine rifles. As a result, in 1866 the ocean occurs made Henry Winchester rifle with a rifle magazine. And if Europe has lagged behind, then not much. In 1869, Switzerland began to establish edition magazine rifle Veterli. A year later Austria-Hungary does the same thing with a rifle Fruvirta. And in 1878 and France takes on arms-Kropacheka Gras rifle with grenade store.
Work in this direction and start Mauser brothers. In 1878 they try to establish its "71st" in surrounding box rifle horseshoe shop system leve. Due to the significant growth in size gun experience is bad. In the end, followed by an attempt at the Mauser 71 podstvol'nyy shop there, and its trunk is 55 mm shorter. In September 1881, Paul and Kaiser Wilhelm show exactly this model, which has become the latest joint development.
January 13, 1882 the elder brother dies, and the latest rifle, which received the name «Gew 71/84", in the creation starts already one Paul. In addition to the already tried turning the bolt, which in abduction back next cartridge was applied to the line chambering, this model appears podstvol'nyy shop for 8 rounds and providing automatic removal of the ejector sleeve.
It seemed that the best solution is found.
No, far from it. Was charged «Gew 71/84" on one cartridge, and this time sought, which in the heat of battle could not be. This has forced the fighter to save bullets. Set apart for them in the strongest, the tipping point. As a result, the rifle and continued to be used mostly as a single shot.
Well, it was a gunsmith forward by leaps and bounds. In 1885, through the efforts of the Austro-Hungarian engineer and inventor Ferdinand Mannlicher, there was a median loading the store with burst. Successful construction immediately removed from the agenda of day or the chief defect of store guns — unhurried loading.
Almost a year a special commission under the control of Colonel Lebel in France was constructed 8-mm repeating rifle chambered for the central fire with smokeless powder and a lead bullet in a hard shell. Blinding hand smoke and thick powder fouling in the barrel left in the past. Especially filmed last barrier that prevented solve the puzzle increased rate of small guns.
All these technical innovations, in fact, is the revolutionary, Paul Mauser were taken into account in the model, known under the title "commission rifles 1888" and received the designation «Gew 88. '. This rifle was like an improved synthesis, consisting of one part of the "house" Mauzerovskogo burst speed and a removable magazine of Mannlicher. In addition to these, there was shoplifting box complete with trigger guard, and barrel, to prevent it bent, located inside the iron casing, which protects the hand from the hand burn.
But the designer is unhappy with this prototype. He was not satisfied with the system loading Mannlicher. And he continues to search.
As a result, subsequently, in 1889, Paul creates a "Belgian Mauser", which got its name by the name of the country to adopt this model. In the new system in a meaningful way as recycled shutter, and single-row store. Last equip oneself was not a pack, and out of the cage. The gate was the sliding and got ahead of the two symmetrical locking projections, will significantly increase the reliability of the design.
In 1893, the "Belgian Mauser" altered under the wafer chuck reduced to 7 mm caliber, with the result that it eclipsed by its ballistic features of all rifles since.
Mauser rifle without a single shot begins to conquer the world. Also in 1883, she was taken into service in Turkey, Spain, Chile. Subsequently, Brazil and the Transvaal.
In 1895, 12,185 rifles buys Sweden. Moreover, the plant "Carl Gustav" acquires a license, and the Swedes are beginning to self-creation. The "Swedish Mauser", known under the designation M96, in front of the gate of the shank there is a special flange that protects the shooter's eye from the propellant gases that could break back at break barrel or breaking through the capsule. In addition, the other models M96 different and more than heavy barrel that increased shooting accuracy, and trigger an upper lip, will greatly facilitate the disassembly of the shutter.
That's how, step by step, was Paul Mauser rifle to his own standard in 1898. Known Mauser 98, which combined within himself all that well, that was cr
eated by the designer for long and heavy 30 years of continuous operation.
And so — nothing unusual in the fact that the April 5, 1898 adopted the German army was adopted specifically Mauser G98. Rifle, took an active role in virtually all the wars of the first half of the XX century. Well, and how and where it was at war, I said ("What has provided the rifle Mauser 98 (Mauser G98) enormous popularity around the world? ").