It should be noted that this was the only way to save the people in the criteria of constant pressure of Persia, the Ottoman Empire and the carnivorous mountain tribes. Once in 1453, completely destroyed the Byzantine Empire, Georgia was cut off from the Christian world. In the XVI — XVIII century Georgian territory was the scene of fighting Islamic Persia and the Ottoman Empire for supremacy in the Caucasus. By the end of XVIII century the eastern Georgia was in the area of influence of Persia. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774 Kartli-Kakheti and Imereti kingdom were on the side of Russian empire against Turkey. For the war in the Caucasus Front Georgian kingdoms was sent a detachment of General Totleben. The victory of the Russian Federation over the port in 1774 has led to what has been facilitated by the position of subordinate Istanbul Georgian lands and abolished the payment of tribute to the Ottoman Sultan of the Kingdom of Imereti.
July 24, 1783 in the town of Georgiyevsk (south of modern Stavropol) signed a document, which went down in history under the name George treatise. According to it, the kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (Eastern Georgia) voluntarily came under the protection of Russia. On behalf of the Empire, Prince Paul signed the contract Potemkin, but on behalf of Georgia — Prince Ivan Bagration Mukhrani and Garsevan Chavchavadze. In January 1784 the contract was ratified and entered into force. Under this contract, the Georgian government recognize the "supreme power and patronage" of the Russian Empire, has pledged to pursue a foreign policy of Georgia provided preliminary approvals from St. Petersburg to provide mutual military assistance.
Our homeland guaranteed preservation of the territorial integrity of the possessions of Heraclius and his heirs, was fixed internal autonomy of the kingdom. In addition, the Russian side pledged to defend Georgia and at the conclusion of peace treaties with the Turks to seek the return of Kartli-Kakheti kingdom previously seized from her territories. Georgians have the right to "Free space" to enter and leave, and to settle in Russia. The agreement was a lifelong disposition.
Our homeland began to build a communication that connected her with Georgia — Georgian Military Highway. Along it was built several fortifications, including the fortress of Vladikavkaz, he was associated with the strength of Mozdok. November 15, 1783 two Russian battalions with batteries of field guns came to Tiflis. Detachment was commanded by Potemkin (relative known Potemkin). Aleksandrov Potemkin had the honor of opening the "big way" through the Great Caucasus Mountains. Under his command, the Russian fighters modernized ancient caravan routes that passed through the gorge Dariali. In the upcoming road was extended and improved.
The arrival of the Russian squad played a part — Persia gave up their own brutal plans. In 1784, the squad was taken and Russian troops retreated again for the Caucasian border line, the fortress of Vladikavkaz was razed. There is a perception that it was made at the request of Turkey (according to another version, because of separate negotiations with the Turks, Georgians). But even if this is so, follow-up showed that the Port is not going to live in the world, while maintaining the existing situation. Turkey went to war (Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791), which ended in complete victory for Russia. Action Treaty of St. George was restored.
Soon the Persians again began to threaten Georgia. The power in Persia after the long years of civil war captured Aga Mohammad Shah Qajar of Turkic tribe. He was the founder of the modern dynasty — Qajar and began proactively restore the greatness of power. Georgia, he decided to return under the authority of Persia and claimed by Heraclius to break a contract with Russia, he refused. In August 1795 a large Persian army, absorbing groups of subordinates Ganja, Erivan, Nakhchivan and other Muslim principalities, opposed the Kartli-Kakheti. September 8-11, during the three-day battle near the village of Krtsanisi on the way to Tbilisi 35 thousand Persian army defeated the 7 thousand Georgian troops. Virtually all of the Georgian army was wiped out. Georgian capital was to protect some — Persian ruler gave the city its warriors who are brutalized by the stubborn resistance and heavy losses, to be looted. I must say that Agha Mohammad Shah generally differed a great brutality, mass murder during his reign were commonplace. Most of the population of Tbilisi was broken, about 22 million women and babies stolen into slavery, the main town of the structure demolished.
It is clear that the news of the devastation of Kartli-Kakheti kingdom came to St. Petersburg for a long time. Catherine II was angry, learned about the massacre, which committed the Persians. It was an insult and a direct challenge to Russia. It was decided to strike back.
Persian campaign in 1796
Catherine claimed to cause the capital of the Caucasian head band and Kuban Corps Commander Ivan Gudovich. And was thinking hard to ask Alexander Suvorov go to the Caucasus and to punish the Persians for "crimes against Gruzintsev."
Forms the expeditionary force began to develop plans for the operation. The first commander of the troops was appointed Suvorov, but in the course of court intrigue, which was conducted last winner Catherine — Platon Zubov (he was annoyed that Suvorov is not included in the group of the corps commanders of his brothers — Valerian and Nikolai Zubov), it was removed and the commander was Valerian teeth. A squad under the command of Gudovich, which more suitable for this position — to the Persian successfully waged war a 2-Russian-Turkish wars, became the hero of the storming of Anapa, when he took a detachment of seven thousand to 15 thousand fortress garrison, sent to Tiflis.
I must say that the Persian campaign was undertaken not only to punish "non-peaceful" Persia, and had to add so-called. "Greek project". According thoughts P. Zubov, 35 th Army, ending with Iranian affairs, was to be oriented in Turkish Anatolia and advance towards the Istanbul-Konstantinoplyu. At this time, another Russian army — under the command of Alexander Suvorov was sparkling must pass the Balkan Mountains and capturing Adrianopl reach specific approaches to the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Immediately the Russian Black Sea fleet blocked the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, and was preparing to carry out a landing operation. So Makar, a subsequent attempt to Turkish anger Our homeland could once and for all solve the "Turkish question". In Petersburg were global plans to transform the Ottoman Empire — Greece and Slavic peoples were to have freedom, and there was a project to restore the Byzantine Empire, led by the Russian tsar.
On the whole trip was a success. The main forces were of Kizlyar in Dagestan, a province of Persia, Azerbaijan April 8, 1796, early May 2, Russian forces laid siege to Derbent, and on May 10 the fort was captured by storm.
Troops supported the Caspian flotilla, which is completely controlled the sea and landed in a number of places landings of the Black Sea Cossacks. Russian troops in the middle of June and immediately took to Cuba without a fight and Baku. In the middle of November, the Russian army under the command of General Zubov came to the confluence of the rivers Kura and Araks. Zubov was going to step on, take the capital and defeat the Persians in a pitched battle.
Shah of Persia wisely avoided the collision with the Russian army, besides his troubled riots in the suburbs, the danger from Turkey and Afghanistan (neighbors can enjoy the situation and strike) and the threat of court komplota. In Russian citizenship fled Derbent, Baku, Guba, Garabagh, Shemakha, Ganja khanate. With a local population were formed friendships case, the rulers and the people of Azerbaijan principalities swore RF virtually no pressure. Preserving the entire west of the Caspian Sea has been under Russian control. Militarily, the campaign was won, shahinshah handed over without a fight, one after the other area. Almost RF could only confirm the results of the campaign politically.
But the sudden death of Catherine II 6 (17) of November mixed things up. Paul began the foreign policy of the Russian Empire with a "clean slate", Zubov brothers fell out of favor. Therefore Russian Army was withdrawn, and the Transcaucasus was restored the status quo.