— Most readers still does not know what "allies" in the face of London had to deal with Stalin during the second world war and, therefore, surprised by shootings and bombings of their demonstrations in Greece;
— The smallest part of it all and knows as an example of recalls hit Britons allied French fleet in the summer of 1940.
Treacherous stab in the back.
Therefore consider it necessary to re-publish my Article 3 years ago, in which to be ashamed of this fact thoroughly versed in English history.
One of the most recognizable photographs of summer 1940 — "dancing" Hitler, rejoicing own incredible success in France. Reasons to smile from the German chancellor, and indeed was enough. But those are the facts, unlike Hitler, the leaders of England's optimism was added. In September 1939, the two superpowers declared war on Germany. It took nine and a half months, and some of them are no longer there. June 22, 1940 France surrendered.
Under the terms of the capitulation of the French had to demobilize its armed forces: the French army was no longer. But Britons are most worried about is not the army, and the French fleet. And what if the French warships are captured Germans?
The British acted decisively. "Operation Catapult" was prepared by the British in unprecedentedly rather short time and held only 11 days after the surrender of France. The piquancy of the situation lay in the fact that now the British stabbed his own ally, not an enemy. Shocking scene played out on the decks of the French ships stationed in the British port of Portsmouth, Plymouth and Devonport. French explorers, of course, did not wait for an attack by their own comrades-in-arms.
"The speech was sudden and unexpected, of necessity" (1) (here and further — links at end of article) — Churchill later wrote. All ships — two battleships, four cruisers, eight destroyers, 12 submarines and 200 minesweepers and submarine hunters — of early morning July 3, 1940 were forcibly seized by the British. The attack was so sudden that the armed resistance to the British managed to provide only the crew of the submarine "Surcouf". French crews were planted against the will to save and interned "not without violent incidents" (2). Occupied by such pirate vessels included in the naval forces of Britain …
But the main catastrophe is not played out in British ports, and parked the French fleet Oran, Mers-el-Kebir and Dakar. The afternoon of the same 3rd of July (3) in 1940 to Oran approached the British squadron under Admiral Sommervella. French admiral Zhansulyu, commander of the French fleet, the British proposed a subsequent ultimatum:
continue to fight against Germany and Italy as part of the British fleet;
- continue to fight against Germany and Italy as part of the British fleet;
- just put the court in the English ports, with all this French crews vorachivalis France, and the ships remained in British hands until the end of the war;
- translate ships in the French West Indies or flood them for 6 hours. (4)
Admiral Zhansul English ultimatum torn. This was reported to Churchill, and at 18.25 (on the eve of the expiration of the ultimatum), commander of the British squadron received final disposal of their own premiere: "The French ships must either accept our terms or drown themselves or be sunk by you until the coming of darkness." (5) However, English Admiral Sommervell to save suddenly opened fire, without waiting for the expiry of the ultimatum! At 18.00 he radioed that is fighting (6). What happened was that the French explorers did not expect: the British ships began to really shoot! It was not a fight, do not fight the sea. It was the shooting was not ready to repel the French.
"… Ships in Oran had not been able to beat. They were anchored having no ability to maneuver or dispersal … Our ships were given the opportunity to make British ships first salvos, which, as we know, the sea is crucial at this distance. French ships are not destroyed in fair fight. "(7)
Battleship "Brittany", standing in Oran, from a direct bomb hit in the powder magazines flew into the air and within a few minutes was lost in the sea abyss. The battleship "Provence" by getting languid damage, thrown on saving value; battleship "Dunkirk" in the criteria for the limited ability to maneuver tight aground. Battlecruiser "Strasbourg" with five destroyers and several submarines, although it was damaged by British torpedo aircraft, still unable to break through the English squadron to his native shores to fight.
The British Admiralty could be enough: all new French battleships were destroyed. The last of them, "Richelieu", who was in Dakar, was attacked by British torpedo aircraft from the aircraft carrier "Hermes" and very damaged. Altogether during "Operation Catapult" killed about 1,300 French (8). In response to this act of treachery, the French government, without declaring war, the United Kingdom, has broken with her diplomatic affairs.
But all the same whether the Germans could seize the French fleet? Maybe English hit by yesterday's associates was founded. The answer to this question is no. The French fleet in their own ports to be disarmed. Any documents that lead the transition or transfer of the French military ships Germans, have been signed. "… In the conditions of the armistice did not contain any direct attacks on the Germans, the French Navy" (9) — says in his memoirs, Charles de Gaulle. The only obligation that France took over — it's no longer wage war against Germany.
Only two years after the "Catapult", November 26, 1942, German troops for the first time tried to seize French Navy — when they entered Toulon (10). Hitler came to take control of the ships of France? No, who was it French fleet on the orders of the Vichy government was flooded.
At the bottom right: 3 battleships, 8 cruisers, 17 destroyers, 16 destroyers, 16 submarines, patrol 7, 3 patrol vessels, 60 transports, minesweepers and tugs (11). As we see, the French hand did not tremble. Why? Since they have never been German dolls, and its fleet is not going to give any Germans or the British. And the other day a tricky British "Operation Catapult" ensure that the warships for any scenario in the hands of the Germans do not fall, Churchill gave France …
But the story, as you know, write your favorites. Now the treacherous blow for Britain with his French allies did not actually write. And if they mention, the accents are arranged like this: it was a forced act, there was no choice.
And it's not the greatest heresy, composed of the Anglo-Saxons second world war (details in the book "Who poruha forced Hitler to Stalin?")
Photos of the Wehrmacht magazine "Signal» (Hitlers wartime picture magazine, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976):
Agony battleship "Brittany"
(1) Winston Churchill. "The second Global war"P. 406
(2) Charles de Gaulle airport. Military memories. Call 1940-1942., M: AST, 2003. s. 110
(3) A blow to British-French fleet was applied simultaneously in all the ports on another surprise would have been lost — a pledge of destruction of the ships.
(4) K. Pullman. Ark Royal./1-ye volleys the British fleet. Moscow: AST, 2004, p. 531
(5) Ibid, p. 531
(6) Ibid. 532
(7) Charles de Gaulle airport. Military memories. Call 1940-1942. Moscow: AST, 2003. s. 321
(8) A. Taylor. 2nd Global war/ Second global war: two eye. M. .. 1994, p. 421
(9) Charles de Gaulle airport. Military memories. Call 1940-1942., Moscow, 2003, p. 111
(10) Shortly before the British and the Americans put him in Algiers, ie on the African countryside of France. After a stubborn resistance to the Anglo-Saxons French Admiral Darlan defected to their side. Because Germany was obliged to occupy the area remaining "free" of France in order to avoid probable landing there Britons and Yankees.
(11) Charles de Gaulle airport. Military memories. Unity. 1942 -1944. Moscow: AST, 2003. s. 59