70 years ago, Hitler signed the directive number 21, which is a plan of instant destruction of the USSR
December 18, 1940 at the headquarters of the German Fuhrer civilization and the supreme commander of the Wehrmacht was approved so called "Operation Barbarossa" (Directive number 21). This document is for the first time officially identified puzzle the German attack on the Soviet Union and its complete destruction as a country. Provided for immediate defeat of the main forces of the Red Army west of the Dnieper and the Western Dvina, in the upcoming planned to capture Moscow, Leningrad and the Donbass with the following output on the line Arkhangelsk — Volga — Astrakhan. All of this was given 2-3 months (so called strategy of "blitzkrieg").
Europe under the banner of Hitler
The decision about the war with the Soviet Union and the overall plan for future campaigns orally was announced soon after Hitler's victory over France — in a meeting with top military July 31, 1940. Halder zakonspektirovat Hitler speech, and as such it has been preserved in the archives:
"Hope UK — Our homeland and America. If the fall of hope for Russia, the United States also will disappear from the UK because the defeat of the Russian Federation will have the effect of strengthening the indescribable land of the rising sun in the East Asia …
If our home is destroyed, the UK will lose all hope. Then dominate in Europe and in the Balkans will be Germany.
Conclusion: Our home must be eliminated. Term — Spring 1941.
The sooner we break Russia, the better. The operation would only make sense in this case, if we are one swift stroke smash all the government completely. Only capture a part of the country is not enough.
Stop unsafe actions in the winter. Therefore it is better to wait, but to make a firm decision to kill the Russian. Start [campaign] — May 1941. It would be better to start later this year, but it did not work because it would need to perform an operation in one fell swoop. The goal — the actual liquidation Russian forces. "
Now, many wonder, as Germany with a population of 80 million people could put the puzzle in front of him to conquer Soviet Russia with 197 million inhabitants? Must take into account the fact that Hitler had hardly dared to poruha the Soviet Union, if not delivered to the machines under the gun and in fact the whole of Europe.
President of the Academy of Military Sciences, Army General Gareyev so evaluates this situation:
— During the war we waged a war against the whole of Europe. Three hundred and fifty million people, regardless of whether they fought with weapons in their hands, or standing at the machine tool, an instrument for the Wehrmacht, were of a piece. During the second world war killed 20 thousand members of the French Resistance. And we fought against two thousand Frenchmen. We also captured sixty thousand Poles. For Hitler against the Soviet Union fought two million European volunteers.
The text of the directive number 21 perfectly illustrates this: "In the war against Russia on the Russian flank our front we can count on the active role of Romania and Finland.
Supreme command of the armed forces in the respective time to agree to have the form in which the armed forces of the two countries when they join the war will be subject to German command. Romania's task will be to be to support the coming of the choicest troops of the southern flank of the German forces at least a first operation to pin down the enemy where there is no will to act German forces, and the rest to carry auxiliary service in the rear areas. Finland should cover the concentration and deployment of a separate German Army Group North (part of the 21st Army), followed from Norway. The Finnish army will act together to fight these forces. In addition, Finland is responsible for the capture of the Hanko Peninsula, "etc.
One can not napomnitt that before the war with the Soviet Union, Hitler appealed to the Europeans with a call for a crusade against Bolshevism. Oh, so it responded (June — okryabr 1941, in what is not considered large contingents of Italy, Hungary, Romania and other allies of Hitler.) Of the Spanish volunteers (18,000 people) in the Wehrmacht was formed 250th Infantry Division. Of the French volunteers (approximately 3,000) was formed 638 th Infantry Regiment. Of Belgians in July 1941, was formed Valonsky 373rd battalion (about 850 men), sent messages to the submission of the 97th Infantry Division of the 17th Army Wehrmacht. From Croatian volunteers were formed 369th Infantry Regiment of the Wehrmacht and the Croatian legion in the Italian troops. Approximately 2,000 Swedes enlisted in Finland. Of these about 850 people took part in the fighting at Hanko in the Swedish voluntary battalion. By the end of June 1941 294 Norwegians have served in the regiment of the SS "Nordland." After the outbreak of war with the Soviet Union in Norway was made voluntary legion of "Norway" (1200). After taking the oath to Hitler, he was sent near Leningrad. By the end of June 1941 in the SS Division "Viking" was 216 Danes. After the outbreak of war with the Soviet Union began to form a Danish "Volunteer Corps".
Home of aiding fascism are our Polish comrades. What is striking is that even the most serious observer of the Aryan gene pool Himmler authorized forms the Polish division of the SS.
So makarom for translating Hitler's plan "Barbarossa" actually began the whole of Europe.
The failed "blitzkrieg"
Of early afternoon at 4 pm June 22, 1941 began the German invasion of the USSR. On the same day the Soviet Union declared war on Italy (Italian forces began military actions since July 20, 1941), and Romania, June 23 — Slovakia on June 27 — Hungary. The German invasion of Russian troops caught by surprise in the first day was also destroyed a significant portion of ammunition, fuel and military equipment, the Germans managed to secure full control of the air (put out of about 1,200 aircraft).
Summing up the results of the first phase of "Operation Barbarossa", 3 July 1941 Chief of the German General Staff F. Halder wrote in his diary: "In general, we can say that the task defeat of the main forces of the Russian land forces to the Western Dvina and Dnepr made … So do not be exaggeration to say that the campaign against Russia won in 14 days. "
In general, during the first week of fighting German troops advanced on the 300 — 600 km deep into the Russian countryside and occupied Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and the right-bank Moldova practically all. German coming was suspended only in the Smolensk region, where Russian troops defense held from July 16 to August 15. Smolensk battle has brought a temporary but very significant delay in the implementation of the plan "lightning war" in the central sector of the front. Russian command has been able to expand the approach from the deepest part of the rear, with a view to strengthening the first lines of defense of Moscow.
Coming Fascist become bogged down. The same Halder on the 50th day of the war wrote in his diary: "The overall situation indicates more evident and clear that the giant Our homeland, the preparation of which was related to the war with all the difficulties characteristic of countries, which include different ethnic groups, has been underestimated us . This statement applies to all business and organizational side, on the means of communication, and in particular on the purely military aspects. "
September 24th commander of Army Group "Center" has approved the plan of operation "Typhoon" — Advent, which should have ended by storm and capture of Moscow. To carry out this operation von Bock features 75 divisions and about 1,500 aircraft. The first line of defense Russian was broken between Rzhev and Viaz'ma October 5, for the next day fell Bryansk. Promotion not mtsev for a number of days delayed the second line of defense under Borodino — during this time to Moscow from the reserve were rushed Siberian divisions. October 10th commander of the Western Front was appointed Zhukov. Resumed on November 16 the German attack is often opposed by the population, young and old, to rise up against the invaders. The actions of the guerrillas was disrupted delivery of the desired amount of equipment and winter clothes. The result of the operation
"Typhoon" was full and very heavy (160 thousand dead, the wounded and taken prisoner by the Nazis) of its failure on December 5 Russian troops defected to the offensive, with an emphasis on the freshest reserves and new formations made in September Guard units. On some parts of the front advancement have gained only 120 km in December. Battle for Moscow meant failure and end of the "blitzkrieg", Germany realized that to be a war of attrition.
The German generals then all cut down on the cold, in some ways blame Hitler and intelligence. However, they agreed that a serious miscalculation was in underestimating the mobilization capacity of the USSR. By the third month of the war was expected meet at least 40 new divisions of the Red Army. In fact Russian control only sent to the front in the summer of 324 divisions (including previously deployed 222 divisions), in other words, at this point the Germans really much mistaken. But the main fault, as many of our historians to underestimate the strength of the Russian spirit, the friendship of the peoples of the USSR and the advantages of a planned economy.
It's time to learn
What is striking is that the lesson of "Barbarossa" far not all so far removed in the West. Not much that plans to conquer the Russian Federation do not go day or agenda and now, in some countries, then fought under the banner of the Nazi Fuhrer, do not get tired to associate Stalin with Hitler and grieve because Nazi "blitzkrieg" has failed. And if they give themselves to report that to happen to Europe if our home could not stand the pressure fashiststkoy Germany and its satellites in 1941? I asked to give their outlook about the president of the Academy of Geopolitical problems, Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov:
— First, I wish to make of mandatory slip of the tongue: the story does not tolerate the subjunctive mood — what happened, what was to happen. Nazi ideology was actually repugnant to all the nations of the world, threatened their livelihood, preserve national identity, because our victory was legitimate and historically programmed. About our probable loss can be read only hypothetically and with a little bit of a big convention. The military victory of Hitler would be a Pyrrhic victory for sure. The war will not be ended, and ran across a few other forms, everywhere would act partisans, militia, underground. Neither people of the world would accept. Let's remember, the resistance grows stronger infancy and not only in the occupied territories, and in the satellite countries. Take the same Bulgaria, where the ruler Boris went into the service of the occupiers — there rose a popular uprising. In Germany itself has always been internally underground, and even the opposition in a general environment. Well, the anti-Hitler coalition would never lay under Hitler, not to mention the Soviet Union. Even if the Nazis came to the Urals, the government moved to Siberia. There would be formed militias Division. We would get separated in time and delayed the war victory.
— What did the Nazis intends to do with Russian and other peoples of the Russian Union after the victory, "blitzkrieg"?
— By fascist guidance documents on the ground of "four municipalities" — Baltic States, Russia, the Ukraine and the Caucasus planned to throw 56 divisions. Rate "Chief troops in the East" was planned to place in Moscow. Russian territory subject to occupation right up to the Urals. Industry of the Urals had to be destroyed as a result of a "large motorized expedition" forces of eight armored and motorized divisions 4. Place between the Volga and the Ural Mountains dot the concentration camps.
The extent and content of the planned Nazi control actions on "development of the Eastern Space" shows "General Plan East" — perhaps the most savage plan of the twentieth century, persecuted the complete genocide of the Russian people. Development began in his office, along with East Himmler Rosenberg Ministry in 1940, even before drafting the directive number 21, and continued the attack on the Russian alliance. The main purpose of the plan was formulated as follows: "It is not only the defeat of the country to the city center in Moscow. For us Germans, fundamentally weaken the Russian people to such an extent that he was no longer able to prevent us establish German domination in Europe. "
— What would be waiting for the rest of the world?
— Map of the world would be brown. In accordance with the Nazi hierarchy rooted in Europe, we have seen a few tame pro-fascist regimes. For other States planned such "differential" approach: in Western Europe the main principle of conquest — "Germanization" for Eastern Europe, the oil regions of South-East Asia — the "colonization" of the Russian Federation for the Central, Volga, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia "depopulation." About how to implement the "Germanization" of Western European states told the Nuremberg trials representative of the prosecuting sovereign Faure of France: "The Germans sought to eliminate any elements of the French spirit. First, they forbade the maximum rudely use the French language … Even the inscriptions on the gravestones had to be drawn up only in the German language … After interdict French National Socialists took up music. The decree of March 1, 1941 said: "Musical works that are in contradiction with the cultural aspirations of the national — socialist included in the list of unnecessary and harmful." And yet the Germans in Western Europe, according to their standards they conducted themselves "civilized." But in moving to the East, they guided the development of Hitler invented "depopulation." Back in 1940 been told about her words in the book Hitler Rauschning, located in New York: &
quot;We have to develop the technique of depopulation, by which I mean the elimination of entire racial units." The first on the list to eliminate Hitler put the Jews, Russian, Gypsy.
Himmler at a meeting in October 1943, put it: "The question of whether this flourishing civilization or perish of hunger interests me only in so far as the members of this civilization are necessary to us as slaves for the rest of their fate is of no interest."
Legalized slavery — another invention of Himmler. In his own speech, November 9, 1941, Hitler said: "The population of the territory, which at the present time is on our side, is the equivalent 350 million people, and the population of the territories, which indirectly serves our interests, equivalent to 50 million people. As for the measures taken in the area where we are right, we will be able to harness the work on us the entire population to the last man. " In this case, it was about people who are staying at home, had to work hard for the benefit of the Reich. But there were also the least fortunate, who took them to Germany for slave labor, forever forgotten how to families. According to recent data, the figure was more than 20 million of the 30 states. Of them survived only 8 million.
— What plans have been Hitler against the U.S.?
— In the directive number 32, developing a plan "Barbarossa", posed little problem: "After the defeat of the armed forces of Russia, Germany and Italy will dominate militarily throughout the European continent … any danger from the land for a European country will no longer exist. The main effort in military production may be focused on providing naval and air forces. So Makar, the center of mass of the war carried on the struggle against Great Britain and the United States. " It is interesting to note that Hitler's own "The second book," written in 1928 and published in Germany only in 1961, wrote about the inevitability of the struggle between the United States and Europe, which will have to lead the Germans. He dreamed of a "turn the United States into the German world empire."
July 25, 1941, a little more than a month after the start of "Operation Barbarossa", Hitler had a meeting with the commander of the Navy Raeder said that after the end of the campaign in the East he was "going to make a vigorous offense against the United States." In the autumn of 1941 it was planned to start bombing of American cities eastern United States. For this exercise was planned Azores and supporting Fri on the west coast of Africa, Iceland and even in Brazil.
— In the state of Germany would have been, even with the help of satellites, to monitor the area is so big?
— The theory of world domination, transformation of the planet into a large concentration camp under the control of elected Nations — an impossible absurdity. Unfortunately, we still hear this concept as one of the more affordable options for the future. You can not keep such a huge education as Europe, our homeland, China, the Islamic world, India, with the help of police forces. It means to drive all the concentration camps, to protect all areas where life is still warm, stitching wire, put the tower and constantly reproduce millions of guards. It is unlikely that such an ugly empire could survive for a long time, but a few decades, perhaps, would have held out, but she would later buried under a whole civilization.