Survival process requires great strength of will, the very zeal to survive, to stay alive, which in itself implies the existence and manifestation in most, and least creative possibilities of man.
There are a huge number of different views on how to realize that under the creative possibilities of man. But one thing all agree: the imagination, the imagination — the relevant features of all the creative possibilities.
Fantasia — the only person's ability to help him resist the Reason "common sense", which is often armed with only reason: it can not be because it can never be.
On how humans developed imagination, is usually judged by its ability to offer unusual and unique ideas. You all know very well how hard it is to think of something nibudt truly exciting and new. It turns out, obey in all things … a habit, we are very well present themselves for long been familiar objects, their normal size and weight, remember where and how they are typically used. These "frozen" notions of familiar objects are named in the science of mental inertia. Like any inertia, it pushes us towards the most ordinary, trivial solutions.
Let us recall an old tale. In the highest stone tower languishing princess. Having overcome all obstacles to the foot of the tower got a brave guy. But salvation is too early to rejoice: the tower has no doors. As a young man to get to the window of the princess and give her a rope ladder?
What will change in our lives, when suddenly lost paper or glass, if time will stop all the clocks? Rather "take away" buttons, zippers and laces, and our appearance will change immediately. You can "take away" technology system — the car — and get traffic without cars, or any subsystem, say the wheel (the car without wheels), or transport subsystem (imagine a world without transport!).
Such prodigious subtraction gives an opportunity to identify the hidden characteristics of the remaining items and use them instead of the ones you have deducted. In Robinson Crusoe, thrown on a desert peninsula, leaving only items salvaged from a dead ship: gun, tools, a few pips. Robinson survived all the same on the peninsula. And if you take away all the general, not counting any of the 1st item?
Imagine a modern Robinson Crusoe, who was in a ship with a cargo of hats. Further, all, like Defoe: storm, crash, rescue raschudesno — big waves thrown at only saves up a lot of hats, panama, caps, hats, ushanok. What to do? After all, he needs food, shelter, utensils, clothes, weapon — all the things that we took away furiously. But Robinson is not discouraged. Comes to the aid of experience, creative activity and, eventually, a fantasy. No shovels? But there is a helmet, which you can dig. No ropes? He pulls the strings of ushanok. Robinson fills the earth cartons hats and builds them a good home. With the savory straw hat he lures into a pit dug helmet, feral goat, and then tame it.
Robinson can be used not only for yourself caps, and their parts, visor caps can serve as a spoon or a knife, and knitted hats can be dissolved by a thread and tie all of their clothes. Or another hat: flying helmet. It has glass all the characteristics of which are ingenious Robinson can use. Glass clear — that the windows in the house, sharp glass — there were a knife and a razor.
Robinson, armed with a "way of Robinson Crusoe," perhaps would be in a more fortunate position than his literary predecessor.
Without a consideration of items on the basis of their beliefs different parameters generally not feasible creative approach to solving problems of life in extreme conditions. The main thing to keep in mind that the objects around us is nestled huge amount of unused parameters and capabilities.
If any, had been found by the method of Robinson, hidden property ordinary object considered as a prime characteristics, the role of the subject in the world around us will change very much. In the story A.Azimova "Lost in Vesta" characters come to Force Majeure: surviving fragment gallakticheskogo ship is nearby asteroid saving, but in order to move from the orbit of the satellite, it is necessary to have a certain engine. It has great characters in store food and a large tank with drinking water, but the air will last only three days. It would seem that the characters are condemned to death, but not for nothing that they say is a must — mother of the invention.
One of the characters by analyzing the hidden features available to them subjects remembered that the jet of water can then push-nibudt. He made a hole in one wall of the tank, and a water rocket engine quietly began to push the ship to the cherished piece of Vesta.
In this fantasy is nothing exaggerated. Even modern astronauts, before take off into space, pass a bumpy ride on the trails and thickets of survival. Modern man, regardless of the route of planned action and movement in the earth and ethereal space, time and geographic location, must be prepared to act in an emergency, without regard to the external world, when you can and should rely only on themselves. For a man who is in an extreme situation due to unexpected events, such as the tragedy of the plane wreck, the process of survival is, in the main, a mental issue, and the most important factor in this case is, of course, the desire to survive. Regardless of whether there was a spy or as a group, it can, and probably should appear sensible reasons — because of the experience of horror, despair, loneliness and boredom. Apart from these psychological reasons, the desire to survive affect the risk of injury, pain, fatigue, hunger and thirst, and, eventually, apathy.
A man's life has always been associated with threats. It is no accident our distant ancestors, making the first steps on the path of evolution, were trained to use the stone not only as an instrument of labor, and as a tool.
The struggle for existence, forced people by hook or by crook, to cling to life, even how to adjust to adversity, like heavy as they are, feel free to go to meet the dangers. Eagerness to perform seemingly impracticable pervading the history of mankind, helping to realize exorbitant efforts of people in different parts of the world in order to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions. Man has always had the ability to adapt to the natural and built environments — from prehistoric hunters to gallakticheskih travelers end of the century, by mobilizing all their physical and mental abilities.
Specifically for military intelligence and special forces, whose life is constantly linked with the threats very principled preparatory training, both physical and mental. Though what the soldier, regardless of profession, leaving the distant route, you absolutely must go the full course of preparatory adaptation, as a result of which his body is uniformly absent from the previously acquired resistance to certain environmental factors and therefore Makar, an opportunity to complete adaptability to the conditions of the future implementation of the combat area .
Most of the people and animals, being in extreme situations, of which there is no escape, not die, and get that either some degree of adaptation to them and preserve their lives to the best times. Such stressful situations — long periods of hunger, cold, natural disasters, interspe
cific and intraspecific conflict — always extensively represented in the natural habitat of animals.
In the social environment of human acts is the same scheme. During the comparable non-long segment of the world's population own stories passed through periods of slavery, serfdom, global wars, but all this is not degraded, demonstrating the high efficiency of adaptation to extreme situations. Naturally, the cost of such adaptation unreasonably high, but these are indisputable facts will inevitably lead to the conclusion that the organism must possess reasonably effective special mechanisms limiting the stress response and preventive stress damage and, most importantly, allow to save the life and health.
In general, all of this fits perfectly with the well-known prosaic observation — people who have passed through the terrible current tests, receive a certain resistance to damaging environmental factors, ie, zhiznennoustoychivy at least some extreme situations.
Natural environment that surrounds us makes additional demands measures to ensure the survival of life and personnel. Reconnaissance commando force in any event probably will be far from supply bases in the criteria of the impact of different and often negative (destabilizing) territorial — geographical and climatic test region.
In connection with this very crucial to give the requirements to ensure the reliability of bio-intelligence officer in SWAT, which provide for an exception during execution of combat tasks bio failure (failure of the body) and a heck of errors in its consequences (loss of combat effectiveness due to incorrect actions). Such requirements are developed on the basis of the analysis of the functioning of people in the criteria for full autonomy with the respective councils of modern physiology, psychology, special medicine.
Let's make out the purpose and main objectives of livelihoods. Special living facilities are designed to ensure that the scouts special forces operating in different, including extreme natural conditions.
Life support units and agencies as Special Ops Forces, including intelligence groups for specific purposes is a difficult set of measures to:
— maintain high morale and physical condition;
— the correct orientation on the different areas;
— overcoming natural and man-made obstacles;
— timely and skilled self-help and mutual aid;
— provide food, including with the introduction of nutritional parameters of various plants, extraction and consumption of meat eating feral animals, birds and fish;
— potable water supply, including produced on-site. The successful solution of the problems that arise in extreme situations, autonomous existence in almost everything is dependent on the physical and mental training of the personnel, the knowledge of their physical and geographical features of the region, the right software and solutions biomedical issues.
In this regard, the main task to be solved by specific means of life support — life support units and agencies as Special Ops Forces, including intelligence groups for specific purposes by their presence in the different natural conditions, is divided into a number of personal or special tasks for the scout (SWAT)
1. Puzzles increase (improve) the physical state:
— providing accelerated training muscle groups in order to increase performance and durability for long physical activity;
— provision accelerated recovery performance after exposure to physical and sensual (psychological) load average and overpriced intensity;
— pain relief for bruises, injuries, wounds and other injuries Myagenko and hard tissues of the human body.
2. Puzzles increase (improvement, psychological state:
— ensuring the highest level of mental preparation;
— strengthening the will, vigor;
— working hours of anger management skills possession of ways;
— providing frisky output of the human body of a shock state (in the case of excess external influence of pain or psychological barrier).
3. Puzzles provide the highest level of field training:
— Education of personnel actions in extreme
criteria of autonomous existence, including overcome aqua-bottlenecking, mountain slopes, glaciers, rock faces, ridges, desert and semi-desert terrain, taiga, tropical undergrowth (depending on region), organization of camps and bivouacs;
— elimination of the consequences (exit) extreme events, such as the failure of the water or crack in the ice, an unexpected natural climate forcing, the bitter cold, wind, heat, hail, rain, dust storm, storm, etc.).
4. Puzzles provide food and drinking water:
— provision wearable with supplies of goods and supply of drinking water;
— provision of food and drinking water from local sources;
— to safeguard the frisky food manufacturers in the form of hot and watery;
— the introduction of food plants.
5. Puzzles of life support in the criteria uncomfortable effects of the external environment;
— the protection of the human body and its parts from the effects of low and too high temperature, water (rain, snow), direct sunlight, reflected sunlight in snowy areas, etc.;
— to protect against blood-sucking insects (gnats, midges, mosquitoes, flies, ticks, etc.).
6. Puzzles support navigation and orientation (scouts on the ground.
7. Puzzles communication and alarm systems.
8. Puzzles successful solution of medical and environmental problems:
— the provision of the first (pre-medical) self-help for wounds, injuries, bruises, cold and high temperature (burn) injuries, food poisoning, toxic substances of animal and vegetable origin, bites of poisonous animals and insects, or the occurrence of respiratory and parasitic infectious diseases;
— implementation of sanitation procedures;
— eliminating manifestations of psychic abilities incompatibility between people and related incidents.
The solution of the problems considered should be done with the help of special means of life support that may be included in the composition of own funds following groups:
1. Mechanical and electro-mechanical simulators. These tools typically provide a solution to the problems of increase of the physical condition of the people, the development of strength, endurance, flexibility, coordination, develop special abilities.
2. Technical means of medical and biological (physiological) destination. This class of tools includes:
— Electrical nerve stimulators for preparatory training muscle groups in order to increase endurance and stamina for long physical stress, relieve lethargy and "cupping" feeling the pain of wounds, bruises, fractures and other injuries, pain and neurological type;
— automatic and automatic multi-function device definition of the human condition, which can be used to determine the need for the introduction and the type of used electrical stimulation, also for the motivated selection of scouts (special forces) to address specific problems in certain conditions;
— electrical stimulators type of training that allow an accelerated ability to develop specific actions.
3. Means equipment, including pants and jackets of various types and purpose, camouflage coveralls and overalls, underwear for different geographical zones and weather and time of year, shoes, socks, gloves, hats, belts, jackets.
These tools can also include duffel bags, school bags, mosquito nets, tents, capes, camouflage nets, sleeping bags, mattresses (bedding), hammocks.
4. Food in the form of wearable supplies (rations rations).
5. Special arrangements for carrying supplies of water, filtering and cl
eaning water from local water sources for a fire in a specific criteria (at low temperatures, excessive atmospheric pressure, excessive humidity, high winds, etc.), for the manufacture of a frisky food supplies and wearable products of local fauna and flora, including with culinary processing (roasting, steaming, drying, drying), for catching animals and fish, for verbovaniya fish and birds to the fishing location).
6. Special tools in the form of saber saws for metal, wood, ratfiley different profile, different drill bit diameter, hatchets and knives, blades, electronic lamps of different types.
7. Medicines (pharmacology of chemical substances). Technical means of signaling, including various types of lighting and signal flares, mixed signal cartridges, lights flashing beacons.
9. Technical means of navigation and orientation, including compasses, theodolites (or compass), a temperature, barometers, radio navigation aids and orientation of objects. And yet, how to behave in extreme situations? A typical directory can serve as the English word "Survival" ("Survival"), which contains tips, which must adhere to the person who has fallen into an extreme situation, in a subsequent order:
S — (Size up the situation) — assess the situation, identify threats, to find the way out of a hopeless situation;
U — (Undue haste makes waste) — undue haste hurts, but the decisions to be taken quickly;
I — (Remember where you are) — remember where you are, determine their whereabouts (point of standing);
V — (Vanquish fear and panic) — exactions terror and panic, constantly control yourself, be assertive;
i — (Improvise) — improvise, be creative;
V — (Value living) — More expensive means of subsistence, to realistically assess the limits of their own abilities;
A — (Act like the natives) — act like a local inhabitant, be able to judge people;
L — (Learn basic skills) — learn to do everything myself, try to be independent and beyond.
Nature, with all its disasters, sudden displays of strength and power, climatic events, "whims" and other natural "quirks" was and is threatening at all times.
Any access to the full nature of the problems and risks, because the preparatory required special training, knowledge of the techniques of orientation and relevant equipment. The manifestation of levity and disdain for the organization, the choice of itinerary, gear, knowledge of orientation leads to expensive retribution.
For Scouts (Special Forces), located in different regions of the country, the planet, orientation is one of the fundamental criterion of life support and a good contribution goals.
Orienteering can take place on a map, compass, celestial bodies, also featured on various local and subjects.
Orienteering map and compass is not much difficulty. But intelligence units and agencies, groups, special purpose will be possible in the criteria when the knowledge of nature, the ability to retrieve the desired direction, to predict the weather configuration are crucial when there is no map, no compass. Because in preparation for the implementation of tasks you need to pay attention to inculcate hard abilities major techniques, rules and methods of orienteering without a map and compass.
The setting is often asked by the scouts (special forces) the ability to make a substantial distance marches on, just navigate and quickly move on very different areas at any time of the year, with sharp configurations weather criterion as the ability to overcome obstacles along the way.
Route traffic because at one point appeared events may vary substantially or deviate from the previously planned. Then will need to make the necessary adjustments to the route and just go to the designated area (point). All this can be achieved only by regular workouts and gain experience.
Important will be the ability to read the signs. Correctly read the traces left by man, animals or different means of transportation — it was first found, at which time the traces were left, how many passed man or transport units and in which direction. This difficult task is complicated by the fact that the tracks must be read quickly, because from time to time to time reading the following detailed simply will not. When reading the following should be the maximum concentration, the ability to distinguish the false from the real traces. Ability to read the signs must be done by his own stubborn occupation of attention and visual acuity in daily life.
I spy (SWAT), which has an art ranger, usually stronger than developed powers of observation, visual memory, it is faster and better versed in the other environment, faster accepts their environment, better versed in the complex phenomena of nature, because we will consider the methods of orientation, in what used simple instruments and supporting the unusual, the different signs of intelligence,
methods and techniques of movement and overcoming obstacles; sledopytstva base.
We will be given national units of measurement of certain states, as different tests (verbal, numerical, visual-spatial) for the training of the reaction, observation and ingenuity. Since a huge part of life in the communities we spend Fri, we will undergo review questions of survival in the urban criteria and in bodies of water. Expanses of sea and river, water — have always attracted people. But man sometimes forgets that both tender and gentle is the sea, a river (water), so they are ruthless to the people who are disrespectful to them.
Knowledge, skills and ability to survive in extreme conditions in different environments physiographic regions of the world have the first practical application to ensuring the successful implementation of the scout (riot policemen) combat tasks and maintain their combat capability. Together with those questions of survival in extreme conditions are also crucial for pre-conscription and enlistment of young people, preparing for the defense of the Fatherland, and service in the Armed Forces and, including Special Forces — in elite units and bodies.
The practice of survival in extreme situations burning for all people without exception of the Russian Federation and the planet Earth.
The literature devoted to the dilemmas of survival in extreme situations, quite large enough, but it is scattered or unavailable special editions (for example, instructions on the use of combat troops), or in the articles of the various fields, and to choose from there is most needed — a complex Problem.