Now is the time to remember the first serious conflict in the bosom of the medieval "party of power". The resultant conflict apical plainclothes war is not permitted to develop the success of the Battle of Kulikovo.
Testament Dmitry Donskoy
The disaster in Russian history — many national favorites went out of life, when their successors were young and inexperienced. And so the early departure of another prince in another world became the forerunner of impermanence and loss position, as it were conquered by the Metropolitan Rus. So it was with a folk hero, Prince Dmitry Ivanovich, who during his life had not learned that nicknamed Don. Then it bore the honorary title of Vladimir Serpukhov, who commanded a regiment in ambush Kulikovo.
Basil I and Sophia Vitovtovna.
International situation at the time was very controversial. Moscow was burned Tokhtamysh, the eldest son, Dmitry — Vasily (Future Vasily first) was a hostage in the Horde. But specifically, this event has set the new is not always a straight vector of our stories. The fact that escaped three years later Basil from the Horde, torn by internal divisions, through Lithuania. Where Duke Vytautas, whose domain extended from the Black Sea to the Baltic, and included a large part of today's Ukraine and Belarus (note that while similar countries was not), could hoops with far-reaching goals of Basil with his daughter Sophia, is fluent in Russian, as all in the then Lithuania, and also the Orthodox. Specifically, Sophia had to play the role of Russia Marie de Medici.
And the thing is that in his will, Don, passing Vladimir table Basil, pointed out that, in the event of the death of the older son, the authorities in Moscow had to move to another offspring — Yuri. Paragraph quite weird, because just married Basil, apparently, was not going to remain childless. But specifically as possible childlessness Basil some historians explain such forethought his stately father.
Whether long-term, not whether, but Vasily soon in the tradition of the era of large families became pope. However, three of his first son died in early childhood, and only in 1415, 24 years after the wedding came to light entirely on the physical level zhiznestoyky Basil.
Sophia also maintained a tight fit due to the Pope, often bumping him with her granddaughters and grandson. In addition, she is stronger than self-willed wife sucked into the zone of influence majestically Duchy of Lithuania. So much so, that Vasily reacted with indifference to the capture of Smolensk and Vytautas Viaz'ma. Furthermore, in anticipation of, apparently, the approach of his own death, he officially gave his own son under the protection of his grandfather. Greek Metropolitan Photios was with the respective diploma sent to Vytautas, who, by the way, did everything to ten Basil would have received from another shortcut on Khan's majestic reign. However, at that time in the Horde khans changed by double-days are. Vytautas apparently headed for the absorption of the Capital of Russia through its own intelligent and clever daughter, who could manipulate their offspring.
At the moment, because the fashionable various historical reconstruction, beginning with the word "if." So now, some authors beat their heads against the wall, groaning by the occasion that the association led Moscow Russian land, and in fact this role could take on the Vilnius (Vilna). Then, they say, it would have been more civilized and less bloody. God that the creators of the referee, but in the era of the Board of Vytautas the prospect really was.
But back to our main story. And what about Yuri D.? The father of four sons (Senior — Dmitry Shemyaka), who reigned in the capital of its own destiny — Zvenigorod. Jury at that time had the authority of an experienced military leader and manager. As for now pronounced like — good manager. Specifically, it was through the efforts of, for example, erected a white stone Cathedral of the Assumption "on the town", painted by Andrei Rublev and Daniil Cherny. Whether it is ready to engage in a princely table by will of his father? In fact, in this particular town is set conditional action known film Tarkovsky's "Andrei Rublev". A dangerous prince in the film — is, it seems, is Yuri. It is clear that history is written by the favorites, and therefore the historical clichés firmly ingrained in our consciousness, intricately refracted in books, movies, and books.
In this context, the focus on the power of Yuri was natural for long. Much less that such a transfer of power did not contradict the then feudal traditions. But February 27, 1425, almost immediately after the death of Basil the Great, in Zvenigorod messenger arrived with a demand to come to Moscow for the oath's minor prince. Yuri sensibly evaluated all regional classifications and instead goes to Moscow to collect Galich own troops.
Plainclothes most brutal war
As a result of the conflict of ambition, involvement of political rules of the game, and the apparent ambiguity will majestic ancestor and began a protracted plainclothes War, which lasted nearly 30 years. Some historians now believe that, had it not been that of the "Moscow zamyatni" the country could completely do away with the vassals of the hordes of sixty years at least before. History, of course, has no subjunctive mood. Just like at the moment, after 580 years, it is very difficult for pharmaceutical scales measure the fault of each of the clans locked in a power struggle. Another thing is that in the official history, from Karamzin, right, beyond a doubt, the camp Basil, and Yuri with Shemyaka — villains, encroached on the stability of the state.
This idea of villainy "zvenigorodtsev" and handed in his "Andrei Rublev" Tarkovsky. Withdrawing Zvenigorod Prince perjurer. This is just what Yuri, who directed with writer credited at the same time Vladimir and robbery. Combining with Daniel Yuri Borisovich, Nizhny Novgorod prince, who sent a squad to help storm the ancient capital of the Horde. But the director, thought is not historical, but rather artistic types, such an approach forgivable.
It is not necessary, of course, to repeat all the vicissitudes of war, civilian, during which the parties entered into a never-ending world of constantly disturbed. And most importantly — have been obliged to constantly appeal to the Horde weakened, throwing the country back in its quest for independence. Once again, the desperate and greedy appeal to the third, to the same — outside, bringing the power of Russia only torment. Despite the fact that historians have noted that Yuri behaved much nobler than his own nephew. Although the situation in a particular nobility nobody could be noted by definition. In general, it should be noted only two episodes.
Majestic Princess Sophia Vitovtovna at the wedding of Prince Vasili majestic Dark in 1433 tore the Duke Vasily Diagon belt once belonged to Dmitry Donskoy. Painter Pavel Chistyakov. 1861.
First — the scene of the Horde, the fight for the Khan yarlychek. Representing Basil nobleman Vsevolzhsky, referring to Khan, said about the subsequent: Jury finds the tables on his father's will of its own (in other words, the right to indirectly prince was proven), and Vasily by thy Khan mercy. It is unlikely that such talk could raise the profile of the grandson Vytautas, swift destruction which significantly weakened the position of Basil.
Scene two — the story of the Russian traditional painting: Sophia Vitovtovna rips precious belt with son George, Basil Squint, who together with his brother, Dmitri Shemyaka, was at the wedding capital of Prince Vasili with Maria Yaroslavna. There is a clear provocation. This public disgrace (belt tore off the prisoners, etc.) the last straw zvenigorodtsev. In several battles Moscow's troops routed. Jury enters the capital, where residents are taking it as a legitimate heir.
Moscow Tartu period
Vasily obviously confused. He threw his cowardly troops in the decisive battle. His favorite, though not, apparently, to complicate the situation, and even more so to shed the blood of the holy prince, honorably send him to hell. Far away on the scale — in Kolomna. In general, soon moved to Kolomna Moscow boyars, who did not want to be waiting in the wings at the newest metropolitan elite.
Some historians say that if it were not for the formidable extra-century liberalism Yuri Dmitrievich, then a civilian war could end immediately. Basil was not just interned, he was tonsured a monk. Do not even have enough legitimate methods to reduce it from the historical arena. Recall that in the tradition of those distant times the tonsure meant like a defeat in civilian and political rights. Cropped deprived of the rights of the secular power.
And Yuri, whom many historians acknowledge one of the greatest favorites of the fifteenth century, a strong charismatic figure, could not fully accelerate the development of Russia, stamped first glorious, but still pending cases. By the way, particularly in the majestic reign of George in Moscow began to mint coins with the image of Zhora Victorious, as this was the patron saint of Don's son. Through the efforts of Shemiaka later on the coin shows "Osudar Moscow."
But the war continues. Parties to accumulate power and maneuver. Yuri Dmitrievich again gives way to Moscow, and again it takes. Enters into the capital under the festive buzz of bells. But suddenly dies in the 1434th. Apparently, he missed his time until the end and did not realize it. At that time Russia was dependent on the role of personality in history. Yuri was later buried in the Cathedral of the Archangel. Walking rumors that the governor all the same poisoned. What is also not uncommon in Russia.
Vasiliy on a massive backdrop own uncle looks much more feeble figure, located constantly under the influence of a mother's imperative, then — greedy boyars. Very typical of what exactly Dmitry Shemyaka almost led Basil II back to Moscow, since by all of the same probate Dmitry Donskoy after the death of George Basil already had all the rights to velikoknyazhy table. Such is the convoluted dynastic history, worthy of the novels in the style of Dumas. That's just time to admit that George was a usurper, and Basil — a holy and innocent victim. In the civilian war, as you know, there are no favorites. In particular moral.
Poison — an instrument of political
Blinding Vasily. Thumbnail of Chronicles of the XVI century.
It is clear that vnutrirusskimi strife skillfully used the horde, lounging, much battered by Timur, but still carnivorous. And Basil, commander-loser, prone to the same to the town red at the most inopportune moments preparation of wars and battles, obviously did not do well in clashes with the Horde.
Finally, in 1445, the year in Suzdal, he was not just defeated, but was captured by the Tatars. His hangover was fierce — the other day he was feasting until morning with the boyars. Since the time of Batu country did not experience such a shame. Vicissitudes of civilian war split the elites constant flirting with the outer, not benevolent, and forces have led the country in its quest for sovereignty was again thrown back. Many former victims were simply in vain.
Later, Basil managed to climb to freedom by taking on onerous obligations. And there is also a Moscow burnt to the ground once again. Panic in the town, by the way, put a stop to all the same Shemyaka, once again entered the capital.
The released as Basil enough that promised to pay a large ransom to transfer control of the Horde in the Russian town permit to build mosques across Russia, but also returned to the capital, accompanied by five hundred Tatars, who began to behave in Moscow, as in the captured town .
Not surprisingly, that the policy of Basil has caused uproar in the country. And so when he was soon captured by supporters Shemiaka, many took such a turn as a tribute. In Moscow, the prince almost tried, presenting serious charges of treason, to use modern categories: what brought the Tatars in the Russian land, for which they gave the town in feeding, which blinded the Prince Vasili Squint. In short, Basil II blinded too. And for you, the readers, to judge, fair or not so called "Shemyakin court"?
The victory over Vasily Vasily Jurevichem. Thumbnail of Chronicles of the XVI century.
You can talk a long time about the events of those years, when the fate of Moscow and Russia once again, as in the XIII century, hangs in the balance. Everything was destroyed and lay in ruins. Another troubled times paralyzed the country …
It ended a war plainclothes poisoning Dmitry Shemiaka. And no one has made no secret then that Basil had sent its own agents in the majestic Novgorod, where his rival, they bribed the chef with an appropriate nickname Grebe. Many experts believe that Yuri and his dad and his brother Dmitri reddish also assist to go to another world.
After resting on his father … — Basil, nature gave Russia its offspring, Ivan III, the 1st of the most outstanding figures of our municipal history, created the base of the country with his Russian double-headed hawk, with its advantages and shortcomings. But that being said, it is a different story.
For us, the Russian, with our complex history of the word "stability" and "unity" are not empty signs. And what a lot of examples. We remembered one of the most forgotten and partially vague construed episodes. But the essence of this bloody and stupid act of the first half of the fourteenth century does not change. An avid conflict elites constantly throwing the country into the abyss of confusion from which all suffer. Another thing is that many of the lessons we have so far not learned.