Why is the top tier of managers did not rise to the defense of the USSR-feeding
The closer the elections on March 4, the higher the degree of political activity of. The air smells of almost periodic revolution, which nobody expected. General outlook expressed Gleb Pavlovsky, when he said, "never thought I'd see it live again …" The suddenness of the political thaw really leads to recall the last years of the USSR. Then, too, has not meant a tremendous empire will disappear from the map of the world in a matter of days are.
But it looks like segodnyaschy situation in 1991? Why in 1991, the Russian nomenclature — the base, the backbone, spine Russian system — not lift a finger tapped on, to defend the current government?
These questions have tried to answer the doctor of historical sciences, doctor, head of the history of Russian statehood Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Service Rudolph Pihoya under the "open environment" Metropolitan High School Social and Economic Sciences.
— Before you answer the question why the Russian authorities refused nomenclature, remember one episode. August 19, 1991 coup began, and 21 August putsch, in the main, been completed. Your faithful servant, who served in a white house these days are with a gun in his hands, August 22 was going to listen to Misha Gorbachev, who returned from Foros and was due to arrive in a white house.
But instead of that, I came to the team from President Boris Yeltsin. There was information that the building was destroyed in an old area of archives. Therefore an urgent need to go back and understand the situation. It was one of those orders which discusses the no.
To go, to be honest, it was hard for two reasons. The first was commonplace — Moscow streets were packed with people, and the car was just barely. The second reason was much more serious. I imagined that such a complex of buildings on the old square. Even walking past them was terrible. Strolling along the sidewalks there KGB officers stood near the door of the KGB, dressed in a police uniform. In fact, the complex was an impregnable fortress, and it was quite clear how to get there.
But we still went to the buildings, it became clear that they are easy to get to. All the guards ran away — one hundred percent. It was breathtakingly. We agreed with the Metropolitan police that she put up around the perimeter of the cordon and entered the empty building.
Staggering through the deserted corridors of an old area, I was quite the case on the fifth floor. I did not know that this is the floor where was sitting secretary-general of the Central Committee of the CPSU. There I found that the corridors littered with a thick layer of paper. The corners were broken shredder and large army rubberized bags, pocketed papers.
From all this evolved an unusual feeling. In my eyes fell sign of Russian Union. Because if it was a sign of the USSR, it was the Central Committee of the Communist Party, which is guarded by armed wing parties — the KGB. And then for a half day or all dissolved, though he had not.
Of course, I've read about the events of the February Revolution, when the monarchy fell this week. But the Soviet Union set a record: the government fell apart in just a day or a half.
The question arises: why did it happen? In an abandoned complex were found in an old area of the documents that tell about the activities of the Central Committee. Very many documents related to the business activity: the privatization of party affiliation, swapping party funds in commercial banks. Still, the question remains: why is the government did not protect the nomenclature?
"SP": — Nomenclature — a term purely Russian?
— Full Russian. The term was coined in 1922 by Joseph Stalin at the XII Congress of the RCP (b) when he read about the need to improve the system of municipal governance. "Reaching the communists all management industry and the entire industrial chain of command, with which party holds in his hands the device and produces guidance" — Stalin put the puzzle. He also defined the requirements for these people, in this case made it abundantly clear to Stalin: "It should be the people who know how to produce guidelines that can realize the directives that can adopt these guidelines as their home, and who are able to implement them."
In other words, the cornerstone was placed only one principle: the complete absolute diligence. Itself was assumed that it must be, of course, the revolutionaries and leaders of the party.
Thus was the first layer of nomenclature. I can date the time of his life this way: since the early 1920s to the mid-1930s. It was the people, in the main, from the party apparatus associated with the pre-revolutionary period of the party (although there was also a layer of people who put forward in the first years of Russian government). This so-called "red directors" whose task was to seize the property and manage it.
The technological level of this accessory was not very complicated. For example, to carry out collectivization was not difficult. Problem solved most of collectivization nezamudrenymi methods. To do this, there GPU device, and if it gets into trouble on the oppression of the peasant revolts threw the army.
First layer of nomenclature eroding the middle of the 1930s. This first layer showed an inability to manage when it comes to more complex than the collectivization of tasks. The example of the construction of the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine. In 1929, the task is taken to build a plant. "Red directors" put around the perimeter of the stakes, strung wire and stabbing were herded to the construction of the adjoining villages of farmers who dug the pit. On this success over. Next, it was necessary to mount the equipment purchased in the U.S. technology cycles and introduce them to the creature.
On this half-baked director were not able to. And here for the first time there was the problem that will appear later on throughout the existence of the nomenclature: how to change it? Nomenclature — these are people who are appointed from above, and do not choose. You have appointed a person, he is completely blameless, all your orders he does, all directives — with the Stalinist expression — perceives as a family. He just can not work. How to change such a person?
The answer is clear: the only method of substitution — the terror. And always after a generational change of nomenclature will be accompanied by terror — more or less pronounced.
Until the end of 1930 there is a substitution item. I would have said that the generation of "red directors" replaces generation "of chief engineers." "The main engineers' — it is a different type of manager. These are people who have received education and Russian are pretty well versed in the processes.
These were prepared people that justified the second global war. Specifically, the war went totally not the nomenclature, which came into the war. These were the people who actually know how to manage, understand and know that for the cost. But this second-generation range there was one very severe defect, compared with the first — they are very are independent after the war.
The war breaking out of the fundamental principle of nomenclature, and has advanced to the first plan does not dedication, and skills. For example, of the Red Army in 1944 was 2.5 thousand generals — the whole army at war. Of these
about 25% are non-partisan, or joined the party during the war. Before the war, these people achieve such positions was unimaginable. Receiving the rank of general implies that a person must approve the Administrative Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). But the war put forward their demands. A similar pattern was observed in the industry.
It is no accident immediately after the war, there was a series of repression, which we say enough is not enough. We know nothing else but the fact Zhukov. But just give one figure for 1948 at its own position there was not the commander of the 1st arm of the service, everything has changed. The Military aviation was planted, and to a large extent shot (they were accused that they delivered the bad planes), the management of artillery gunners went on business, sailors condemned for what they gave sailing its English employees to wire caravans of cargo ships to Murmansk and land forces have taken a matter of Zhukov.
Zhukov would have planted, but he was lucky: he had a heavy heart attack in January 1947. In the end, "Marshal of Victory" with a heart attack sent to command the rear of the Urals Military District. It got the best of him, as it was believed that Zhukov so bad that hardly choose.
Gone are the processes and in the midst of Manufacturers. Yet, the attempt to regain full control of the nomenclature is not entirely successful.
"SP": — Stalin was losing influence?
— The range has been a little different, it is expected the death of the "great leader." And a little Stalin died — more precisely, on the second day after his funeral — at a meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the USSR Council of Ministers Chairman Jora Maksimilianovich Malenkov announced that it is necessary to fight the cult of Stalin's personality. To stress on the second day after the funeral.
Indeed, the range of tried to take a kind of revenge. First, the 1950s, however, is the internal rivalry between the two wings-name nomenclature. First wing was associated with the Council of Ministers — with Malenkov, Bulganin, Molotov. The second was associated with the apparatus of the Central Committee and personally with Khrushchev. The upshot was that Khrushchev was defeated, and in 1958 became magnified as follows: first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Chairman of the Council of Ministers. In other words, the party power was higher authorities.
Nikita Khrushchev tried to intensively manage the nomenclature. The municipal authorities have to replace the economic councils, ministries or locked directed at the place of their core business. The Ministry of Agriculture — the village, the Ministry of Coal Industry — in Donbass. Was even sharper conflict with the party authorities. Khrushchev proposed eliminating the most common element of the party apparatus — the rural district Party, the foundation of the party organization.
The result of these reforms is well known: in October 1964, Nikita Khrushchev sent safely retired, accused of terrible sins, and in a strange Nikita Sergeyevich word "voluntarism" (the desire to embody the coveted goal without impartial events and the likely consequences — "JV").
After Khrushchev comes the third wave of nomenclature. In the majority of their own, they come from peasant families, but their peasantry in almost all Questionnaires are not real. Usually, they are — techies on the first education. But they were second generation, and it is — a political one. It could be a public Academy of Sciences of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Higher Party School or Academy of National Economy under the Government of the USSR. These people and a degree — not unique.
Another relevant feature of the representatives of the third wave — these people get their jobs as a result of real competition. You can read a lot of things about the party apparatus, but I can say silly secretaries of regional committees there was not found. These people kept violent struggle, and not only the hardware and undercover. Behind them, usually standing production management experience, and although there was a special category — the Komsomol activists (among them, namely, belonged Misha Gorbachev).
It is also typical that the third wave of the range observed the contradiction between the higher and lower echelons of the party apparatus.
"SP": — What is it all the same for the higher and lower ranks?
— High School nomenclature — managers of Russian Union — was about three thousand people. These were the so-called PSTN subscriber number 1 — a special government communications, a call for which was the epitome of an accident "telephone law". Calling a PBX-1 had to solve at least some question.
Among these three thousand people were: members and alternate members of the Political Bureau and secretaries of the Central Committee, the management of the Central Committee, Ministers and Deputy Ministers (and in some cases the heads of various departments of large ministries), the first and second secretaries of the regional Party on the ground, Director huge production company, commanders of military surroundings, the chiefs of the KGB in the field, and a small part of the cultural and service layers — a huge newspaper editor, a small number of political observers, the rector of Moscow State University.
Second layer of nomenclature was about 20 thousand people. It's people management made a real function.
Khrushchev was a source of concern for both layers nomenclature. And the first statement made by the new first (he later General) The Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Leonid Brezhnev — a concern for the frames. Translated into the language of common civil meant: we are not going to change anyone. Caring about the staff became familiar throughout the Brezhnev era. He reported that one caught stealing, another abused. Brezhnev stated: "I do not need these people rule the big party organizations. Take them off — offend the organization … "
Caring about the staff had another side. Brezhnev came to power in 1964. Coupled with it a generation of people who began his career under Stalin. Now is not enough people remember that a candidate member of the Presidium of the Central Committee chose Brezhnev during the life of Stalin — in 1952. The chief ideologist Mikhail Suslov was in the party leadership in 1934. Alexei Kosygin was commissar in 1938. They were all Stalin generation of people.
They are, in general, were not Stalinists. If you read the minutes of the meetings of the Politburo, all these people were assessed Stalin's bad — and it is clear why. For them, the highest range, Stalin was a constant source of anxiety, irritation factor that made it difficult to live quietly.
But without being Stalinists, they were men of old, and by the end of 1970 were just very aged people. Behind them stood propped up their young wave nomenclature. That third wave, which, as I read, and was smart and qualified, and that this situation does not suit him.
The notes Vitaly Vorotnikova, at the time the First Secretary of the Krasnodar Territory, later chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, there are records, "How will gather at the Plenary Session of the party in the middle of the delegates during the breaks, especially in the hotel" Russia ", discussions were to say: how long these old people to remain in power? "
There was anger and a different kind. You could be long in the top layer of the range, but that does not mean that you can pass on to their children the real value. It was only possible to transfer your library and the funds that earned nomenklatura. Secretary of the Regional Committee of the huge, like Sverdlovsk, Moscow or Leningrad, received about 800 rubles per month. The same 800 rubles received rector of the institute. In other words, the special facilities to save was u
"SP": — But there were certain range of perks, is not it?
— Yes, but what? If you worked in the Central Committee of the Party, for you your party organization was to advise, that you did not have your own garden (as will the breech), private cars (will send the traveling). This rejection came in the code of ethics of senior administrative staff.
However, if you were in the first tier in the same three thousand people, you can expect that if something goes wrong with you, the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee will accept a special resolution. For example, that in the event of your death, the widow, children and close relatives of something left — right to use dachas, the right to call a company car, the right to teach the kids in a good school. These decisions are processed in the strictest confidence and immediately fell in unusual location — in other words, in the highest category of privacy.
If you are treated to a link is lower, to 20 tyscham man — you were in the nomenclature for you bowed, after you sent the plane. But the above-mentioned benefits for you was not supposed to.
By the beginning of 1980 Russian Alliance for the first time faced with the harsh economic neuvvyazkami. Prepyadstviya these vividly reminded our present. The fact is that for all of 1940-1950's, and the early 1960s, oil was 03.02 dollars per barrel. It was a completely unchanging value. Later came the 1972 and the cost of oil jumped by 4 times, up to $ 12 per barrel (this is very contributed to the Arab-Israeli conflict). And then the cost of growing smoothly until the end of 1970, reaching 80-90 dollars per barrel.
From the outside it looked wonderful. But while there were oil means it was possible to buy everything you need abroad, and create their own little degraded. Why build a good shoe factory shoes when we are without problems brought from Czechoslovakia? Why develop electronics when we bring computers from the GDR? And the products of light industry we will send the Poles — and we put them oil.
The situation was good before the time, until the end of 1970 the country has not faced with a wave of severe commercial disadvantage. In the late 1970s — early 1980s, a phenomenon which was then called "cloud" — the big flea market, which once collected 10 of thousands of people, and where you can buy practically everything, only 3-4 times more expensive than in the store.
"SP": — And how to respond to the nomenclature?
— It was in the late 1970's — early 1980's found a trend of nomenclature in some form to acquire the property, make a certain level of personal economic stability.
Such a situation, for example, at a meeting of the Political Bureau dismantled when the new Secretary General Yuri Andropov put the question this way: something, comrades, we have become overgrown villas. And an example: Baybakov not much that built the cottage for 30 thousand rubles (at the time means great), but still managed to implement it, even giving his daughter to build. Younger members of the Politburo — like Misha Gorbachev — have begun to jump from their seats and call to beat. Older members of the Politburo began to read, giving them that actually allowed to have under Stalin. In the end, the wisest Andropov proposed streamline these processes are a special resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In other words frightened, showed that he knows everything about everything, but do not stir up the top of the party has become.
And who are digging? Just the first 1980 new renewed political processes. Only they — God forbid — have nothing to do with the 58th Article. They are political in fact, but not in form.
This, for example, the so-called case stores. Russian trade has been built in part on non-trade relations, there has been a rassredotachivanie products in the territories, districts, certain shops. Product market was not. On the other hand, had the means and commercial matters. This joint — the distribution system and the market — has always been a source of crime.
High School nomenclature, the same 3 thousand subscribers ATS-1 are not walking to the shops. Their drivers are approaching the special distribution on Granovsky Street, where they took out a package of products and goods. But if you, for example, worked as a secretary Bauman district, you do not go in the top layer and a distributor on Granovsky is not available to you. But you have a store nearby, and the director — a member of the District Committee of the Party. And you he states: "Mr. Smith, let's see — a list we currently draw — which of our can go to the store with a dark porch." Such lists have existed in large numbers.
Andropov came to power, dealt a blow to the so-called trade mafia (mafia that has never been), and practically "hung" for all those customers who were walking to the shops. This is the same that was in 1949, in the doctors. Then, too, no doctors were needed, and patients Kremlin clinic.
Was of a political nature, of course, and the cotton case. Press with ecstasy wrote that investigators Gdlyana valiant and Ivanov managed to uncover criminal komplot in Central Asia, where the local bai receive more funds from the Russian bribe-takers. But the reporters did not write that Central Asia borders Afghanistan, and for always war of 1941-45 no spooks did not appear on the terrain of Central Asia, as it would immediately severed head of the local chiefs. Not contacted journalists and that the system under which Uzbekistan and Tajikistan cotton delivered to the center, and they are always slightly overpaid, was from the time of Stalin. It was a form podkarmlivaniya local elite.
When Andropov center has blatantly violated this rule. And for those "cotton" acts for which Moscow expelled or deported down to individual retirement in Uzbekistan sentenced to 20 years in bullpen or even to death.
In short, by this time the mood inside the range was, to put it mildly turbulent. Excluding this concern does not realize that began to occur in the nomenclature after 1985, when the post of General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev took.
"SP": — What has changed under Gorbachev?
— Gorbachev says the need for democracy, transparency, speed. The fact that our industry has to overtake the West. In March 1985, he says that we need to become trend setters in the auto industry. Engineers AvtoVAZ, when they heard it, fell into a stupor — they were in charge of me about it … seriously Gorbachev said, that we have in Kazan is a young man who makes a computer that can outdo least some American …
Soon after all this chaff was one thing. The program speed — in other words, the frisky engineering development and revitalization of the industry by introducing new technologies — not give a good result. Trying to reconfigure the management of the state on the model of military-industrial complex — with the state quality control, with the creation of the Central Committee Bureau by industry — by the end of 1987 failed.
And here began the processes that led to almost all the coming collapse of the Soviet Union. It is striking that these processes is not understood by people even really taste the taste of even heavily involved in the political life of the time …
On the agenda of the day or — noisy speech favorites restructuring, newspaper articles, stories about the nomenclature layer, which gets stuck no matter what the initiative. But it is — on the surface, but deep … Deep in policy changes in relation to the nomenclature. The documents and the dates it looks like that.
January 1987 — Plenary Session of the Communist Party by frame. Its meaning is that you enter the other elections in the party and state apparatus. The creator of the idea came Anatoly Lukyanov. By the way, about the role Lukyanov. At times, Russian was in vogue funny story: the first Knight of the Order of the Octob
er Revolution Nicholas II should be the creation of a revolutionary situation in the country. To paraphrase a funny story, so you can speak. Order "For the destruction of the USSR," No, but if he was, it was the first credit must be given to Anatoly Lukyanov — including, for the idea of other choices.
The thought was outside the ordinary. The party apparatus bad — catches no mice. How to force him to move? Let us choose a range, and for that — let's have elections to the Soviets. There is nothing to be afraid of — in our hands television and newspapers. If the first Secretary of the Communist Party selected President of the Council, the Communist Party is the ruling party in a particular region separately. And if not elected — to hell with it. Who is elected, that we will appoint a new first secretary of the District Party Committee. In short, the system is a win-win.
In fact, a win-win system was only a first glance. In fact, when there is another option — it is always a clash of views and platforms. In fact, by introducing the principle of the other elections, the power — without even though — legalized opposition. In the end, everyone started to make friends with the CPSU.
First secretary of the district was the person designated and submitted the first secretary of the regional committee. But if you go to the polls, it would be important not far first secretary of the regional committee, and the voices of people living in a particular area. This imposes quite different behavior.
As a result of elections to the Soviets in the summer of 1987, the third of the first secretaries of district committees, which they took part, voters swept. The turnout was unprecedented in the USSR 70%, and the ballots were covered with inscriptions in neprelichnymi the address of the CPSU. The results of elections made out to the Politburo and decided: to act on.
Followed by a link to the collapse of the country was the XIX Party Conference in 1988. There are already at the election party conference, and is followed by single Party is falling apart. It is falling apart, first by 15 Republican Party organizations. At the same time, their different positions in its Armenians and the Azerbaijanis own, and the Baltic states. The Ukrainian Party organization is not clear, it is common or not, and Russian — not exactly common.
And later, in the same 1988, held the first Congress of People's Deputies. The Congress is split into a huge number of the Republican Party. Speaking on it, a great writer Valentin Rasputin begins to read: maybe Russia will provide the Union? .. Then this offer is perceived as a joke …
"SP": — What has emerged from all this?
— That the presence nomenclature does not guarantee anything. The basic principle of nomenclature — stability, security — was destroyed. Keep this conclusion crotch.
A parallel process of developing another. In June 1987 plenum of the party was held on the management of the industry, and after 5 days to issue a law on municipal enterprise. This law allowed not only to choose the director, he permitted to grant an elected director of the tremendous opportunities. In the middle of options — the right to crush his own company into several pieces into shops, laboratories, etc. In other words, from the enterprise becomes possible to allocate it more profitable divisions. In addition, the law allowed the director to enter the action — despite the fact that the law on actions that would regulate this activity was not in sight.
This law is put into the hands of our industrial range of very massive leverage. The company received the right to go to outdoor markets without the consent of the federal government. Raw materials in the USSR was always worth mere pennies — metal, oil. Because to become a wealthy man at the time, was elected director rather push to the West part of the oil or non-ferrous metals. Gasoline in the USSR cost 7 cents liter, in the West — in the region of 1 U.S. dollar. As they say, feel the rate of return.
And in 1988, it adopted the Law on Cooperatives excellent. This law allows the individual to transform the structure of its own plant (highlight allowed by law on municipal enterprise) in co-operatives. Cooperatives are exciting because they have the form of non-state facilities. And to ensure that the activities of cooperatives, they were allowed to build co-operative banks — despite the fact that there is no law to regulate banking activity was not (as in the case of shares). This co-operative banks were allowed to engage in, for example, settlement and cash transactions — effectively, without any control.
On the state-owned enterprise, any penny counts and izderzhat it anyhow, it was unrealistic. If you sent it to the payroll accounting records it under Article 5 if Myagenko furniture — under Article 12. And God forbid, to confuse one with the other article. In addition, funds have existed in the state-owned enterprise with cash coverage without it. In the end, every penny sign it as a separate item.
Now imagine that you are experiencing a commercial bank. You rake up all the assets of the enterprise, and direct them to a bank account — you now have the right to do so under the Law on state-owned enterprise. And according to the Law on Cooperatives that our excellent bank gives money back to you in cash, leaving himself a commission. At first, for cashing took 15%, 5% later — too many who want to become so makarom otovaritsya.
As a result, a range having means alive and banks. 4th Co-operative Bank, which appeared in the Soviet Union — is AvtoVAZ-bank, behind him was Aeroflot-Bank, and further down the list — the banks of smaller companies. The representatives of the nomenclature in such a situation, the question is why now be in this nomenclature?
"SP": — To hold the nomenclature has become unnecessary?
— By 1988, Gorbachev changed to 85% range. Previously, people flying out of range — it was the end of everything for him. Now these people felt themselves perfectly, and became commonly, directors of commercial banks.
Cooperatives have the right to engage in trade, organize enterprises, including — international. Suitable for long history — as Nikolai Ryzhkov tried Projan limit for tier tanks with full ammunition. The train stopped a miracle — Ryzhkov laid rivals in the Politburo, and took the case to a meeting of the Congress of People's Deputies. Tanks, usually, sold cooperative.
One of the biggest companies in the country, in fact, was the Communist Party itself. By 1988, the Central Committee of the disposal of more than 4 tyschami administrative buildings in the city center, on the balance sheet was larger than 130 cultural centers, 150 hotels, holiday homes, nemerenoe number of motor depots, resorts and vacation homes. All right up to the refinery (gold processing plant — "JV").
So here is, first, what I encountered in August 1991, finding themselves in a complex on the old square — with a variety of papers with requests — Saratov, Leningrad, Perm regional committees — privatize garazhik, publishing, and other property of the party. CC is usually allowed.
The fact is that in the Central Committee since 1989, when he began the work of People's Congress of Deputies, mature suspicion that the restructuring will not end well. Because the highest nomenclature raises a number of notes to Gorbachev about the need of creation of secret party funds. Keep that in Russia means uncomfortable and need to bring them over the limit. Using the Law on Cooperatives, you need to set up joint ventures.
"SP": — Hide unhappy "gold party"?
— Yes. The question arose: how to do it? At the Central Committee of the cash profile of professionals was not enough — not for that was selected Central Committee. Ultimately, the professionals have taken in the First Chief Directorate of the KGB — in the external intell
igence. These people had a beautiful education, as Russian and foreign, specifically, they begin to create numerous joint ventures. Particularly with so far in the business lexicon, there is the word "Cyprus" and "offshore". Cyprus becomes a place that hosts a huge number of companies with Russian capital.
Begins pumping equipment. I can say that at this time of party funds come in a variety of banks, commercial structures. The special theme here — the Komsomol economy, which by this time was highly developed, well, there were people smart. Young Communists nasozdavali their banks. An example of the Young Communist League of the bank, which has received very many party funds — "Menatep" Misha Khodorkovsky, "SBS-Agro" Alexander Smolensky.
But then in the nomenklatura, which had the opportunity to enrich themselves freely, and there was a question: Why protect this power? After all, the power remained in the old forms, and did not give the ability to legitimize property. Because none of the people in whose hands were the real levers of power, did not give the order to protect this power …
Help "joint venture"
Rudolph Pihoya to October 1990 he was the head of the Head Archival Administration under the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, with November 1990 — Chairman of the Committee of Archives at the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, with December 1991 — Chairman of the Committee for the archives of the Government of the Russian Federation — Chief Municipal Archivist of the RSFSR, February 1993 — January 1996 — Manager of the State Archival Service of — Municipal Chief Archivist of.