Initially leading position firmly detained "mistress of the seas" English Empire. London decided in the Asia-Pacific region are two main objectives: first, 1-x, sought to prevent the expansion of the scope of the impact of the Russian Empire in the south-east (on the Korean Peninsula, China, Tibet, India), in-2, to protect the interests of encroachment of other Western powers — France, Germany and the United States. The British, where military force, where an economic way, captured the top position in the Asia-Pacific region, but the power to detain the region could not.
The Empire of Japan was the "trump card" of the British Empire. We must admit that London is a very cleverly played this trump card in the Great Game. Initially, the British, along with other stately powers taken away from the fruit of the Japanese victory in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. According to the Treaty of Shimonoseki China abandoned its own suzerainty over Korea, gave the land of the rising sun Liaodong Peninsula, Peninsula Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu islands paid compensation. In addition, the expanded capabilities of economic expansion for the Land of the Rising Sun: Japanese disclosed to all ports of China, they have the right to build industrial companies in the country's own import of industrial equipment.
But three majestic powers — France, Germany, Our homeland — claimed from the Land of the Rising Sun to renegotiate a contract concluded in the town of Shimonoseki, they violated their interests in China. In the end, the residents of the country of the rising sun were obliged to abandon the Liaodong Peninsula. Japan harbored a grudge against Russia.
In 1902, London concluded a military alliance with the Empire of Japan, directed against the Russian Federation and the United States. The British were concerned about the economic expansion of the United States in China. If England defended the principle of separation of the Chinese countryside into "spheres of influence", the United States have implemented the principle of "open doors" in which the power of the U.S. economy gave them a significant advantage. Our homeland is for the English was a common enemy, which is needed to curb on all fronts — from the Balkans to North Korea and China. Living in the country of the rising sun saw Russia as a strong contender in the Korean peninsula and in North China — these areas are considered areas of influence land of the rising sun.
The United States also supported the war against the Japanese in the Russian Empire, in return for the inhabitants of the country of the Rising Sun supported the principle of the "open door" in China. Our homeland in 1905 yielded Land of the Rising Sun Southern Sakhalin (Karafuto), Kuril Islands, the Liaodong Peninsula with Port Arthur, the South Manchurian metal road, and the people of the country of the rising sun have the right to establish a protectorate over Korea.
In 1910, Japan completed the annexation of Korea, officially it looked like a volunteer assignment Korean king of all sovereign rights over the state the Japanese emperor. Japanese empire rested in their actions to the Korean company Ilchinhve collaborationist and, most importantly, in support of Britain and the United States. In 1905, was updated Anglo-Japanese alliance contract, the South American President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the priority interests of the Land of the Rising Sun in Korea, it was concluded a secret US-Japan agreement Taft — Katsura. With all of this in Washington ignored the message asking for help Korean ruler, and London has announced that it will not interfere with the occupation policy of the Japanese. Russian Empire also did not intervene in the Sino-Korean affairs, the people of the country of the rising sun behind it recognized the Northern Mongolia and Manchuria Russian sphere of "special interests."
When in 1919 the Korean peninsula came a popular uprising against the Japanese, a prominent activist for the independence of Lee Scion Man sent a personal message to the South American President Woodrow Wilson, there was a request to assist with the establishment of the League of Nations trusteeship of Korea, but the U.S. did not hear the call.
So Makar, late XIX-early XX centuries, Japan has become a majestic power.
The first global war and change the balance of power after the
In 1911 there was a revolution in China. China, and so polurazdroblenny, reincarnated in the totality of the provinces, which are governed by the party-military groups. An active penetration of the Japanese in Manchuria.
During the First World War, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun have reinforced their position — they took a "sphere of influence" of the German Empire in the Asia-Pacific region, have become parties to intervene in the lands of the former Russian Empire. Japan has a mandate of the League of Nations at the Pacific territories. Its position in the Asia-Pacific region and Germany have lost our home, there were three major players — England, USA, Japan (France did not have the strength for independent game).
United States began to force England, changing the positions of the main powers of the Western world. After the First World War, U.S. out of the debtor become the lender of the planet, in 1916, was adopted by the excellent programm construction of the Navy — to 1924 south american Navy had to become naikrupneyshim world. Closing of the First World War reduced the pace of construction of the fleet, but suspended the program from. The Yankees needed a big domestic market the British Empire. Began the clash of interests in the colonies and dominions of Britain. Thus, the political elite of Canada started to move in the direction of the United States.
Washington immediately tried to break the Anglo-Japanese alliance. This was achieved at the Washington Conference of 1921-1922. There's also managed to achieve the right to equality in the sea with the UK Armed Forces — the so-called. Washington Naval Agreement in 1922, the contract 5 stately maritime powers (the U.S., Britain, land of the rising sun, France and Italy). The agreement sets the ratio of tonnage battleships and aircraft carriers in the following proportions: 5:5:3:1,75:1,75 (United States, Britain, Japan, France, Italy, respectively). Headed for Washington and the official recognition of the policy of "open doors and opportunities" in the country against the Chinese. China as previously considered only as an object of exploitation. London suffered a serious defeat at the conference.
It is in this period of "black gold" — oil — has become more and more influence policy majestic powers. South American companies were advancing rapidly in the Dutch East Indies, where previously one-third of the exports (oil and rubber) controlled by the British. For oil production areas there was a struggle between
the oil companies — Anglo-Dutch Royal Dutch — Shell and American Standard Oil. In 1924, the United States held naikrupneyshy scandal of "black gold" — "oil Panama." Were revealed more abuse, corruption and prominent government officials of the United States in connection with obtaining oil concessions from the government in California. The scandal severely compromised both major South American parties — Democrats and Republicans.
The battleship "Nagato".
The development of the struggle for the Asia-Pacific region in the 20s
Evenly-Soviet Russia began to reassert its influence in the country's chief Asia-Pacific region — China. In May 1924 a contract was signed "on the general principles for the settlement of issues between the Russian Union and the Republic of China." In September 1924 Moscow signed an agreement with "self-government 3-eastern provinces of China" (Manchuria). The main issue of these agreements was the problem of CEL.
In January 1925, the agreement between Japan and the Soviet Union has been proven Portsmouth Peace Treaty of 1905, and the conditions for the concession of oil production by the Japanese on Sakhalin and limited military action as the North Sakhalin (owned by the Russian Union) and the Southern Sakhalin (which belonged to the Land of the Rising Sun ). These contracts provide for themselves Moscow Far rear.
But total peace in the Far East could not be reached. Already in 1929 there was a conflict with China, because the Chinese in the USSR incite the United States. In response to a Chinese attack on the Russian representative office in Harbin and the seizure of the Chinese Eastern Steel Road (a joint venture of the USSR and China) Reddish Army (18.5 thousand infantry and cavalry), under the command of Blucher defeated Chinese forces of up to 300 thousand people. The Chinese asked for peace, and the usual work of CEL was restored.
Then in Washington have chosen to London and began to regard Japan as the main weapon against Russia-USSR. Regime of Chiang Kai-shek could not resist Moscow as an equal.
In 1927, a memorandum of the Japanese Emperor, Prime Minister General Tanaka defined the idea of the rule of the Japanese empire in Asia and the Pacific. In his view, Manchuria should be used as a springboard to establish dominance in the rest of China, and after obtaining the resources of Chinese countryside Japan will go "to the conquest of India, the Archipelago, Asia Minor, Central Asia and even Europe." With all of this recognized need the latest war with Russia.
But in the 20 years the land of the rising sun failed to launch a large-scale expansion abroad, prevented devilish consequences of the earthquake in 1923 and the economic crisis of 1927. In addition, it was necessary to take into account the power of the United States, dependence on U.S. monetary support and strength of other powers. Played its role and the global crisis of 1929.
The soldiers captured by the Red Army from Kuomintang flags.