Incidents with a nuclear weapon in the military environment have a huge number of titles naizloveschih — Broken Arrow, Faded Giant, YADVSPYSHKA. In fact there were 10's of such cases, but we will tell about five serious accidents in the United States.
Travis AFB, 1950, Broken Arrow
During the Korean War, the U.S. military and politicians were seriously considering the use of nuclear weapons. In August 1950, 10 B-29 bombers took off from, as it was then called Fairfield-Suisun Air Base in California, and headed to Guam. any of the bomber was carrying the bomb Mark IV, which was twice as strong as dropped on Japan at the end of the second world war.
Soon after takeoff, one of the B-29, said of the malfunctioning motor. On board was General Robert Travis. He ordered the aircraft vorachivatsya to the base, but the plane was refused landing gear. Realizing that the plane crashes, the pilot tried to avoid a collision with the populated areas around the base, and the plane fell in the north-west corner of the base. Upon impact, killing 12 of the 20 former aboard, including General Travis. As a result of fire detonated 5,000 pounds of explosives, which are components of the atomic bomb Mark IV. The explosion killed another seven people who are on the ground. If bomb was equipped with a split capsule, the number of victims can be counted to six figures.
U.S. Air Force concealed the incident, saying that for a training flight were loaded ordinary bomb. A few months after that, the base was renamed in honor of General Travis. Broken Arrow term used to refer to the different state of emergency with a nuclear weapon, not connected with the beginning of a nuclear war.
Processing reactor Fermi 1, 1966, Faded Giant
The incident was immortalized under the title "When we almost lost Detroit" in the book of the same name by John Fuller.
What happened at the Fermi 1 was the result of engineering errors, non-compliance with safety regulations, and of a lack of experience. Engineers brought in cooling configuration, but did not enter it in the documentation, because the engineers who worked on the reactor, did not know that in a tank of sodium were more watery dispersion plate. When one of the tanks blocked the cooling pipes, reactor core perenagrelos to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (about 370C, approx. Mixednews) and partly melted.
When melting reactor fuel perenagrelos excess of what could control the cooling system. This eventually led to the melting of the surrounding infrastructure, such as a protective enclosure, cooling system, and in extreme cases, the base of the unit. When fully melted the fuel ignited, and maintains a temperature of about 2000 degrees Fahrenheit (about 1000C). Although the term is not used in 1966, a hypothetical (and at the technical level unworkable) the chance that a molten reactor prozhget earth through, and gets to China, given the definition of "China Syndrome."
Fermi 1 actually located between Detroit and Toledo, but you have to consider, "When we almost lost Toledo" does not sound so exciting.
Tybee Island, 1958 — Broken Arrow
In the waters near Tybee Island, Dzhorzhdiya, on the border of Georgia and South Carolina, at a depth of about 10 feet (3m) is a hydrogen bomb. She is there almost 50 years.
In 1958, the B-47 bomber «Stratojet» during a training exercise crashed. On board he was carrying a Mark 15 hydrogen bomb — bomb a light 12 feet long, armed with 400 pounds of explosives and highly enriched uranium. The crew suffering a plane crash determined that a forced landing when they absolutely do not want to carry on board such a terrible burden, and requested permission to throw a bomb into the ocean. When hitting the water it did not explode, and no one from the time it is no longer beheld.
There is some disagreement as to whether there was a bomb equipped with a hundred percent. Some reports said they were, but the Air Force officially announced that the inside was training capsule. Samples have been taken to find her, but the natural radiation of land made very difficult search activities. If it was equipped, and if detonated, then the nearby city of Savannah would actually gone from the face of the earth.
Idaho Falls, 1961 — Faded Giant
It was a potentially serious tragedy, and populated areas exposed to radioactive gas. But the incident in Idaho Falls is home to a number of nuclear accidents, as the most terrible tragedy, but this is not clear enough comparable.
The reactor SL-1 was a pilot, and was administered by the army near Idaho Falls. Third January 1961 all the commotion woke siren. Urgent arrived located near the staff in case of emergencies. Because of the highest radiation they could not get through to the cockpit controls and a half hours. When they finally did it, they found a 2-hit, one of which still showed signs of life (he died soon after that.) Even after the victim was carried out of the structure, where the reactor, human bodies were so radioactive that they had to be buried in the cemeteries of lead.
The worst was yet to come. After a certain number of days of the emergency services have found the third operator. When the incident occurred, he was standing at the top of the reactor. Force of the explosion tore the control rods, and those going through his rib cage, body nailed to the ceiling.
The premise of the incident was the possibility operators to control the speed of reaction. Sustained response asks that each division cycle generate enough neutrons to break up the additional atoms, producing the subsequent division cycle. Management made with the help of the control rods of a material is harmless suction neutrons. Entering several parts of the control rods in reactor slow down the response. SL-1 is undergoing a technical service, in which the control rods required to take out a few inches. Because the design of the reactor meant the introduction of the 1st vast web of control, the only error (pulling the rod almost completely) resulted in the instantaneous reaction of supercritical — cycles of division, which grew exponentially.
Powerful jump off energy cooling water will evaporate, and part of the reactor itself, eventually causing a powerful explosion that led to the termination of the reaction. So you can write a book, "The day we almost lost the Idaho Falls."
NORAD, 1979 — YADVSPYSHKA (almost)
Oh, so NORAD taught that we should not work with a computer simulation of a nuclear attack Russian Union of using systems that respond to the real nuclear attack. Missile Defense Agency has received disturbing indications that the whole armada of Russian nuclear warheads sent to the United States. Rose in the air combat aircraft, equipped by the nuclear weapon. Protected the president's plane was also raised in the air (though at that time he was not there).
Stiffened finger over the button. Commanders flight crews expect the order to storm. For 6 tense minutes, no one was sure that it was not the third global war … and surprisingly, no one used the "red telephone" hot strip with the Soviets. In the end, from satellites and radars of early warning signal came that no nuclear attack is not fix
ed. The culprit turned out to be a stir training record, generating fake positive signals that case included. In the jargon of military means real YADVSPYSHKA nuclear explosion which could lead to nuclear war.
If all vysheozvuchennyh does not look quite intimidating, in other words, a few 10 s of similar incidents in the United States only. One can recall the eminent Caribbean crisis. The sad morality is such that it would be wiser to fear the least obvious anger, if his incompetence and bad technique.