Korea expert Konstantin Asmolov: "In the minds of several generations of post-war stay mentally installation on the opposition."
Naikrupneyshy over the past half a century military incident between the DPRK and the Republic of Korea, said that war on the Korean peninsula to this day is not over. An armistice was signed in 1953, suspended the armed struggle only virtually. Without a peace treaty, the two Koreas, until now are in a state of war. "MK" has asked to tell about the causes and consequences of the Korean War, the 1st of the great Russian professionals Korea.
— The main reason for the Korean War — the internal situation in the peninsula — says a leading researcher at the Institute for Far Eastern Studies Konstantin Asmolov. — Soviet-American conflict only worsened the conflict, which has already been there, but did not initiate it. The fact that Korea can be said to cut in the living — it's like that in Russia to slash at latitude Bologoe and say that now there is a North Our homeland with its capital in St. Petersburg and South — with the capital in Moscow. It is clear that such an unnatural state of affairs caused and Pyongyang and Seoul have a strong desire to connect Korea under his command.
— What were the two Koreas before the war?
Modern audiences often represents for them the beginning of the conflict as a sudden and unprovoked attack North to South. This is not the case. South Korean President Lee scion of Man, despite the fact that he lived in America for a long time, why read in English rather than in their native Korean language was not an American puppet. Aged Lee seriously considered himself a modern messiah of the Korean people, and so intensely eager to fight the United States feared supply him with offensive weapons, fearing that it will draw in a South American army is not suited to her conflict.
Popular support mode for all that Lee did not use. Left, anti-Syngman Rhee movement was very strong. In 1948, a rebel infantry regiment, with difficulty suppressed the revolt, and the peninsula Jeju long been shrouded in communist revolt in the time of trouble which died a little if not every fourth inhabitant of the island. In general, left-wing movement in the South was a little to much even with Pyongyang, and even more so with Moscow and the Comintern, although the Americans were firmly convinced that at least a manifestation of how the Left, which nominated communist or close to these slogans, conducted by Moscow.
Because of this, throughout the '49 and the first half of the 50th's situation on the border was like trench warfare of the First World, where nearly every day incidents have occurred with the use of aviation, artillery and military units of a battalion, while the Southerners were often in the role of aggressor. Because some historians in the West, even the highlights of this period as a preparatory step or guerrilla war, noting that the June 25, 1950 in the conflict just changed drastically scale.
It should be noted something fundamental and relative to North. The fact is that when we talk about leadership DPRK so far, we are projecting on him late North Korean stamps, when there was no one except the majestic leader Comrade Kim Il Sung. But then everything was different, in the ruling party, there were various factions, and if North Korea and resembled Russian Alliance, the faster the USSR 20th, when Stalin was not the leader, but was only in the middle of the first things being equal, and Trotsky, Bukharin or Kamenev remained important and notable figures. This is of course a very rough comparison, but it is crucial for the realization that Kim Il Sung was not then, Kim Il Sung, whom we used to know, and not including him in the leadership were still influential people whose role in the preparation of the war was not less if not more.
Landing of U.S. forces in Incheon
The main "lobbyist" War of the DPRK was the head of the "factions of the local Communists' Pak Hon Yong, who was the second person in the country — Minister of Foreign Affairs, the first deputy prime minister and the first leader of the Communist Party, which was formed in the area immediately after the liberation of Korea from Japanese, while Kim Il Sung was in the USSR. In general, before 1945 Pak also has worked in the Comintern structures, 20-30 years lived in the Russian Union and there had powerful friends.
Pak insisted that North Korea's army will cross the border, 200 thousand South Korean communists immediately enter the fray, and the American puppet regime will fall. If all this is worth keeping in mind that the self-agents that could verify these reports, a Russian unit was not, so that all the decisions were made on the basis provided by Pak disk imaging.
Up to a certain time, both Moscow and Washington did not give Korean leadership carte blanche to "Unification Wars", although Kim Il Sung desperately bombed Moscow and Beijing requests to allow an invasion of the South. Furthermore, September 24, 1949 the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) evaluated the plan a pre-emptive strike and liberation of the South as inappropriate. Plain text stated that "the way coming unprepared tribute can be reincarnated as a prolonged military operation, which not only does not lead to the defeat of the enemy, and will create significant political and economic difficulties." But in the spring of 1950 still permit has been obtained.
— Why Moscow changed her mind?
— It is believed that it was in the event in October 1949, the People's Republic as an independent municipality, but China had just emerged from a protracted war, civilian, and there has been at the throat of their own problems. Faster, at some step to Moscow all the same assured that South Korea's revolutionary situation, the war will be like a blitzkrieg, and the Americans did not intervene.
It is at this point we know that the United States was in the conflict over the active role, but then such a development was not saying. Everyone was more or less clear that the U.S. administration scion Lee Mans not adored. He had great connections with some soldiers and leaders of the Republican Party, but the Democrats have not complained about it very much, and reports the CIA Lee openly called Mana Scion of an old senile. He was the suitcase without a handle, which very heavy and awkward to carry, but that can not throw. Played a role in the defeat of the Kuomintang in China — the Americans did not do anything in order to protect its own ally Chiang Kai-shek, and then he was even more necessary the United States than a scion of Lee Man. Imposes the conclusion that if the Americans did not support Taiwan and declared his only passive support, then at least South Korea, they certainly will not be protected.
The fact that Korea was officially taken out of the defensive perimeter of the states, which promised to defend America, too, it was not difficult to explain as a symbol of the coming of non-interference in Korean affairs of America because of its lack of importance.
In addition, the situation when the war was al
ready strained, and on the world map you can find plenty of places where the "communist threat" could grow into a harsh military invasion. West Berlin, where in 1949, he was a very serious crisis in Greece, which has just completed three-year war between the Communists civilian clothes and royalists confrontation in Turkey or Iran — all of this was seen even hotter points than some of Korea.
Another thing is that after the invasion began, the State Department and the administration of President Truman in a situation when this time is not to retreat, you want — you do not want, and will have to get involved. Truman believed in the doctrine of containment of communism, gave a very stern attention of the UN and the thought that if we again allow slack here, the Communists believe in their impunity and here will put pressure on all fronts, and it should be aggressively prisech. In addition, the U.S. has raised its head McCarthyism, which meant that the bureaucracy was necessary to avoid being branded "pink".
Of course, you can guess that Moscow would support Pyongyang's decision, if the Kremlin probably knew that the masses would not support an invasion of the South and the U.S. administration will take it as an open challenge, that must be resisted. Maybe the action would have developed differently, although tension still there and Lee Man Offspring also intensively tried to get the U.S. approval for anger. But the subjunctive history, as we know, does not know.
B-26 bomber dropped bombs
— 25 June 1950 North Korean troops crossed the border and began the first step of the war, which the North Koreans butchered corrupt and poorly cooked the South Korean army, as God turtle. Seoul was captured almost immediately, June 28, at the same time when the North Korean troops were approaching the town, the South Korean radio has aired reports about the fact that the army of the Republic of Korea repel an attack Communists and triumphantly moves on Pyongyang.
After capturing the capital, northerners week expected when will revolt. But it did not work, and the war had to continue on the background of an increasing involvement in the conflict the United States and its allies. Immediately after the war the United States initiated the convening of the UN Security Council, which gave a mandate to the introduction of international forces for the "expulsion of the aggressor" and entrusted the management of a "police action" to the United States, led by General Douglas MacArthur. The Soviet Union, whose representative boycotted the meeting of the Security Council because of its role in Taiwan's representative did not have the ability to veto. So plainclothes war turned into an international conflict.
What's all the same to Pak Hon-yong, then, when it became clear that the uprising will not, he began to lose influence and status, and closer to the end of the war, Pak and his group eliminated. Formally, it was announced in komplote and spying for the United States, but the main charge was that he was "set up" by Kim Il Sung and the management of the country dragged into the war.
First, success is still favored by North Korea, and at the end of July 1950 the Americans and South Koreans retreated to the south-east of the Korean Peninsula, organizing the defense of the so-called Pusan perimeter. Skills of the North Korean soldier was the highest, and the T-34 could not withstand even the Americans — their first encounter ended with the fact that the tanks are simply passed through the fortified limit that they had to delay.
But the North Korean army was not prepared for a long war, and the commander of the South American troops, General Walker with enough austerity measures could halt the North Korean advance. Coming of ran out of steam, communication band stretched out, reserves were depleted, most of the tanks were all the same out of order, and in the end coming was less than those who are defending inside the perimeter. Add to this that the Yankees were almost always complete air supremacy.
To achieve a breakthrough in the course of the war, the commander of "UN troops" General MacArthur developed a very risky and scary plan for amphibious operations at Inchon, on the west coast of the Korean peninsula. His colleagues thought that a similar landing — close to an impossible task, but MacArthur broke the case on his own charisma, not the intellectual arguments. He had a kind of feeling, which from time to time worked.
U.S. Marines take captive Chinese fighter
Early in the afternoon on September 15 the Americans put under Incheon and after fierce fighting on Sept. 28 was seized Seoul. Thus began the second step of the war. By early October, the northerners have left the area of South Korea. Here are the U.S. and its South Korean allies decided not to miss the chance.
October 1, UN troops crossed the demarcation line, and by October 24, occupied a large part of the North Korean countryside, going to the border with China, the Yalu River (Yalu). That is what happened in the summer months with the South, just happened with the North.
But here in China, which until then had not repeatedly warned that intervene if UN troops would suppress the 38th parallel, decided to act. Give the U.S. or US-backed regime of access to the Chinese border in the north-eastern region — could not be allowed. Beijing sent troops to Korea, which is formally called as "the Army of the Chinese People's Volunteers (AKND)" under the running of the 1st of the best Chinese commander, General Peng Dehuai.
Warnings were many, but General MacArthur did not direct their attention. Generally, by the time he considered himself a prince of a kind that Washington knows better what to do in the Far East. In Taiwan, he was met by the protocol of the meeting the President, and a number of indications Truman he openly ignored. Moreover, during the meeting with the president, he openly stated that China would not dare to engage in conflict, and if they dare, the U.S. Army gave them a "great slaughter."
October 19, 1950 AKND ran across the Sino-Korean border. Taking advantage of the surprise effect, on October 25 the army crushed the defense of the UN forces, and by the end of the year northerners back control over the entire territory of the DPRK.
The coming of Chinese volunteers marked the third step of the war. In some places, the Americans were just running here and there with dignity retreat, breaking through the Chinese ambush, so that by the beginning of winter, the situation of the South and the UN troops was very unflattering. January 4, 1951 troops North Korean and Chinese volunteers again took Seoul.
By January 24 the promotion of Chinese and North Korean forces stalled. Replace those lost Walker, General Ridgway managed to stop the coming of the Chinese strategy of "meat grinder": Americans are fixed on the commanding heights, while the Chinese are expected to take over everything else and float planes and artillery, contrasting their advantage in firepower, the Chinese number.
Since the end of January 1951 the South American command launched a series of successful operations, an
d thanks to the counter-offensive, in March, Seoul once again ran into the hands of southerners. Even before the counter-attack, on April 11 because of disagreements with Truman (including on the idea to use a nuclear weapon), MacArthur was shifted from the post of commander of the UN forces and replaced Ridgway.
In April — July 1951 the warring parties made several attempts to break through the front line and change the situation in their favor, but none of the parties have gained a strategic advantage, and military action have acquired positional character.
UN forces crossed the 38th parallel, retreating from Pyongyang
By this time the parties to the conflict, it became clear that to achieve a military victory reasonable price is unrealistic and need negotiate a truce. June 23 Russian representative to the United Nations called for a cease-fire in Korea. November 27, 1951 the parties agreed to establish a demarcation on the basis of the available bandwidth of the front band and the development of the demilitarized zone, but then negotiations have reached a dead end, in the main, because of the position scion Lee Mans strongly supports the continuation of the war, is also disagreement on the issue of repatriation prisoners of war.
The problem was with the prisoners in the future. Usually after the war prisoners vary according to the principle "all for all". But during the war, in the absence of human resources, the North Koreans are intensely mobilized into the army of the Republic of Korea dwellers who do not particularly want to wage war for the North and give up at the first ability. A similar situation was in China, there was a lot of former Kuomintang soldier captured in the course of civilian war. As a result, about half of the Korean and Chinese prisoners refused to be repatriated. The resolution of this issue took the most time. While Lee Scion Mans almost tore the sentences just ordered the protection of the camps to release those who are not willing vorachivatsya. Generally by this time the South Korean president was nadoedliv so that even the CIA developed a plan for suspension scion Lee Mann from power.
July 27, 1953 by representatives of the DPRK and the UN forces AKND (representatives of South Korea refused to sign the document), signed a cease-fire, according to which the demarcation line between North and South Korea was established around the 38th parallel, and on both sides around it established a demilitarized zone 4 km wide.
— You read as about the South American Advantages in the air, it is unlikely Russian veterans agree.
— I agree, since our pilots had a very limited set of tasks related to the fact that as an additional leverage to the North Americans have used strategic bombing in principle civilian objects, such as dams and hydroelectric power plants. Including those who were in the border areas. For example, Suphunskaya plant depicted on the emblem of North Korea and is the naikrupneyshey power station in the region, are stuffed with electricity not only Korea, and northeast China.
So, here, the main job of our fighters was specifically to defend against attacks by U.S. aircraft industrial facilities on the border of Korea and China. They did not lead the war on the front of the band and took part in offensive operations.
What did the question "who" that any party believes that the victory won in the air. Americans naturally think all MIG and they knocked, but the MiG-oh flew not only ours, and the Chinese and Korean pilots whose flying skills left much to be desired. In addition, the main goal of our MIG-s were "flying fortress" B-29, while the Americans were hunting for our pilots, trying to protect their bombers.
— What is the result of the war?
— War left a very sore scar on the body of the peninsula. Can provide for themselves the extent of destruction in Korea, when the front line was swinging like a pendulum. By the way, on Korea were dropped more than napalm on Vietnam, and this despite the fact that the Vietnam War was almost three times longer. The dry residue of loss is this: that the loss of troops on both sides were about 2 million 400 thousand people. Together with civilians, although consider the total number of killed and maimed innocent people is very hard, out of about 3 million people (1.3 million southerners and northerners 1.5-2.0 million), accounting for 10% of the population of the two Koreas in this period. Another 5 million people became refugees, although the period of active hostilities took only a little more than one year.
From the standpoint achieve their goals did not win the war no one. The union has not been achieved, made demarcation line, is rapidly transforming into a "dignified Korean wall" only highlighted the split of the peninsula, and in the minds of several generations of post-war setting to stay mentally confrontation — between with 2 parts of a single civilization grew wall of hostility and mistrust . The political and ideological confrontation was only secured.