The period after the death of Stalin, and up to about the mid-1960s looked weird: on the one hand has been formally discontinued the practice psevdosudebnyh killings and put some no legitimacy; punitive apparatus is trimmed of odious persons, there was a civilian oversight of security forces. On the other — even legally Gulag continued to exist until 1960, but sadly known for Article 58 of the RSFSR in 1961, was tried before.
This duality of Russian natural systems caused a revival of protest groups — when people believed the rapid onset of complete freedom, and their actions have tried to bring this point, "prompt" something the authorities. And in response they have received no worse than the Stalinist repression: on the 58th, and similar articles of protesters favorites (or "particularly unsafe protesters") prepared by the 10 years of the Gulag, the other parties — for 3-7 years.
With all this the bulk of the "dissidents" (85 percent, no less) if the protest were two currents. First presented in the main singles in the RSFSR and other republics or in groups in the Baltics and in western Ukraine, was sharply anti-communist and more than that — often pro-German and pro-American. Hitler or the United States is perceived as a sign of "order" — in contrast to the "confusion" of Khrushchev. More often such thoughts uttered veterans in 1944-45 who saw life in Europe as American and British allies (with all this files now they say that among the soldiers then had a firm conviction that the Soviet Union was able to defeat Germany only with the help of the Allies.) Or the people who lived in the occupied territories of the Germans or driven to work in Germany.
Here are the usual arguments of these people, recorded in their criminal cases (here and further quoted excerpts from the book "Sedition. Dissent under Khrushchev and Brezhnev." Edited V.A.Kozlova and S.V.Mironova)
"Fireman of the Capital Region, 1958-59 years. "Hitler was the only intelligent man, wanted to bring freedom to the Russian people, to free him from slavery."
"Two inhabitant of Nizhny Tagil in August 1953, dismantled railway track and caused the collapse of the passenger train, waiting, after which they met the U.S. agents and get their reward for acts of sabotage."
"The Smith SA 1954 year. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Blacksmith during the war went to serve in the German army. Stated that the Russian army defeated Germany with the help of the British and the Yankees. Praised the South American and the German army. Praising life in Nazi Germany. He said that the German army was order and discipline is not bad, the orders were carried out strictly, aircrafts flying in the exact timeline. And in the Russian Army discipline panic, orders are made in time. Decayed discipline of the farm, urging people not to rush to work. "
"Novikov, GM, and the attendant sea terminal port of Petropavlovsk, sentenced in 1958 to six years in prison.
Workers called slaves, head — a gentleman. After the work never stopped, explained that it is necessary to have time to listen to the radio "Voice of America", heard bad day and NIGHT MODE fine.
The magazine "America" wanted to use as a pass, when the Americans come to town. Also, the Americans during the occupation would give him the first chair in Petropavlovsk. Stated that the United States will bombard den Moscow, and we have nothing, nothing to fight the war. He declared that America helped us out in the Russian war. Stated that if the Americans came here, I did not even regret to own puppies, that is, toddlers, and would go against the Red Book, ie, the Communists. "
"Swoop VD He was sentenced in 1959 to seven years in prison.
In Sverdlovsk handed South American journalist Paul Martin a letter which said: "The President of the United States and with great South American People. We expect you to our liberation from communist slavery. The Russian people. "
A small group of "dissidents" (10 percent) was presented sectarian. That's one of the examples of their propaganda:
"Bahram FE Was sentenced in 1961 to seven years in prison.
Collective dominion of the Antichrist came in 1922 — a day or recognizing the power of the West. Before the coronation of a ruler of the world is left a little over 2 years. During the clearance time to make a revolution in the world. A clearance time — anarchy, and the election of the lord of the world. "
In the end, the most significant part of the protesters were a group of workers. Archival materials show that by the end of the 1960s in the fight against the Russian authorities intellectuals actually involved (or these were isolated cases). The vast majority of protesters — workers, and students. Their main demands were a return to Leninist democracy, neither of which liberalism or nationalism (later they were Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn) of the question. Russian people are mostly believed that socialism — the most advanced model of society, and in USSR under Stalin and Khrushchev, it was corrupted. But — a little effort, and all can be corrected.
Exclusively in the late 1960s, these protest groups in 3096 calculated the secret services of the USSR, usually they consist of 3-5 people. Titles of the most active and more ruthlessly suppressed by the authorities shows what ideology they held: "The new RSDLP", "New Leninists", "League of Struggle for Justice," "Party of Lenin's struggle for the validity of ideas", "League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class' "Workers' and Peasants' Party ', etc. It is interesting that so many of them among their own policy documents used Lenin's works (eg, "What do I do?" And "Where do I start?"). Among the benchmarks, except Lenin, again started including the Bol
sheviks destroyed by Stalin — Trotsky, Bukharin, etc.
That's a standard leaflet movement "of the Communist-Leninists" (her favorites were 7-10 years imprisonment), 1956 year:
"But where is this freedom? Where is the freedom that has been won by Lenin? Stalin's dictatorship buried freedom. Lost the political activity of the people, the place of free speech and silence came a whisper. Friends! Under the banner of Leninism destroy the shackles of political red tape! "
The draft of the new Russian unit of the country, proposed the "Union of the revolutionary Leninists", you can even now take and put into practice — so it burning. Here are some quotes from there:
"Systematic control boards and the public over the executive.
Party. An immediate and significant reduction in swollen and become bureaucratic apparatus. Introduction partmaksimuma at the average wage of a skilled worker. Freedom of views on how services are common to the entire party purposes.
Respect for constitutional freedoms, censorship and destruction in the assumption of freedom of press and radio views.
Revision of the Criminal Code of the Soviet Union in order to strengthen the fight against hooliganism and public manifestations of intolerance.
Software is actually a living wage for all workers.
Revision of the existing at the present time the rating system as a means of regulation and restriction of constitutional freedoms. "
Treatment of "workers' and peasants underground group, Rostov Region, 1957-58 years (favorite parts were convicted: Kostornov — for 10 years, and Taranukha Boldyrev — 8 years old, Polished — 4 years, the other members — for 3-4 years) :
"Monster Khrushchev has divided our people of the Russian Federation on the 4th grade.
Class 1 — communist-capitalist billionaires in what is all power and enslave the people.
Grade 2 — these are the communists, but only prislavuty and climbers make the orders of communist capitalists.
Grade 3 — is also the Communists, but only poor people do not have any income.
4 class — laborers, those workers who are enslaved and have no rights and can not be on any of the communist secret meetings happen.
Comrades! Take the gun in hand, Khrushchev adversity chase. Take the power into their own hands.
Comrades warriors Russian Army! Furnish working tool! Not lupite own brothers, sons, sisters and mothers. Is arrested on the spot of their own staffs of their own opponents.
Lupite Khrushchev's dictatorship, release people from selfish lifestyle! Down with the serfdom of the peasantry!
Long live the free people's democracy! The will and the freedom of all people! "
Later dissident intellectuals convinced the public that they are the first specifically went on an organized demonstration against the Russian authorities — first on Pushkin Square in 1967, and later, after the invasion of the USSR tanks into Prague in 1968.
But it is not. The first was held by the people Nov. 7, 1956, when the streets of Leningrad was a revolutionary youth group led by M.Krasilnikovym with the slogans "Down with Khrushchev," "Down with the Party clique", "Long live the Free Hungary!"
A single person or a 3-4 performances in those years were not counted. Here are a few cases. "Working Magomedov B. Makhachkala September 14 drove a bike in the building of Party Committee, which raised a ruckus, and the audience gathered at bolshennom crowd of people shouting, he hated Communists. That they had seized power, urged those present to peel the Communists. " "The Postman candlestick on Arbat Street in Moscow July 18, 1958 yelling" Down with Khrushchev, "" Long live America! ".
By the end of the 1960s, Russian special services completely suppressed the practical working protest movement (the apotheosis was the shooting of workers in Novocherkassk, June 2, 1962 — by the way, and this year, in previous years power Putin-Medvedev tries not to think of this atrocity.) Thousands of people have been sentenced to the Gulag and links "profilaktirovali" there were 13 thousand people.
To replace them come intelligentsia dissident movement with liberal and "universal values", as the nationalists of all stripes. Also symptomatic of what is now the Russian, Chechen, Mongolian and other Nazis prefer not to remember who was their ancestor. In April 1967 in Tbilisi Petrossian GA and N.Sh.Maharadze was created first in the USSR "illegal organization fascists." "We tried to get as gunpowder and explosives," — wrote in a report to the KGB.
Specifically, with this lineup of "dissidents" of the USSR and later went to the restructuring. It is logical that they have in the 1990s was created such an ugly and antihuman system — without the socialists and social democrats in the political fabric of the country, carefully smothered under Khrushchev and Brezhnev of early.