Previously it was thought that the October 12, 1492 America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. Sailor took her to India in search of the "Western way" in which, and sends his expedition.
However, found that the first explorers from Europe, appeared off the coast of America, and 500 years before Columbus, were the Scandinavian Vikings from Greenland — Erik Red and his son Leif Eiriksson.
In 1004 Leif first landed on the coast of North America, on the peninsula of Labrador and Newfoundland.
These and other events are reflected in the famous Icelandic sagas. So, in the "Saga of Greenlanders" tells that the first Vikings sailed to the ground, covered with rocks and glaciers, and called it Helluland — Country stone slabs. Moving south, they saw a flat, wooded land, which they named Markland — Forest Country. Moving on, they came to the shore, where growing grapes. Leif called the area Vinland — Grape Country. Foothold in the newly discovered lands Scandinavians failed because of the hostility of natives.
In 1960, Newfoundland, in the place of Lance-Meadows, an archaeological expedition of Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad found the ruins of the settlement of Scandinavians, remnants of clothing, traces of metal smelting. In 1978, the Conference of UNESCO recognized its first genuine Scandinavian settlement in North America.
In 1965, the oldest in the United States Yale University published a map on which, in addition to the Atlantic coast of Europe and Africa, have been depicted in Iceland and Greenland, and further to the west — a large island, designated as the "Island of Vinland." On the map there is no date it is made, no name mapper, but scientists have determined that it is drawn not later than in 1440 — half a century before Columbus's voyage. Scandinavian Vikings, had time to time to live in the northern lands of America, authorized by card no one would suspect, but it was immediately recognized as the most significant discovery of geospatial XX century.
However, there were scholars who have begun to seek out evidence of falsification of this historic document. After 10 years found that in ink to draw the map, is a pigment containing titanium. And have learned to make a pigment only in the XX century. Skeptics triumph, considering his "discovery" of convincing evidence that the card — fake.
But in 1980, physicists at the University of California, led by Dr. Thomas Cahill proton beam irradiated card and found that the titanium contained in the ink only in trace amounts. Dr. Cahill suggested a re-examination of cartographic rarity.
February 26, 1996 the London newspaper "The Times" wrote that at a recent symposium at Yale Cahill presented the scientific community new facts about the study card. He said that the same proton beam irradiation exposed several ancient printed books, the authenticity of which is not in doubt, and ink used in the printing of these tomes contain more titanium than ink, draw the Yale map. So were refuted definitively "prove" fraud, and doubt that Yale card — the original, is almost gone.
But who and based on what information could draw a map for half a century before the official opening of U.S. land, and has not been established.
300 years before the discovery of
In 1929, in the library of the Imperial Palace in Istanbul found a map drawn on a piece of parchment Turkish admiral Piri Reis. It is dated 1513 year. The map shows the western coast of Africa, the eastern coast of South America and … the northern coast of Antarctica!
After sailing Columbus Spanish conquest and simultaneously explore the lands of South America, but the study of the South American Atlantic coast was finished only to 1520, when Ferdinand Magellan passed along the coast to the south and reached the Pacific Ocean through the Strait, later called the name of the explorer. However, on parchment Reis fully revealed eastern coast of South America, and the Strait of Magellan, to the discovery that at the time the card was still seven years.
As for Antarctica, it is generally considered, it opened Russian expedition Bellingshausen-Lazarev, held on board "East" and "peace" along the Pacific coast of the southern continent in January 1820. However Flight view on the map Princess Martha Coast, located on the Atlantic coast of Antarctica, and is part of Queen Maud Land, for more than 300 years before humanity became aware of the existence of the sixth continent.
In the fields marked cards Admiral date of its creation, and wrote that used in the preparation of other, earlier maps, and some of them date back to the IV century BC
Some more than once declared Reis map fake, but repeated examination confirmed its authenticity.
In 1960, the American historian and geographer, Professor Charles Hapgood found in the Library of Congress map of the world, published in 1531 by the French geographer Oronsay Finet (Oronteusom Finiusom), which depicted the Antarctic continent.
In 1569 the Flemish cartographer Gerard van Kremer (Mercator) has created a collection of maps, called "Atlas." Kremer included in it referred to map Finiusa, and several of the cards, which also shows the Antarctica. "In some cases, — said Dr. Hapgood, — details of shape and topography of the Antarctic continent to the Mercator maps indicated more clearly than on the map Finiusa, and it seems obvious that Mercator has other primary sources than Finius."
The French geographer Philip Buashe published a map of Antarctica in 1737, also long before the "official" opening of the southern continent. It builds it, like Mercator and Finius, enjoyed by some maps created centuries ago.
All of these cards with the image of Antarctica contain and another riddle.
Antarctica is now almost completely covered with ice, which reaches a maximum thickness of four kilometers. Almost the entire coastline of the mainland circuit hidden floating ice shelves. So that the shape of the actual land of Antarctica, not to mention the relief of the surface, it was possible to determine only from seismic exploration, which began in 1949, a joint Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition.
However, a map of Flight coast of Queen Maud Land shown free of ice. These modern studies confirm that such a period, when the ice did not cover the coastal area of Antarctica, its history was. He only lasted approximately 13000th for four thousand years BC! Are some cards which were the primary sources for the compilation of Flight, were established during this period of time?
The map shows Antarctica Finiusa entire outline of her coastline is almost identical to that on modern maps. In a wide coastal strip marked ridges and valleys, where the rivers flow down to the ocean. These upland and lowland shows exactly where, according to the latest research, they do exist. Mountains and rivers on the map are absent only in the interior of the continent. All this gives grounds to assume that during the drafting of the source maps used by the Finius, ice covered only the central part of Antarctica. And this period is over for at least six thousand years ago.
But the biggest sensation were the results of the study of maps Philip Buashe. It Antarctica presented in full compliance with current cards. Particularly impressive is the image of the continent in the form of two land masses separated stretching from east to west waters. Research conducted in 1958 on the program of the International Geophysical Year, confirmed that the image of Antarctica Map Buashe corresponds to the actual configuration of the continent. But know that Antarctica — Archipelago, you can only shoot in the area, free of ice. But the "land" the continent was at least 15,000 years ago! That is, in the preparation of the card had Buashe primary sources of the same age.
Thus, using the latest knowledge about Antarctica, we see that awareness of cartographers of the past and not exactly the extant primary sources dating back tens of thousands of years.
We can only answer the question of what the representatives of civilization and by what art to make highly accurate maps, referred to the original sources so far removed from our times? After all, in our view, at the time in the world in general, there was no civilization!
Category: Mystery stories