Hetman Ivan Zolotarenko troops Zaporizhzhya, suspected by the Poles in harakternichestve, was killed in 1655 in the town of old Byhov shot from a gun with a bell Catholic organist Tomas. The murderer confessed that he was prepared for this mischief Catholic Roman Catholic priest who gave him "the bullet from the sacred chalice, consecrated and fortified special conspiracies."
Taken out from the body of the hetman bullet really was extraordinary: the middle there was a silver with Latin characters. The body Zolotarenko taken to his home in the town of Korsun to bury a wood church, built at his own expense. When in the presence of many inhabitants of the clergy and the burial ceremony began, it suddenly struck by lightning and caught fire, and the church "the body of the murdered together with the church burned to ashes."
According to the views of V. Pilate, "after the baptism of Rus' princes and persecuted by the Greeks magicians, priests and warriors guards churches united in a secret society and in the outlying areas of large cities have started to create Sich. On the islands of the Dnieper, Dniester and the Bug coasts, in the Carpathian Mountains and the numerous forests of Ukraine (Russia) Magi founded schools of combat hardening and training, public way to the tops of perfection warriors relied on native faith, ancestral customs and rituals. Here we can recall the predecessors of the Cossacks of the XVI century — the mysterious steppe Brodnikov, Vigonza Galician and other military communities. Not without reason, and Zaporozhye appeared on the peninsula Khortytsya. "
Cossacks-Kharakternyky rumor attributed to the ability to create an irrational, for example, the "point-manna," the enemy, forcing them to create mystical images. Argues that in the history of warfare Cossacks and the Poles were reported such cases: chase for the Poles and Cossacks so there is nowhere to hide, hide and then put in the middle of the field characterniki spears in a circle and come in a special psychoenergetic state. Poles behold the oak grove in the middle of the field … and pass by.
The Cossacks did so, and when necessary to protect themselves on vacation. The camp was surrounded harakternyk spears, and at the approach of the enemy took them for reeds.
Characterniki Tipo able to produce "The Scream": take the reeds, dipped them into the water and wax, then yelled at them. Wax is somehow "magically" imprinted cry. Such a charm reeds scattered across the steppe. Come on them at dusk or in the early afternoon enemy stallion, and you will hear a scream — a Cossack outpost on warned of the approach of the enemy. But know also that the Cossack Ivan Bohun Kharakternyky NIGHT MODE conducted his army through the Polish camp so that no enemy's dog did not bark …
In 1775, when Catherine II sent troops reached the Zaporizhzhya Sich for its destruction and capture of the archive, the Cossacks, led Kharakternyky, scuttled across the Danube in Turkey, where he founded the Zadunajsky Sich (on the territory of modern Romania).
Anyone interested in Russian history can find on the subject are many fascinating facts in the Internet space, we will restrict ourselves Article Ukrainian researcher Roman Miskin on the website "Cossack camp» (http://cossackstan.ru).
— But what is this Kharakternyky, Grandpa?
— Kharakternyky been very intelligent man and knew all sorts of things, and it did not take a bullet, and the sword is not chopped, it was all the means and methods to all not a bad word, and usefulness. Characterniki knew all the passages are all floating down the Dnieper and other rivers; Kharakternyky of water deduced from the dry and wet fire, their conscience was lytsarskaya and complacency … That's what was characterniki.
The novel "Tchaikovsky", 1843
Marvelous and mysterious world of folk tales and legends have survived to us images of events, old ancient times. Otshumeli ringing battle died down crowded hiking, gone for ever heroes of those years, disappeared without any trace in the thickness of the century. But the memory of the people's carefully keeps their works, sometimes intricately embellished fabulous fiction, and these legends, passing from father to offspring, from mouth to mouth, and form a continuous live that thread, which is called the spiritual heritage. Tear off this thread — and otsechesh trunk from the roots, and wither, Istan even the strongest tree. To resume it — and once again a full-blooded roar of the mighty crown of it, proudly billowing skyward.
And the Cossacks — no really any more severe Dnieper rapids or violent volelyubnoy Host, and majestically above the glorious Lugh splashing waves today Kahovskogo sea. But it is not lost, not lost the memory of Zaporozhye, has preserved for us the wonderful ancient legends about the mysterious Kharakternyky, these seasoned inverse life chudesnikov and treacherous lytsar-sorcerers, of which neither the bullet did not take, nor sword not minced. An old grandfather used to say Sich, as if these people can immorteles nasylat fog and sleep waft in Horto (borzyh. — Ed.) To turn around in the river overflows on 12 languages to speak sternly out of the water dry and wet to go out of the fire and proactively manage the hidden enemies' plans. And so for centuries and stood on the protection of the Orthodox world, these warriors witch doctors defended their own breasts from all poruhi chuzhedalney and evil infidel holy Dnieper shore.
Most of the stories and legends about Kharakternyky were recorded in Ukraine only in the XIX century, but the first mention of them is found in the chronicles dating back to the second half of the XVI century. Polish historian Paprocki, describing a bad hike Hetman Samuel Zborowski in Moldova in 1583, gives the following information.
Near the Turkish fortress-city Aslam Ponizovje Dnieper during talks with the delegation expelled one of the Cossacks could not resist a shot at the Tatar. Zborowski was so outraged by this that it was willing to execute the guilty, but it resisted all his army, protecting its own companion that is dear to him was the fact that the number of "harakternyk" who knew how to start talking enemy bullets and make them harmless as myself personally, and for the order in which it was located.
But earlier, Martin Belsky, describing in his own "Chronicle" battle Ivan Horseshoe with Moldavian ruler Peter at Jassy in 1577, mentions that as if in the middle of the Cossacks was the Cossack who spoke rifle bullet. We can only guess whether it was the same person or the same historical messages belong to different
parties, but one thing is clear reliably — harakternichestva tradition manifests itself already at the stage of early Zaporozhye stories and takes its roots in antiquity graying.
The very word "Kharakternyky" (from the Greek character — a distinctive feature) is a man endowed with extraordinary, supernatural powers and therefore has dramatically evolved in the Cossack environment. Although often the case, and on the contrary — the popular rumor was of harakternyk strong personality, her unconventional and attributed magical properties. So it was with a known kosh Ivan Sirko, Colonel Simeon Paly, a centurion, and later ataman Black Sea Zachary Chepigi.
At the same time, the stories brought to us the names of Kharakternyky, it is not mentioned in historical documents, but had apparently completely real live prototype. These cops and sorcerers often named as galdovnikami (from Ukrainian galdovat — cast) and zamorochnikami, so as they could they let in trouble (fog, sleep), and sometimes simply called faith healers and warlocks.
The most eye-catching and unusual feature of Kharakternyky was invulnerable to bullets and swords — specifically because of this magical property of Zaporozhye wizards and came to the attention of Polish historians have already mentioned. These beliefs were so strong that even after three centuries are still walking in the middle of Ukrainian villagers and has been recorded by many researchers, for example, DI Yavornitskogo in his book "Zaporozhye in the remains of antiquity and tradition of the people" (1888).
In the popular imagination since the dawn of time was common belief that prayer zagovornym word can scare away all failed, including the PATH. Unfortunately, the text is eternally Zaporozhye "harakterstv" or "zamolvleny", has not been preserved, but the idea of them can be obtained from the book I. Sakharov, "Tales of the Russian people" (1849).
In almost all military komplotah apply to a spouse or girlfriend reddish stone that adorn the PATH thing, and to command, that the bullets were not bullets, arrows are not in the boom, and they were in the open field, in the mother-land of cheese, and so damask knives , sabers Bostrom, food, axes and hammers were docile and would not cause harm. Evince the wish that the body was stronger than pure white stone, and tight dress and chain mail armor, and that the stone that and odezhki bullet, and saber bounced would like a hammer on the anvil to make iron and steel would be spinning around, as the mill millstone, but did not touch the body. These and similar texts verbal magic were well known specifically in the Cossack environment with its military way of life and still quite often met in the XX century, the Don and Kuban Cossacks.
Kharakternyky is attributed to the ability to direct the hassle or "Ommaney," the enemy sorcery spell. In his book "The People's memory of Zaporozhye. Legends and stories collected in Katerynoslav in the years 1875-1905. "YP Nowicki brings the legend of the Battle of the Turks from the Russian army, which comes to the rescue Zaporozhye galdovnik: Turks chop each other.
According to countless legends and characterniki could evoke different visions.
Such fairy tales of Kharakternyky were very popular among the people, especially the common theme of how Stealther Cossack takes away the opponents eyes and they can not tie his or chained. A similar story emerges and on the pages of the novel "Ciorna happy" Panteleimon Kulish, a famous writer and ethnographer.
Follow a dazzling feature Kharakternyky was their ability to shape-shifting. In general, the "lycanthropy" (transformation of people into wolves) in the Slavic lands has the deepest roots. Most of early information about it preserved in Herodotus (V century BC) in his famous "History", where in the fourth book, "Melpomene" describes the nature of the Scythian people neuritis, capable of being converted into wolves.
Herodotus more than two millennia merges with numerous ethnographic data about the werewolf, beliefs in what was living in the Ukraine until the nedavneshnego time.
In general, the cult of the wolf from the Indo-European peoples is very old and difficult, and directly connected with military functions. The patron saint of wolves was considered sacred by the Slavs Egory (Jora, Gregory), who replaced him in the divine pantheon, Perun. In pagan times, the image of Thunder were accompanied by 2-wolves, finds his Hort (dogs). And it is specifically about the transformation in Horta show legend KOSHEVOGO Cirque.
It is interesting that the word "Hort" occurs and the title of the Zaporozhye cradle — Khortytya island, which is still more ancient times was called the peninsula of St. Zhora. Specifically to the island, according to the "Tale of Bygone Years", has beaten the idol of Perun after his overthrow in Kiev.
Were able to transform into a wolf, as the "Lay" and some ancient Russian princes — and not just Vseslav Polotsk, and the prince Igor while fleeing from Polovtsian captivity.
So absolutely not the case Zaporozhye Cossacks appeared in Khortytsia specifically, this pre-Christian shrines, giving us a clue to the many mysteries Kharakternyky.
With the cult of the wolf, apparently due skill and galdovnikov with special vertsadel (mirrors) to build for several miles around and know the enemies' plans. In the Ukrainian language Biryukov lone wolf, still called Vovkun or "vischun", attributing to him Witching characteristics. A medicine man from Incanter to, as they say, one step.
Indeed, in the form of Kharakternyky we will find a lot of the traits of a witch-doctors-whisperers, and at first it applies to various "zamolvleny" not only from bullets and swords, and from opoya stallion bitten by a snake, bleeding from the wound.
And if the military komploty quite extensively existed in the middle of the Cossacks, especially among scouts, the healing prayers have been the lot of few. These doctors have Cossack Cossacks and Black Sea were mostly cooks. Here he writes about their SN Sergeyev-Tsensky: "It was a general store serious people, let's vow of celibacy and strictly keep this vow, who regarded her as a saint kashevarstvo occupation that did not give even the Cossacks coals from the fire to kindle a bassinet when boiled soup. Fire, in general, they appropriated and medicinal value and is constantly lit it when found himself in the middle of the Circassian Cossacks wounded by a bullet or a sword. "
The process of making food in the Ukrainian beliefs is always a magic number of employment followed by komplotami — preceded his rousing "Vatra" (live fire) and taking out of the well "untapped" of water, and of porridge itself was often a ritual meal, it is worth to recall the Christmas sochivo or memorial Christmas Pudding. So quackery and kashevarstvo often intertwined between themselves in the national representation.
With traditional healers in common Kharakternyky and knowledge of various potions Arcane — the gap-grass to remove the chains and release locks, hawk-grass to find the treasure, Chaklun-grass (ie, witchcraft herbs) for invincibility in battle. Galdovniki, as well as healers, were uncompromising in the fight against all evil spirits and diabolism and even drove all the witches in Cossack lands.
These common characteristics wonderful after all intertwined among themselves and often in Slobozhanschyna conventional medicine man named "harakternyk", and grandmother-sheptuhu "harakternitsey." But for all the common features of the difference between Kharakternyky and traditional healers, cooks quite large and it is not necessary to connect these concepts.
In the middle of numerous legends about galdovnikah highlights stories of KOSHEVOGO Ivan Sirko, really tremendou
s personality in the history of the XVII century. Friends and Foes prototype responded about him as a delightful military gifts, and specifically when it Zaporozhye headed for the climax of its own power.
Were in charge, as if Cirque saber could take and he used his own substituted a Djourou (servant) in jeopardy hand, but it was only a trace of pigeons. Tales of magic power Sirkovoy hands were very popular, and in one legend, he even named Sirente Pravoruchnikom.
After the death of his own Cossack Cossacks, according to tradition, cut off his right hand and walked with her throughout the war, and in the case of failure exhibited her forward, saying, "Wait, the soul and the hand of Cirque us!" Only after the destruction of the Zaporozhye Cossacks buried his hand but they are not buried with her of his soul: he is not dead, he is alive to this day, and now he is at war with the enemy somewhere Cossack liberties.
Known in legends and other historical figures such as Simon Paly, Gregory Sagaydachny, father Harco (Zachary Chepiga) Cossack Kravchina — they also were listed Kharakternyky.
Legends brought to us and very bright images last Zaporozhye galdovnikov, living out their own century after the destruction of the Sich on farms and apiaries, where they were "the fruit of a bee." Among them, Cossack Dzherelivsky, which he spoke forged and guns, Cossacks Kantsibery, bewitched their funds and hide them in the ground, the old Sich grandfathers Plastun, mustachioed and dovga. After the death of these people is long Cossack sorcerers did not dare to settle in those tracts, as believed, as though unclean there was yelling, screaming and laughing at all smoothly.
In general, which just did not know about the people Zaporizhzhya galdovnikov! Were that they can draw on the wall of a boat and sail away on her Kuhol dive into the water and emerge somewhere in the sea, throw a cloak of water on it and cross the river, as if on a raft. All these fantastic features in the end, quite overshadowed him a real view of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, and he in the sight of a wimp acquired a halo of mystery and mystique. But the real underlying reason of all these discussions have been completely real Cossack remarkable resourcefulness and true love for his native land.