Own, speak out so flourishing interpretation of certain historical periods have gained a late Russian and of early post-Soviet periods. At that time, people received substantial portion of disk imaging, which has caused the majority of the most real shock. And almost always published at the time of the historical materials were designed to underline the negative in Russian and Russian history. The case was or Soros grants, or a country just decided to get up on his hind legs after years of back-sidedness of historical or stratified one to another, and appeared brand new extreme — extreme disbelief in the historical publications published prior to the beginning of the so-called Gorbachev's era of rampant public. Like, everything you read "before" can be forgotten, as the "before" was absolutely not because you tried to imagine historians of recent years. But, they say, to the present-day historians believe undeniable, because only they know the truth in all its instances … In general, the history of the country was thrown into the heat of the cold (well, or on the contrary — it's all relative) is actually saying, and its perception …
Now, as a society, as it were, already has had to withdraw from the concrete interpretations of the past offered by Russian historians, and when completed teens taking for granted everything that was suggested as treatments purely "democratic" character, is worth at least try to come to the gold historical middle, which takes into account all aspects of the processes once held. Certainly, this "golden" middle will probably not such much and gold, and a very faded from the presence of a particular kind of facts, but in the end, the story is neither good nor bad, it should be simply impartial.
One of the most controversial pages of the history of the Russian Federation is the page which tells the story of Lofty Russian war. This period in the life of the people of the country is full of great tragedy. It would seem that, in war as in war, there is an enemy, and there are defenders of the Fatherland, who were opposed to this inhuman struggle. There are opponents and have allies. There are snow-white, is black. But not everything is so simple and definitely really. One example of this kind of ambiguity is the role of the Cossacks during the bloody war against Fascism, had time to cover many of the country's old, well, not only the old, the Light.
Russian historical materials in their own society were overwhelmingly picture, in which the Cossacks played an important role in the defeat of Nazi troops. Post-Perestroika historical information was reported by other facts, according to which the formation of Cossack actively supported the Nazis not only on the ground of the Union of Russian, and in almost all European countries. These two aspects were not taken long sides of the same coin, causing the light of two irreconcilable camps, whose representatives were willing to fight to the death for their views on the role of the Cossacks during the Russian majestically. The fact that the Cossacks could serve as Nazi Germany, caused an uproar among some, and information about what all the Cossacks fought the polls "For Stalin!" Would not be accepted by others. In the end, the history of the Cossacks of 1941-1945 turned into an object of countless speculation that up to the present time with sufficient thoroughness sits in the minds of a certain part of both the Cossacks and other representatives of the Russian public.
Cossacks — ethno-social group of people who live in areas of several states, including the Russian Federation and the terrain: from the Far East to the Caucasus Mountains. As you can see, the definition that is given to the Cossacks, very blurred. In the centuries have not been able to form an accurate perception of who these Cossacks. When talking to by representatives of the Cossack communities, you can see that most of the Cossacks see themselves as a peculiar people, owning a unique culture and maintenance of religious traditions. At the same time, referring to the historical materials, it can be said that the Cossacks — faster social layer which is that some isolation from public structure which formed over many years in this country. The Cossacks are often called by researchers as free warriors and free people whose communities are pretty tight domestic laws, which are not always compatible with the laws of the municipality.
Of course, if there is a contradiction in the very awareness of such phenomena as the "Cossacks", it is a contradiction at some point can be used external to the force by the Cossacks. And this kind of exploitation of their own Cossack status was made in the history of the Cossacks than once. Often Cossack fighting spirit and devotion to the service of a particular idea just used for their own interests or those other political forces.
In the middle of the 30-ies of the last century, the press, which since the end of the war in Russia plainclothes squeezed Cossacks weakened somewhat. Top leaders of the country understand that the continuation of the persecution of the Cossacks can be very bad for the course of the development of the country. So in 1936, began to appear Russian Cossack formations in the Workers and Peasants' Red Army. 10's of thousands of cops and soldiers have expressed a desire to become soldiers of the Red Army and in the event of a major war, which at that time a lot of states to defend the Soviet Union. But, for obvious reasons, far not all of the Cossacks treated with reverence to the ability to service the new authorities, recalling how these new authorities did the best with Cossack communities in the post-revolutionary period of strife. Resentment (and this is the mildest word that can be consumed in the article) did not assign enough interest bolshennomu number of Cossacks in terms of having to go to the cooperation with Russian authorities.
Ultimately matured quite severe split that first '40s led to the emergence of not only the Cossacks ready to defend the independence of the Russian Union, and representatives of the Cossacks, who were willing to use the nazi invasion of a typical revenge in the address Russian authorities.
On the one hand there were Cossack formations in the Red Army: 13th Territorial Don Cossack Division, 9th Infantry Plastunskaya voluntary Division (base — Kuban Cossacks), 17th Cossack Cavalry Corps, the 4th Cavalry Division Leningrad Red Banner Voroshilov, 6th Cavalry Division Chongarskaya Krasnoznamennaya Budennyi and many others.
37 he took practical landmark event for the Russian Cossacks: they were allowed to take part in the May Day parade on Red Square after long years of municipal rejection.
During the Russian war majestically Cossack military units have made hundreds of unprecedented feats, which could be a great contribution to the common cause of the defeat of Nazi troops. In the battle for Moscow 37 Armavir regiment of Cossacks were able to kill more than 2 x 10-s German tanks. Cossack units L.M.Dovatora entered the rear of the Germans in retreat Wehrmacht outside Moscow and caused heavy damage to the German troops. Cossack Division took an active part in battles with parts of the Wehrmacht in the direction of Rostov-Krasnodar. It affects the courage of the Cossacks during the battle at the village of Kushchevskaya in August 1942, when the Cossack weaving Guard Lieutenant Nedorubova killed in the melee above two hundred Wehrmacht soldier. Belova Cossack Corps in 1941 dealt a flanking attacks by department Guderian and ripped Hitler's plans for Moscow. 4th and 5th Corps Don Cossacks took part in the liberation of Stavropol from Nazi invaders. 2nd Guards Cavalry Corps Kryukov hit the half-dozen German attacks in the south-eastern outskirts of Berlin. This glorious list is still very long.
Eventually, over the years Russian war majestically above the 100 thousand Cossacks were awarded medals, and 279 received the highest rank of Russian Union of Heroes. This data may be far from complete, as up to this time there is a list of the Cossacks — the participants of that bloody war.
It is a glorious page of history of Russian Cossacks. But, as mentioned first material, there is another side to the role of the Cossacks in the Russian war majestically.
The authorities of the Reich after months of protracted, stubborn and bloody fighting, knowing that the Blitzkrieg in the Russian Union should not wait, we decided to play one of those cards that could be the trump card in the hands of the Nazis. Aware of the fact that the Soviet Union was on the ground a lot of people who are ready for whatever reasons, to get rid of Russian power, Hitler speak out so decided to review its policy against "Untermensch" — "subhuman." One of the main elements of the revision of the rules of Nazism was that the Cossacks, who inhabit Russian Alliance, suddenly for many Germans suddenly began to be considered "flawed race second class", which, according to the ideology of Hitler, owned all Slavs. "Correction" national question boiled down to the fact that the Cossacks, Hitler announced the people who have nothing to do with the Slavs, and even a bit if not some distant offshoot of the Aryan race, which also can and should be used to fight against Bolshevism. And, we must admit, this idea many Cossacks of the Soviet Union came to their liking.
In autumn 1941 the Reich counterintelligence officer, Baron von Kleist made a proposal to form a Cossack units, which will compete with reddish guerrillas. 1st Cossack squadron, who took the oath of the Third Reich, appeared at the end of October 1941. It was headed past reddish commander, defected to the side of the Germans, I.N.Kononov. Then they began to appear other Cossack units of Hitler's troops, who took part not only in the winding up of partisan detachments and "disloyal" to the Third Reich representatives civilian population, and in coming to Moscow, the control of the southern territories and oil fields. By the mid-43rd in the Wehrmacht was already up to 20 "Russian" Cossack regiments and a decent number of small units, the total number of which amounted to more than 25 thousand people. Most of these units participated in the suppression of resistance in the rear parts of the Wehrmacht (Belarus, Ukraine, west and south of the Russian Federation), but there were Cossack units, which the Germans tried to use the Cossacks against the Reds with a view to the past and to the side of the Reich. According to the testimony of countless, Cossacks in the Wehrmacht tried to avoid direct confrontation with his brothers by blood, but it was carried out punitive operations against active rear units and civilian inhabitants. Some Cossack units were focused on the Western Front, where, after the realization that the days of the Third Reich were numbered, surrendered into the hands of the British army, trying to escape from the vengeance of the home.
But a few weeks after the surrender, more than 40 thousand Cossacks (in the set which commanders Cossacks Wehrmacht generals PN and SN Krasnov, T.I.Domanov, Lieutenant General Helmuth von Pannwitz, Lieutenant General A.G.Shkuro and others) and members of other collaborationist movements have been issued Russian Union. Most of the issued Cossacks were waiting for a long time in the Gulag, and the Cossack top, on the side of Nazi Germany, by the verdict of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court were sentenced to death by hanging. The verdict followed sounded way: on the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 39 of 19 April 1943 "On measures of punishment for Nazi criminals, guilty of murder and torture of civilian population and Russian Red Army prisoners, for spies, traitors from among the Russian people and their accomplices. "
Is noteworthy that in 1996, many of the Cossack generals were executed Wehrmacht in Russia have been rehabilitated in accordance with the decision of the GWP (the Main Military Prosecutor's Office). But soon, the decision was overturned on rehabilitation as unfounded. In the period from 1997 to 2001, the same GWP decided that the Cossack Wehrmacht commanders (eg, skin and background Pannwitz) rehabilitation does not belong.
In 1998 in Moscow, near the metro station "Sokol" was a memorial plate A.G.Shkuro, G.fon Pannwitz and other Cossack generals of the Third Reich. The elimination of this monument undertaken on legitimate criteria, but the neo-Nazi lobby every effort to obstruct the destruction of the monument. Then, on the eve of the Victory day or 2007 plate engraved with the names of her collaborators times majestically Russian war just broke unidentified persons. It was a criminal case, that did not reach its logical end.
Now in Russia there is a monument to those Cossack units that were part of the army of the Third Reich. The memorial was opened in 2007 year in the Rostov region (village Elanskaya).
Until now, in Russia there is no specific idea about the role of the Cossacks in the Russian war majestically. On the one hand — the valor of the Cossacks who fought against Nazi plague, on the other — Cossack perfidy, which can also be represented as a desire for revenge Russian authorities for the years of persecution by the Cossacks. Someone calls the heroes of the Cossacks Reds, someone is willing to behold the heroic actions of the Cossacks in the service of the Reich. This story, to draw conclusions from which each of us.
LAZY AK Cossackia — "crossroads of peoples stories." Annex 2.1
Shouters P. Ordinance. Op. — S.431, 432, Alexander KM The Cossacks of Russia into the second world war.
Baimukhametov S. Cops and SS / / Russian Market, № 26