By Cossacks hitherto fairly valued and cold for many of our fellow citizens, and that's understandable, because throughout the Russian period, the entire history of the Cossacks was presented to us all one-sided and very poorly, while the Cossacks were registered, almost the main royal henchmen suppressors of all speeches and revolutions of the working people, the main enemies of Russian power. So, whether it was in fact?
Who are the Cossacks? This title has become a truly national brand typical of, for example, foreigners are familiar with our history, especially the Europeans, the title Cossack in its own most always conjures up only with Russia, and only as a unit.
Cossacks of the Royal Empire it was, at first, desperate men, not as representatives of public organizations and folklore groups, the men who were considered excellent horsemen and fine spices in the art of trick riding and walking exploration. Many foreign commanders assessed at the time of Cossack cavalry as the best light cavalry in the world. They say specifically what Napoleon owned a popular expression: "Give me some of the Cossacks, and I will go with them throughout Europe."
In all the countless wars period, ages 18-19, who led our home at the time, participated virtually all Cossack troops if closely examine at least some of hysterical material, then they can see that there is no war without the role of the Cossacks.
In the Napoleonic era Europe, in the end, the very first hand saw demons, whom they portrayed the promotion of Napoleon before the assault by Russian troops in Paris in March 1814, when the entire French capital was papered by order of the governor colorful woodcut paintings of Cossacks. With the popular prints on the Parisians looked ugly messy facial creation of a necklace of human ears and heads — mere devils and demons.
And then to the amazement of their last Parisians instead of monsters and demons they saw handsome riders with excellent bearing. The famous writer Victor Hugo said: "Cossacks were myrrh and courteous, did not dare to anything touching in Paris" How to read in those days our eminent General AP Ermoloff, "Cossacks were surprised to Europe."
But most of all Cossacks fought the war, the Russian army against Turkey, almost continuously since the time of Peter and ending with the liberation of Bulgaria under Alexander II. Cossacks as typical Russian conquistadors took part in the conquest and development of Siberia and the Far East, the conquest of the Caucasus and Central Asia. All these big rich areas were part of the Russian empire through including the efforts of the Cossacks, many of them did not come back with all these countless wars and campaigns in their home village, because it found the proper rest in unmarked graves in areas of tremendous Paris to Vladivostok.
Cossack cavalry was at war, often using more antiquated tactics such as lava, curiously, particularly those inherited from the steppe and mountain dwellers methods of warfare often operated by enemies, especially in the European army soldier embarrassingly enough, often causing them to stampede.
Many believe that Cossack — it is purely equestrian fighter, but it's not so far away, in the period of the Caucasian wars of the 19th century in the battles against the Highlanders, and in particular in the Crimean War against European armies on the battlefield a great act just foot Cossack troops, a kind of Cossack Special Forces troopers they were famous (from the word formation, in other words, lie flat) — Walking the team and part of, the main calling card of the Kuban Cossack Army.
The main objective of scouts in the border areas during peacetime was that in order to protect the village from a sudden attack of the Caucasian highlanders. To this end, they were instructed to continuously observe the cordon line of hiding places-secrets lie typical live trap on the likely routes of penetration of the enemy into the Cossack lands.
So in those days thugs type of Shamil Basayev seep deep into the territory of Russia and stage a Budennovsk Beslan was very difficult — they just would have been hunted down and slaughtered by the Cossacks in their cabbage, somewhere during the crossing of the Terek, and the survivors would have thrown in a hole , for the upcoming exchange on their own comrades languishing in captivity highlander, and all this without any modern "democratic" attribute with the negotiations, human rights activists and mediators.
By the mid-19th century in the Russian Empire by the Cossack class was created by a typical security system of the municipal boundaries spanned 10 of thousands of kilometers from west to east. Prior to 1893, in other words, before the creation of separate corps of border guards, all of the southern frontier, in the main, guarded by Cossack troops.
Illustration of the magazine that illuminates the actions of the war. During the coming of the Cossacks in the Volyn assist reflect the Austro-German offensive. The enemy made a counter-attack at the village Swidnik under cover of a massive armored train. At a critical moment of a few hundred Cossacks under the command of Colonel Smirnov Germans stormed from the flanks and with the help of sticks scattered forces of the enemy. Managed to capture a lot of guns.
To secure the site boundary for the Cossack him king stood in perpetuity and free use of a piece of land, it was his land, which he defended and defended by the enemy, the real way that the opponent for that to go further into the country had to first shlestnutsya with the Cossacks, shlestnutsya is usually not a life and death. Cossack defended their land, their village, their own relatives, and in general, it appeared that all of the giant Russian Empire.
By 1914, the typical Cossack Time Border Security Council in itself included in number 11 of the Cossack Troops of them were larger Don (1.6 million) and Kuban (1.3 million), went further on their own geographical location Terek (260 thousand), Astrakhan ( 40 thousand), Ural (174 thousand), the third largest was the Orenburg Cossack army (533 thousand), Siberian (172 thousand), Semirechensky (45 thousand), Trans-Baikal (264 thousand), Amur (50 thousand .) Ussuri (35 thousand), and two separate Cossack regime
nts that were part of the Royal Life Guards.
Total Cossacks belonged to the order of 65 million acres of land with a population of 4.4 million people, representing approximately 2.4% of the total population of Russia.
In the case of the mass mobilization of the Cossacks could immediately for a very kutsee time put almost 480 thousand perfectly cooked horse and foot soldiers.
National or ethnic composition of the Cossacks represented the explosive mixture of many peoples and races, even though according to official sources in the middle of the pre-revolutionary Cossacks in the public attitude prevailed in the main Great Russians (78%) were on the Little Russians (17%) and the third-largest Cossacks were then Buriats (2%).
This photo is at once a 2-books: at Donald Thompson and Malcolm Grow. Grow explains the Cossacks entered into a burning village to clear out her from the Austro-Germans, staring ahead traveling in the direction where the projectile had just burst. At the same signature Thompson — Cossacks left the village, going to the aid of Kornilov, and the Germans, seeing the movement of troops began firing. Signature Grow seems more credible.
Most of the Cossacks professed Orthodoxy, there is a large percentage of the Old Believers (especially in the Ural, Terek, Don Host) because those Russian people who, after Nikon's church reforms remained faithful to an old belief, fled from persecution, generally, in the district of the country. So, for example War Hero 1812. Known Cossack Ataman Platov was from the Old Believers were in the midst of the Cossacks, and those who practiced Buddhism and Mohammedanism.
Last war Cossacks of the Fatherland was the first global war, in the fields of battles of the war took the role of more than 300 thousand Cossacks, all Cossack troops were sent to the front 164 cavalry regiments, 30 infantry battalions scouts, 78 horse artillery batteries, 175 individual hundreds, 78 half honeycomb is also a huge amount of support and spare parts.
It was war artillery, poison gas, flamethrowers, and aircraft, the use of large masses of cavalry in the criteria of a solid front, it was impossible, so the old-fashioned way of war have given way to modern strategy and technology.
To the conditions of modern warfare and the Cossacks had to adapt their cavalry units operated, in the main, in the small equestrian units as small guerrilla units in near the rear of the enemy, which they successfully did a huge amount of sabotage and reconnaissance missions. But the more boldly and successfully operated in the First World-foot Cossack soldiers troopers, so, for example, on the Caucasian front of reconnaissance scouts were leaked even in Mesopotamia (today's Iraq on the ground), where established contact with the advance units of the allied British troops.
From historical research is also clear that in the period from 1914 to 1917gg. in the First World War in the Cossack cavalry regiments was replaced by two hundred percent of the fighters, and even plastun battalions of three, it was true heroes who gave their lives for their homeland, which in our time is not a lot of people know and remember.
After the revolution of 1917 Cossacks as a class obviously does not fit into the Bolshevik doctrine, according to which all the former royal estate of the Russian Federation subject to liquidation.
The official reason for the mass liquidation of estates in the Don Cossack served Tipo directive contained in a circular letter, signed by "the Central Committee of the RCP (b)." A short cover letter to "all responsible comrades working in the Cossack areas", dated January 29, 1919, which was signed Ya.Sverdlovym.
So Makarov, in a very short period of time was destroyed by a typical live guarding the border zone of the Russian state at its most distant, more fundamental, strategic southern borders. Some of the Cossacks suffered massive repression, some had to emigrate, according to various sources, the figure was about 100 fleeing thousand people, most of the Cossack recognized the Soviet power, and ordinary citizens have become a new socialist country.
After the collapse of the USSR Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation was issued a special decree "On rehabilitation of the Cossacks" from June 16, 1992.
Cossacks in action under the guise of horses. From early youth accustomed to the Cossack horses, they are the most zealous riders in the world. Their stallions are trained to provide various assistance to the owners in the war. And when they want to be on the cover, they are under fire quite motionless.
Cossack scouts and German patrol. The Cossacks, as well as Indians, known as the dashing military riders and the best riders in the world. The amazing true stories and talk about their art training horses slightest understanding of a person's will, to turn on command or whistle, float down the river with the rider standing in the stirrups. There is a real affection between Cossack and his horse, together they constitute a severe armed unit. Stanley Wood captures the cops and spies of the Russian army in Romania, sheltering behind their horses, which were laid on the ground, leading the fight against German patrol