Clarify the assumptions on which there was imigriratsiya Cossacks in the East can one event that took place in two 10-ka years before the arrival of Russian in Beijing.
In 1665, on, to this day unexplored Russian people, the Far Eastern Amur river came a group of Cossacks, 84 people with Nikifor Chernigov headed. They were rebels, uprising at Ilim prison, killing all that Lawrence Obukhov, governor, which long cruelly oppressed them.
Runaways was founded a settlement on the Amur — Albazin in which they want to live freely. Their hopes were destined to be realized. Albazino not officially recognized by the authorities of Russian Empire, but the Cossacks managed to do business with the locals. And without looking at the fact that they were considered delinquent, collected taxes often cast off to Moscow, with the introduction of Nerchinskogo prison. As a result, the governor pardoned Alexis rebels, even those who are sentenced to the death penalty for the murder of governor. From 1669 to manage the prison began albazinskoj Nerchinsk sent from the clerk, and the settlement was officially recognized part of.
But on the new location at the Cossacks began a very tense affairs with their neighbors — the Manchus. In the summer of 1670 redoubt was taken in the siege of countless horse Manchu army.
But managed to repel the attack, but the attacks Celestial Warriors since then have become commonplace for the Cossacks. Russian hostility to the Manchus has a pretty simple explanation. The premise was Erofei Khabarov who walked on this earth with fire and sword, plundering the town Daur. Nepoprostu got its title and Albazin, he stood on the site of the burned down the town under the control of the local prince Albazy. Many of the Daur went to China to escape from Russia's "first mover", keeping in mind the desire to take revenge and reclaim their land. His plans for the area were daurskuju and Tsinnskoy rulers of the empire.
June 12, 1685 at Albazina Manchu army gathered in the amount of 5 thousand man. It was part of a thousand horse, 2800 infantry and 1,200 workers, designed to build facilities for the siege. Apart from onions and various cool weapons, they brought 45 large and small guns, and about hundreds of arquebuses, rescued from Russian into fights. The besieged were able to oppose the invasion of only 450 people in the main service class, industry and trade people and farmers. They were armed with only three hundred musket and 3 guns. Despite the numerical advantage, the Cossacks were able to survive in the defense 10 days. June 16 Manchus tried to take the fortress by storm, but without looking at the fact that the towers were destroyed by cannon fire burned the barn, church, the besieged ended with gunpowder and lead the Cossacks still held. The Manchurian warlord Langtan decided to impose a wall of brushwood and set fire. Only after this Tolbuzin agreed to negotiate with the Manchus. The condition of the surrender was to allow the survivors to leave the Russian belongings in Nerchinsk. But after the Cossacks finished defend the Chinese took all the property and taken prisoner by the ladies and kids. But Langtan, was delighted with the fearlessness with which the defense led the Cossacks, and invited them to go into the service of the emperor. In order not to lose their families, consent was given 45 man. The rest had to walk "naked, barefoot and hungry" to get to the Nerchinsk.
But the story of the assault did not end there. After the expiration of five days from the date of the arrival of refugees, the governor Nerchinsk sent to places battle reconnaissance group of 70 Cossacks. Meanwhile we found out that the Manchus had left the ruined fortress. It was decided to send a new army there, and build another fort on the site of the destroyed. By June 1688 the construction completed, but in July it was again besieged by the Manchus. But without looking at the numerical advantage, in this time the Manchus were not able to take it. The siege lasted several months. First, in December Albazine was only 150 people, of whom are able to keep the gun was only 45. But the Manchus have lost a significant part of their own army. In the camp of different diseases were rampant, and they were suffering from hunger, because Chinese ships with provisions could not come because of the ice overcame the river. Even after receiving the order to lift the siege on November 30, due to arrive in Moscow after Fyodor Golovin, the Manchus were unable to leave their positions until the spring, having lost many soldiers still strong.
In May 1687, in a besieged fortress was only 67 people, but still did not give up the Cossacks. Moreover, for the administration of misleading the enemy about their situation, Beighton refused the assistance of the Manchu healers, and even sent them at Easter pood wheat cake, despite the famine prevailed in the fort. This courage has played a huge role in the subsequent negotiations on the new definition of the Far Eastern borders, because, for example Albazina, Tsinnskaya Empire realized that the Russian will not go without a fight.
Roth yellow banner
All this time "voluntarily gone over" at the service of the ruler of the Cossacks had hoped to release. But after signing a contract Nerchinskogo the last hope for the return to their homeland has been lost. The document had been prescribed point that "the fugitives that have a peaceful resolution to the side of the Royal Majesty, by and with the bugdyhanova Highnesses were and those perebeschikam be bezrozmenno both sides." The same who are still crossing the border, the border should return back the magistrates. So Makar, albazintsy were in Beijing. The governor took quite a favorable disposition towards the Cossacks, selecting them for the life of a piece of land in the "inner city." The Russian had the opportunity to preserve their Orthodox faith. They even have allowed to use for worship a Buddhist temple,
and later turned priest Maxim Leontiev in the chapel of St. Nicholas. Cossacks ranked as the military class, defining a yellowish banner Manchu guards, calling them Oros Neeru ("Russian company ").
In Russia, meanwhile, there was a coup that led to the authority of Peter I. After learning about the current Russian settlement in China, Peter immediately realized that this gives great prospects in trade and politics. June 18, 1700 he issued a decree on the spread of Orthodoxy in the Chinese land. True to fulfill the will of the king could only on the expiration of 16 years, but since 1716, in Beijing often put off Russian spiritual mission.
Since that time has passed for more than 3 centuries. On the territory of China at that time home to around 250 people who identified themselves as direct descendants albazintsev. Of course, that through intermarriage they almost completely lost the features of the Slavs, and the names have changed: YAKOVLEVA were previously turned into Yao, Dubinin — Doo Romanovs — Lo. But the Orthodox faith survived most of the Cossacks. And their hitherto preserved the memory of the events in the castle Albazin due to which they were in China, the memory of the heroism of their own Protz.