Tulle (Tulle), the 9th of June and Oradour-sur-Look (Oradour-sur-Glane) 10th June 1944, France. Who ever heard of the French village of Oradour? This is one of the most recognizable examples of the Nazi atrocities! But about a settlement Tulle most of Russian readers probably never heard of. And those who have studied the history of the former Soviet Union, certainly of Tulle while they have not heard. All have their own prerequisites and I'll tell them later. At the moment, let us first.
If we consider these two episodes are independent of each other, it does not give a complete picture of what happened. Tulle and Oradour-sur-Look are 110 kilometers away from each other. They were both in the area of the acts of the 4th pantsergrenaderskogo SS Regiment "Der Führer", commanded by Colonel SS Sylvester Stadler. The regiment was part of the SS Division 2 GHG "Das Reich" under the command of SS Major-General Heinz Lammerding. After the Allied landing in Normandy, France, in the area activated so called "poppies", the French partisans, which may be referred to school with "armed gangs". For you will soon become clear why. In the "Wikipedia" I read a little article that describes their field life: get better fruit, berries, very occasionally hunted. Led a healthy lifestyle in general. Well, the sheer emotion! Among them were not only French. There were a lot of people of the USSR, Poland, the Spanish Republicans, representatives of other European countries. In the ranks of the "maquis" and waged war "Lieutenant Basil" — the hero of the French State and the Union of Russian hero of the Red Army lieutenant Vasily Porik.
Since landing in Normandy, the number of "maquis" has increased dramatically, the benefit of the British passed a lot of guns and explosives. Regiment "Der Führer" was tasked to move in the direction of Limoges in separate groups to suppress guerrilla activity in the whole province of Dordogne. In 1985, the last commander of the 4th Regiment "DF" SS Colonel Otto Weidinger issued a 62-page booklet in which he outlined the steps in Tulle. Here are excerpts from her links. Obviously, the book Weidinger was banned here in France.
In the village Tulle (Population of more than 15 thousand people), "poppies" surrounded the 3rd Battalion, 95th Regiment of security. Major General Lammerding sends back the 2nd Armored reconnaissance detachment under the command of SS Major Heinrich Wolff. At 21:00 on June 8, they come to the village and, after the non-long battle, relieve the siege, having lost nine people killed.
A day or later in the morning revealed a terrible scene: about local schools are about forty mutilated corpses of German fighter. Some of their genitals cut off and put them in his mouth. The corpses of those killed were befouled other shit. 1st of deaths tied by the feet to the car and drove his face. Well, everything else, just as in a luxurious French style. Local residents say that the guerrillas were in the middle of the Poles, the Spanish Republicans and even Russian. With a detachment of Major Wolfe arrived in Tulle deputy intelligence chief captain of the SS division Aurel Kovacs (what an exciting name in the CC!), And DM officer by the name of Walter. Captain Kovacs gathers all the guys that are in Tulle, aged from 16 to 60 years, a total of more than three thousand people in the courtyard of a local factory, which produces ammunition. With the help of the mayor of the town, the factory manager and the local inhabitants, Kovacs was able to hold 120-130 quite a party of boys. In the town they lived in, did not work, relatives, or acquaintances have they were not there, they were not in any documents for themselves and could not explain why they are in Tulle. Tulle, by European standards, not the village, and a small town. Clean, the streets are covered with asphalt. And the detainees on the shoes were traces of dried clay. In Tulle they did not come on the road and through the woods and fields. Aurel Kovacs does not fluctuate that these aliens and have partisans. Of this group, it selects those he seemed younger than 20 years (after all the documents they are not) and let go. The other 99 (98 according to other sources) tells people to hang (here we should mention that on a memorial headstone in Tulle names of only 19 people). With all of this in Kovacs has written order Divisional Judge SS Lieutenant Colonel Detlef Okrenta with reference to the order of the Wehrmacht "Combating gangs." All under the law.
Detlef Okrent — Olympic silver medalist in 1936 hockey on the grass. Incidentally, the name he has Polish, the word "okrent" (okret) means "ship". Here's to you and the reason why this history is silent in the USSR. Yes it is, in fact, at the moment is nowhere popular. Depict the atrocities of the French partisan — this … mmm … not politically correct. And in the former Soviet Union would not be politically correct to mention hauptshturmfyurera SS with the naming of the Romanian and Hungarian name. This same morning, motorized brigade of the 3rd Battalion Regiment "DF" is ordered to release the village of Gera (Gueret) from the guerrillas. The SS men stormed the village, but she was captured by the division of the Wehrmacht. Do not understand the situation, and the SS and the Wehrmacht opened fire on each other, on both sides there are wounded. All of the wounded being loaded onto two armored personnel carriers and taken to Limoges. On the way to their operezhdaet battalion commander, Major SS Helmut Kampf. A few minutes later his car was found on the road. The engine is still running, but Kampf gone. His papers are in the street in Limoges, followed in the morning.
In the ranks of the "maquis" was pretty diabetes agents, they said that in the village of Oradour-sur-'s look will be a "ceremonial" executed an SS officer. Expecting that this Helmut Kampf, the regimental commander Sylvester Stadler decided to release it at any cost. He orders the commander of the 1st Battalion of the SS Major Otto Adolf Diekmann take Oradour-sur-Look and look Kampf. With all this Diekmann had to achieve liberation Kampf "without incident" on the last occasion he was allowed to take hostages from the population of the village for the next exchange of prisoners. That's all that was in his jurisdiction. He had no right to decide any further action.
For this operation, Diekmann took third rifle company under the command of SS Captain Otto Kahn. Rota of a tank battalion Otto Dieckmann, it's not even motorized, just rifle company. Moved by truck, armed with small arms and light weapon, explosives have them with you, either.
On the approach to Oradour, they are a German ambulance, in what were orderly, the driver and the wounded four. All burnt alive, and the driver and a nurse are chained to the steering wheel.
Dieckmann squad with the battle takes Oradour, there remained "maquis" and part of the local retreat. All the trapped men — and it is about 180 man — detained and driven into the stable. Ladies and kids (about 450 people) are locked in a local church. Begins a search of the homes, where they find a huge number of weapons and ammunition. House where found gun, set fire. In 1969, a veteran of Division "Das Reich" SS Ott
o Weidinger met in Paris with a former commander of the troops, "poppies" in the province of Dordogne Zhyuzhi Rene (Rene Jugie). Zhyuzhi confirmed that Oradour really hiding a weapon for all the guerrillas in the region. The following actions have two "official" versions: German and French.
Let's start with the German. Suddenly explodes at the church, with copper bell breaks through the roof. Otto Diekmann took the blast for the latest guerrilla attack and gave the order to shoot the guys gathered in the stable, and ready for battle. But the attack never came, but the fire started in the church. SS open the door and try to save all who remained alive after the explosion. Managed to save a few ladies and kids, which was then podverzhdeno themselves saved. The fire was so intense that the brass bell melted. The walls of the church have survived to the present. Sounds completely plausible, although there is one question: shot in the stable man — who is this? Occupied "poppies" or the locals? Or both, or other? Either it's the same thing?
French version. Dieckmann gives the mayor the village 30 minutes by then, so he returned the captured Kampf. After ultimatum was made men are shot, and church ignited. This version has questions. I did not mention the case that the third company arrived in the village without explosives. Their mission was to free the captured officer, not destruction of the village. If they really set fire to the church together with the local population, for which purpose it was necessary to climb into the fire and rescue is the most population? And, most importantly, why the bell tower collapsed, shattered into pieces and melted copper bell, if there was an explosion. Maybe because the explosives were in the church and worked detonator.
Photos made inside the church does not show that there was a fire. There was a violent explosion in the bell tower, with the next breakout roof. The church bell, not melted and blown to pieces:
Wood confessional on the left side of the church was not damaged in general, regardless, for the described "arson" the Church of the SS:
On the same side of the altar is a niche that does not hurt at all and so far looks like in its original form.
On the right side there are two niches with altars: the coming destroyed, and the second remained in continuous form:
It is alleged that the church was specifically found in the charred corpse of one hundred percent of the mayor of Oradour-sur-Look Dezurto Paul (Paul Desourteaux).
Strshnaya photos. The mayor Dezurto burned almost to the misrecognition. Pay attention that no shred odezhki it's gone, all burned. He was the only one of the victims, whose remains were found burned. Here's another photo killed in a church, a strshnaya. But it turns out to mean that most of the bodies just ripped, perfectly visible to their individual chasti.Nu, and most importantly, most of them are not visible burnt clothes. This is a blast victim, not a fire. And if the church was blown up, then blew her French partisans, not the SS.
The official story was based on the fact that the Germans were specifically "torched" church, and did not blow up. Otto Adolf Diekmann military did sin no matter whose version is correct: it has driven the population of Oradour in the church, do not you check in advance whether the explosives in the church itself. He did not obey the order and the fault of his killing civilian population. SS Colonel Stadler orders to collect documents and evidence in order to give Dieckmann on trial SS. Dieckmann not arrested, but he understands that he is awaiting trial and split shot. He begins to find death in battle and finds her on June 29 in Normandy. According to witnesses, Diekmann was inserted just under the fire of the enemy. His court case is closed. Charred body of Major Kampf all the same finding in Oradour. The investigation of the events does not stop until the present time as the French and the German side.
After the war, Heinz Lammerding French was sentenced to the death penalty in absentia, as well as Aurel Kovacs. The government of Germany has refused to extradite Lammerding France. Aurel Kovacs disappeared without any trace. Otto Weidinger was acquitted in court on charges of war sins, and Sylvester Stadler and Detlef Okrent to the court generally not involved. After the war, French Tribunal has issued only 52 death certificates for victims of Oradour. And 590 people were reported missing. Restore the settlement did not, and built a completely new next with the same title. What happened was that the "missing" from a half-destroyed village relocated to the new one, but, nevertheless, were ranked either dead, or else missing. This means that the execution of the male population in Ora
dour not hold water. After all, argued that Germans shot of only about 180 adult men. And why they have not been identified and buried? Oradour In general there are no mass graves. All 52 victims were buried in individual graves in the cemetery.
And another weird fact. It died in Oradour some reason did not have any heirs of their homes, land, land, etc.. But the village was not destroyed, everything could be repaired. Apart from churches, other houses were also built of brick and have not been razed to the ground. Oradour — this is not a Russian collective farm, his home and land owners have. In a capitalist country are always heirs to the property, but in Oradour was not found. And made of it, so to speak, the protected zone.
The answer to this is very normal. The government of the Fourth Republic and the then French President Vincent Auriol (Vincent Auriol) gathered to make of Oradour monument to victims of German atrocities and simply bought off by local residents, they built another village nearby.
In Oradour-sur-Look could shoot captured partisan and a couple of local guys, but not by the number of 180 people. The total death toll: 52 people. This is including those who died from the explosion in the church, as the guerrillas firing squad.
Actions in Tulle and Oradour-sur-Look formed a dark spot in the history not only of the Waffen SS, and the French Resistance.