Ecclesiastical terror in the Middle Ages

Ecclesiastical terror in the Middle AgesThe uniqueness of the arrival of Christianity in Rus', was among other things the fact that Prince Vladimir was the first ruler who took seriously the commandment of the new faith, namely, the death penalty. As the story "The Tale of Bygone Years", was soon rushed excited Greek clergy. "Why do not execute murderers? '. "I'm afraid of Sin" — replied the prince. — "How is the Lord said:" Thou shalt not kill ',' Judge not, that ye be not judged, forgive, but you will be forgiven, "and so on." Fathers, did not bother, he immediately cited the letter of Paul to the Romans: "he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if you do evil, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain: he is the minister of God, wrath to punish wrongdoer. " "So what do you order and put God to discern good and evil." Vladimir relieved and ordered to restore the death penalty. Naturally, the church is not only taking care of the prince, but also self-interest — the first revolt against the introduction of Christianity happened in the year 989 in Novgorod — how on earth is to convince the ignorant heathen without the death penalty?

Characterized by two stories of unruly Magi. One that has become prophesy was in Kiev, "one night was missing", allegedly carried away the devil (NKVD to have thought of such an explanation.) Another magician appeared in Novgorod, which began to blaspheme the Christian faith and promise to commit miracles. The power of the Bishop of Novgorod and when he faltered, wearing festive attire and picking up a cross, called Novgorod divided between those who believe the magician and believes God: "Prince Gleb and his squad came and around the bishop, and all the people went to the magician." The situation was resolved a little blood. Prince, hiding under the cloak of an ax, went to the magician and gave up a conversation with him: "Do you know, that will be with you today? '. "Miracles done great things," — said the unsuspecting bogosluzhitel. The prince took an ax and concealed one stroke confounded prophetic gift pagan. Naturally, no condemnation of the theological argument as assassination, by the author of the chronicle should not be. "And he fell dead, and the people dispersed. So he killed the body, and soul surrendered to the devil "- sums up the Christian monk satisfaction.

To Orthodox Russia has not spread west "witch hunt." However, we burned witches. Already in the "Tale of Bygone Years" (under the same 1071 year) we find strings are worthy of inclusion in the "Hammer of Witches": "Most of all, through the wives are demonic sorcery, since time immemorial the devil deceives woman, she's a man, because in our days many women of the Magi by magic, and poison, and other demonic machinations "(for comparison, the beginning of" The Hammer of Witches "(1487):" This is a hammer villains. Heresy this is not the villains and villains, as well as a name. If not female perversity , the world would be free of many dangerous "). In 1204, in Suzdal burned some "spirited woman", staged in the Principality of crop failure. In 1227 the four wise men burned in Novgorod. In 1411 (almost a hundred years before the "Hunting" in Europe) Twelve "zhonok prophetic" sent against plague on Pskov, for which he got on fire.

Thus Russia, in a sense, the home of a "witch hunt." Did not stop the massacre and later. In 1575, in Novgorod were killed in the fire fifteen "witch." In 1591, in Astrakhan Sent from Crimea witches put a spell on "political refugee" — move to Russia Crimean Prince Murat Giray. Tsar Fyodor sentenced witches to be burned spy (before the execution they were subjected to various tortures in order to find out "on whose Deliberate spoiled prince", but no evidence was not achieved, possibly "terrorists" simply had nothing to confess.) From 1647 until we reached the decree in the name of Alexis Gregory Khitrovo Shatsky governor commanding "in an area of strube, oblokshi straw, burn" and the guy Zhenkov Agafya Tereshka Ivlev, who with the help of spells and "thread the dead man with the sentence" starved to death Prince NI Odoyevskiy and a few peasants. In early 1653, from Moscow to all parts of the kingdom flew decrees commanding strengthen the fight against sorcerers and soothsayers. Crime have been declared "heretical and divination books and letters and charms, and roots," and punishment for those who are after the royal decrees "from such evil and bogomerzkih Affairs will not disappear," proclaimed the destruction of the foundation of the house to the perpetrator and the burning in his wooden house himself. In 1666, Zaporozhian Hetman IM Bryukhovetskiy ordered to burn six witches unleash consumption for him and his wife. In suppressing the uprising of Stepan Razin in 1671 were burned The leader of one of the units of the rebel nun Alain recognized "witch" (as per nezhenskoe occupation, and for their resilience during torture — executioners came to the conclusion that in a weird way it does not feel pain ) and rebel feeder Semenov, who was found with a notebook conspiracies. Little wife Theodosia, accused of damaging, hit by a fire in 1674, in the northern city Totma. In 1676, in the village of Sokol another royal decree was ordered to burn the punk and Anosku University, conjured by roots. Last Russian witch rose in a fire in 1682. It was a Marfushka Yakovlev, a plumber's wife implicated in bringing damage to the king Fedor Alekseevich. Already in 1731, came the burning of the imperial decree, as the wizards themselves and looking to their aid, but there is no data on the use of the decree in practice.

It should be borne in mind that these women (in contrast to the majority of the victims in the West), mostly were really professional witches. From the notes of an English merchant and diplomat D. Gorseya we learn that witchcraft was for women who were killed in Novgorod, a craft, which they did under the auspices of Novgorod Archbishop Leonid (on fire after they were convicted of treason patron). In general, from many sources, the witchcraft in Russia was widespread, although risky fishing. In addition to state terror, as we have seen, quite regular, informal folk threatened violence (often with the participation of the local clergy) to continue even in the beginning of XX century. Collectors of Russian folklore brothers Sokolow, published in the 1915 article "Belozerskaya village and its way of life," described one such case: "terehovskie farmers have told us that. Friday at Veshare Ustyazhenskogo neighboring county once burned a witch for what she many "spoiled." Immediate cause of the violence was a corruption of the witch of a woman young married woman (rural Volodina). Husband persuaded farmers. They scored the windows and doors, surrounded the house and set fire to straw witch … ".

Much later than in the West and in Byzantium got to the auto of Russia. The first burning of heretics in Russia, took place in 1504, the last in 1743. Very short time, compared to the West. And judging by the Russian sources also extremely rare. It is true that some cases of executions of heretics we learn from foreign sources, probably talking about his exploits in this area the Orthodox Church has expressed understandable modesty. On the field of ecclesiastical terror more.

While in the West the center heresy was educated in Paris, then in Russia, many heresies arose in the performance of democratic traditions, is closely linked with other countries, Novgorod. There also were the first blows of the church and of terror. In 1374, in Novgorod had three preachers: Deacon Nikita Strigolniki (nedoposvyaschenny clerk, who had on his head a special haircut) Carp and third, the name of which sources are not saved. It turned out that they have arrived in the "free city" of Pskov, fleeing the persecution of the clergy of Gdańsk. That, given their teaching was not surprising, according to the wicked heretics, sinful, unworthy priest could not let go of the sins of others and hold the sacraments. They denied the need for a church criticized the immorality of its ministers, opposed the monasteries. In life, they recommend abstinence, prayer book and teaching. A year later, all three of them were tortured and thrown into the Volkhov. Often sacrificed "Strigolniki" (as nicknamed new heresy) in the future. However, the church should give her her due, is shown in this issue, some tolerance: in 1427, the Metropolitan Photius, though banned Orthodox eat and drink with the heretics, also commanded not to execute their death: "Shreds not mortal, but outside of executions and imprisonments ". There is speculation that the softness of the Moscow Diocese Strigolniki preached only to weaken too independent Novgorod diocese.

The occasion for the first domestic auto of strigolnicheskaya not give, but the so-called "Judaizers heresy." Founded, according to legend, to call in Novgorod Jews, it has absorbed many other heresies that existed on Russian soil. Judaizers rejected monasticism, the doctrine of the Trinity and the divinity of Christ, the immortality of the soul. In a short time the heresy acquired many supporters, including in the church community. She sympathized with even the Grand Duke Ivan III (1462 — 1505) (who especially liked rejection of monasticism — Prince dreamed of secularization of monastery land.) It is not known how it would have ended if December 12, 1484 at the Metropolitan of Novgorod not ascended the throne a Gennady Gonozov — figure, which can rightly be called the father of Russian Inquisition. Knowing about common in the diocese heretical sentiments he ordered a secret investigation. "Judaizers" carefully concealed their views, only in 1487, thanks overheard drunken chatter, Gennady managed to trace. Izoblachennyh three were sent to Moscow, where he was held council, condemned the heresy and sentenced to whippings were caught and links to Gennadi to repentance. Gennady started grabbing at Novgorod all suspicious and bring the same punishment. Heretics moved to Moscow. There were supporters of the new teaching archpriests Assumption and Archangel Cathedral, Simonov Monastery Archimandrite Zosima attorney Ivan III deacon Fyodor Kuritsyn and many others. In September 1490 Zosima was even elected Metropolitan of Moscow and ordered Gennady send state their views on the Christian faith — which meant the charge of heresy. Gennady refused, and instead he blamed the lack of prosecution in Zosima Judaizers: "If that is not the Grand Duke will poke and punishing these people, then, how do we then bring shame to the whole earth! Vaughn fryagi what fortress held by his faith: I was telling about the blister tsezarsky Ambassador King, as he is their land, cleansed! "Thus, a model priest Gonozov found the Grand Inquisitor Torquemada (proceed to" clean ", cost the lives of 8800 heretics in 1481 year). Metropolitan and Grand Duke of these calls were ignored. Then he sent a message to all Russian Arhireev, calling for a council "to punish heretics, burn and hang (…) torture them firmly to doznatsya whom they seduce, to eliminate them completely, and they do not leave the industry." He immediately started trying a few heretics, sent to him before, and made statements against Fedor Kuritsyna. From Moscow, said they did not believe the testimony of uprooted torture. In his message, Gennady complained bitterly about this suspicion: "They say that I am tormented Samsonka, I'm not tormented him, and the son of Grand Duke Boyarsky, my only watchmen were to not take any promises."

October 17 Council was convened, but Gennady it was not invited. Council accused some priests that they considered icons, along with the idols, the work of man, recognized the blood and body of Christ — a simple bread and wine, and for such approval bogomerzkih gave them a curse and imprisonment. Seven convicts sent to Novgorod, where Gennady met them all the rules Inquisition: put face-to-tail on pack horses, put on his head Berestovaya helmets and chest plates, "Behold there Satanin host", and as such has imported into the city. Then Berestovaya helmets were burned directly on the heads of related heretics (here Gonozov show some originality). Two of the subject to such penalty went mad and died soon after.

In the future, the baton passed to combat heresy to Volotskaya Abbot Joseph Sanin. In 1493 Joseph opposed to continue to support heresy, Zosima, and forced him to leave the department. Some time heresy held support of the Grand Duke. Finally, in December 1504 took place on the new council, finally condemned the "Judaizers." Incrimination expressed remorse, but Joseph Volotsky insisted that the act of forced and demanded severe punishment. Ivan III asked how such an appeal to the "misguided" corresponds to Christian morality. Joseph was not taken aback, as the once and Byzantine missionaries, quoted one of the letters of the Apostle Paul: "He that despised Moses' law of two or three witnesses, without mercy death, how gravely punish guilty is he who violates a child of God? "(Hebrews 10, 28 — 29). There was nothing to cover and December 28, the three heretics burned in a cage in Moscow, and has "many heretics" in Novgorod. Others were sent to prison or to monasteries, to which Joseph Volotsky made a vehement protest: "That you lay sovereign doing good, and monks death." He himself believed that heretics should either kill, "Sinner and heretic hands of those killed or prayer is one" or, at worst, a lifelong curse and imprison in prison. After the death of Ivan III, Joseph supported the secular power, the Grand Prince Vasily III (1505 — 1533) ordered heretics "tongues cut, other fire betray."

Softened church terror under Ivan the Terrible, who, like Ivan III, dreamed of a secularization of church lands, and therefore had a negative attitude towards repression against the Reformation (known for his words about the massacre of St. Bartholomew, "I Frantsovskogo king in his kingdom, and up to several thousand own who were battered babies, and how comely peasant emperor mourn what beschelovechestvo frantsovsky king over the people of the Shred Shred perpetrate and blood shed crazy "). In 1554, opened heresy Moscow nobleman MS Bashkin, who independently interpreting the New Testament found a following theses: the love of one's neighbor, the equality of man, and the inadmissibility of slavery. Bashkin let their slaves and encouraged others to do the same thing. In the field of religion, he rejected the church rites, the worship of icons, ecclesiastical penance ("as no longer a sin to do so though the priest did not repent, so he will not sin"), considered the lives of saints — basnosloviem etc. The decisive influence on teaching Bashkin had a reform movement in Europe. At the Church Council, he was sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. Sympathize Artemy Troitsky Abbot and others were exiled (interestingly, the church hierarchy insisted on punishment for heretics interceded king). Artemia escaped from exile and emigrated to the Lithuanian state. At the same time, the authorities detained monk Theodosius Squint with a few followers. Oblique rejected the immortality of the soul, the veneration of icons, the institution of slavery. They were exiled and fled to Lithuania. A Russian heretic, known in Lithuania "second Luther," said that in Moscow he had to burn, but the king abolished the death penalty. But merciful policy did not last long, when in 1563 the Moscow troops took Lithuanian city of Polotsk captured there supporter Diagon Thomas was drowned. This tightening of measures related to the fact that Russia went to war with Lithuania and Lutheran Protestants in domestic steel watch for accomplices of the enemy (the Metropolitan of Moscow declared war to the sacred struggle against the armies of the Orthodox "wretched Luthor" — in fact, the "jihad", of course, pursued purpose of access to the Baltic Sea). The capture of Polotsk was generally present orgy of religious terror. All residents of the Lutherans were deported to Russia. Jews — polls drowned. Catholic monks Cistercians — beheaded. On the other hand is interesting that when the Orthodox clergy demanded ban Lutheran-Protestant immigrants worship — the king refused. Moreover, the king instructed the Metropolitan of Moscow, to force a German Orthodoxy. According to German sources, the Metropolitan was forced to pay for the abuse of a Lutheran 60,000 rubles (Ivan IV expected to include Lithuania in Moscow state and did not want to annoy the new subjects to the end of hostilities).

Grozny changed very pious Fyodor Ivanovich. On one of the arranged with him the British ambassador reported executions Fletcher: "husband and wife kept entire 28 years in prison for as long as they have evolved into sophisticated freaks hair, nails, complexion and other things, and finally burned in Moscow , in a small house that was set on fire on purpose in order. Their fault remains a mystery, but it is likely that they were punished for some religious truth, while the priests and monks have assured the people that the people were angry and cursed heretics. " Perhaps Protestant Fletcher was wrong considering executed their coreligionists, but it was actually impossible, because Russian sources about this penalty modestly silent. Italian Petreyi Peter, who had been in Russia in the early seventeenth century, reported that sacrilegious impaled, and then burned their bodies. In the Cathedral Code, adopted in 1649 and in force for two centuries — violators of divine and ecclesiastical law was ordered to be executed by fire.

The terror of the Russian Church in the Modern Times

In 1653 — 58 years. Patriarch Nikon held a church reform that divided the clergy in the Old Believers and Nikonians. Both sides have declared each other heretics. Believers Habakkuk chapter with three associates were imprisoned in an underground prison in Pustoozerska and productively engaged in literary work there. Touch it and the issue of terror against the heretics. "Life": "Moscow on our fried, but baked: Isaiah burned, and after Abraham, [between 1670 and 1674 years] was burned, and other advocates of a great many ruined church, the same number of their god izochtet. Miracle, as it did not want the knowledge Priit: fire, a whip, but gallows want to adopt the faith! Kotorye-to apostles have taught you? — I do not know. My Christ commanded the apostles to teach like, hedgehog would fire, a whip, but gallows want to give faith. " This is about the persecution against its supporters. But opponents of the (letter Tsar Fedor Alekseevich): "What, sir, the king, as if you gave me the will, I would have, that Elijah the prophet, all pereplastal in a single hour (…) The first to Nikon, the dog, and nachetvero dissected, and then would nikoniyan. " In general, the exposure of a terrorist policy towards his supporters and the recognition of its completely normal, when it is the opposite, is a common place for political propaganda.

Penalty Believers became rampant. "In Kazan nikoniyane thirty burned in Siberia as much, in Vladimir — six, in Borovsk — fourteen people" — Habakkuk recorded dryly reached him information about the executions of fellow believers. From 1668 to 1676 siege continued to oppose the church reform Solovetsky monastery. By taking it all the monks, according to church historian, "were worthy of execution" — part chopped, part hanged: the neck, the legs, the two leaders over the edge.

April 14, 1682 were burned in the earth blockhouse Habakkuk and three other prisoners Pustoozerska. In the summer of that year in Moscow, the Old Believers' rebellion, backed by archers. The head of the rebels Nikita Pustosvyat (nickname, of course, given the orthodox opponents) won debate about faith with nikonianami. Despite the presence of the patriarch and Sophia, the discussion took place rapidly, swearing was replaced fist fight. As a result, the Old Believers fled Faceted Chamber triumphantly shouting "Pobedihom, pobedihom! We all Arhireev pereprehom and posramihom! "The next day, the rebellion was suppressed, Nikita Pustosvyat captured and July 11, 1682 executed on Calvary. In 1685, passed a special decree stipulating burned in the wooden house of the Old Believers' campaign and a return to the split after repentance, and more lenient (whip, link, penalty) for the secret confession of Old Believers and harboring dissenters. The main motive — to prevent the spread of heresy. In 1720, Deacon Alexander raskolouchitel previously renounced the separatist views, came to Petersburg and Peter I filed a report in which a fully repented of his abdication. Brave fanatic was beheaded and burned undergone only a dead body.

Secessionists gradually moved abroad or to the outskirts of the state. Large Old Believer community formed by the river in the Saratov region Irgiz, in 1727, the Archbishop of Kazan wrote that without the military command in the settlement on Irgiz "dangerous to enter." In 1762, Catherine II, despite the protest of the official church, has announced an amnesty cursory splitters. In the future, more and more legislation antiraskolnicheskoe softened. In 1780, there were even Old Believer churches and monasteries (in Irgiz). Alexander I permitted the starobryadcheskim priests called priests, secret instructions approved in 1822 "about the priests and prayer houses of Old Believers," which instructed not to touch the Orthodox priests who converted to the Old Believers are not to touch the Old Believer churches. The last outbreak of fighting with the Old Believers came in the reign of Nicholas I, an ardent supporter of the unification of all areas of life. Ascended the throne, he declared policy of the government: to act so that the cash dissenters lived his life, and no new ones appeared. In 1826, the crosses were removed from the Old Believer churches, banned the construction of new and renovation of old buildings. In 1827, the Old Believer priests forbidden to move from county to county. In 1832, it was ordered to return the diocesan leadership priests who converted to split (most of the dissenters continued to believe that grace is only for priests, consecrated by the church). This was followed by the defeat of the monasteries in the Old Believer Irgiz (in response to repeated requests by the clergy, neglected in previous reign). In college Resurrection Monastery, in the course had to let the Cossack team acting Noghai woman and firefighters doused the crowd from the hoses and the case was in early March, and more than a thousand people were associated icy. Featuring arrived with a team of Orthodox priests to this pile of half frozen bodies, the governor offered cheerfully, "Well, gentlemen, fathers, if you please pick up what you see." Nicholas successors finally stopped the persecution of Old Believers: in 1858 there had been a schismatic worship in house churches and chapels, and in 1883 — generally allowed the free exercise of the Old Believers worship.

As for the Church of terror, not connected with the dispute — the last of his striking manifestations refer to end of XVII — beginning of XVIII century. Even in 1687, was founded by the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy — the first Russian university. Concurrently, the agency involved in the fight against dissenters: "And about this guardian of them with uchitelmi kreptse hedgehog would endeavor to all ranks spiritual and worldly people, and Arcane magic and divination, and all of the church and forbidden and blasphemous bogonenavistnyh books and writings at anyone does not quite Keep add-on and not deystvovati, and other that does not teach. And they have such a book, or writing now the essence, and any add-books and writings sozhigati … If thou also unto our king who would command nasty and who now starts from the spiritual and worldly all ranks of people, and Arcane magic and divination, and all of the church forbid and blasphemous and bogonenavistnye books and writings at whom no bude way to keep and add-deystvovati, and the other is taught, or without writing any case bogonenavistnaya tvoriti or hvalitisya such evil deeds, like a powerful tvoriti it such, and this is the man behind the significant evidence without mercy yes burn "(paragraph 14 letters on the establishment of the Academy). Academy was in charge of the spiritual censorship oversaw as for school and for home education, finally, enjoyed the right to try unmasking heretics. To name only two of the victims of this very peculiar institution.

In 1689, in the wooden house on Red Square was burned Protestant pastor Quirinus Kuhlmann. In 1691 he was sentenced to perpetual imprisonment, a prominent Russian poet, historian and educator Sylvester Medvedev accused of so-called. hlebopoklonnoy heresy (purely ceremonial disagreement). A month later, Medvedev was put to death, mostly for political reasons (support Sophia against Peter), but among the charges, and figured that he should deceive the "Kiev novotvornymi books" that bring together the Orthodoxy with Catholicism.

October 24, 1714, the Church Council in Moscow condemned the Lutheran circle Tveritinov professor, who denied the miracles, the veneration of icons and relics (and previously issued in this case the verdict of the Senate for the release of suspects has been ignored on the grounds that the heretics' court civil deceived "). November 29 is one of the members of the group, Thomas Ivanov (hacked while in custody, an icon with the image of a saint), was burned in the wooden house all on the same Red Square, a characteristic detail — on a slow fire. Next thing moved to St. Petersburg and was delayed. January 22, 1716 Peter I signed a decree the following name: "The decree masters Senate. In the case of Dmitry Tveritinov, rozyskav and signified it certainly manage, and which in any case bring guilt or bring their own, to send to those in the service of the bishops at their homes, and that they have a strong care for them, that they were nepokoleblemy faith. And that will not bring their wines, and those put to death by death. Under that attributed his imperial majesty with his own hand: Peter. " There is sufficient evidence of the Emperor is very cool attitude to the Orthodox Church, and such a "pious" decree explained on the one hand, the pressure from clerics, on the other hand, the state ideology of neobhodimostyuzaschity all freethinkers. So, as the Senate continued to delay the case, Peter issued another nominal decree that and sent the suspects under surveillance for bishops. In connection with this case were written treatises locum tenens of the Patriarchal throne Stephen Yavorsky: "Exhortation to the Orthodox" and "Rock of Faith", worthy to stand next to the "Hammer of Witches" and numerous admonitions inquisitors. Metropolitan argued that the only punishment for heretics to be death, "the heretics themselves useful to die." He called upon all Orthodox denounce the "rebellious church" under pain of excommunication and damnation (universal denunciation as an integral feature of the terrorist policy). Curiously, however, that later "Rock of Faith" was banned book as containing Catholic ideas.

Later laws in relation to heretics gradually softened. In the military code 1716 said, "if anyone from the military people there is an idolater, Warlock, guns zagovoritel, superstitious and bogohulitelny magician: the aforesaid as the case of ill prisoners in glands gonyaniem gauntlet punished or burned rather has to be. Interpretation. Punishment by burning is common chernoknizhtsam penalty, if the aforesaid his sorcery who perpetrate harm, or indeed with the devil has an obligation. " Professor Latkin found that this article was taken from the statute military criminal collections West. In 1721, was executed by "working man" Ivan Oreshnikov for the fact that he "blasphemed God and the king." However, in 1751, soldiers V. Mikulin, who said: "I do not believe in God," was all-but banished to a monastery (perhaps because of the king, he wisely said nothing.) In 1738, a Jew Baruch Leibov managed to convert to Judaism naval captain-lieutenant Alexander Voznitsyn. Voznitsyn even was circumcised and was exposed to the apostasy own wife. She filed a denunciation and at the highest approved the resolution of the Senate, the Life and Voznitsyn were burned. Pious widow zakonnoychasti apart from the estate of her husband, was a hundred souls to the land "in return for the right denunciation." Finally, the last fire in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church broke out in 1743. Here we should talk about another appointment ecclesiastical terror (in addition to fighting the witches and heretics) — Christianization of the conquered peoples. The spread of Orthodoxy among the population of the Volga region began immediately on accession of the region to Russia, but it is especially hardened in the first half of the XVIII century (the peak of Muslim missionaries — after the Russian-Turkish war of 1735 — 1739 years). Decree of 11 September 1740 were planned measures to speedy completion of the process of Christianization (it's a given that Christians were not the Volga and the hundredth part of the population). Novokreschenskoy Affairs Commission was reorganized into Novokreschenskoy office, at the disposal of which, in addition to the priests and preachers were constantly increase the military force. Arhireev edge was appointed rabid fanatic Dmitry Sechenov. Newly baptized received money, clothes, exemption from taxes and compulsory military service. Refusing to be baptized, by contrast, paid duties for new Christians were subjected to beatings and outright violence — although the latter occurred on the personal initiative Arhireev. This policy has led to the fact that in 1741 — 42 years, have converted to Christianity more than 17 thousand people. But how hard was this "treatment", showed the following case. In 1743, Sechenov, passing through the village of Mordovia, piously ordered destroy pagan cemetery. With barely escaped the hands of outraged local residents, he called a military command that several volleys (not in the air) dispelled the "rebels." During the investigation it was found out that the head of the perturbation was Novokreshchennykh Mordvin Nesmeyanko — Curve. The latter, as it turned out, not only denied the orthodox faith, and took off his cross, and split icon. Apostate was burned alive. Arhireyu Sechenov was officially banned forcibly baptized pagans. Way to cut icons and insecure these days. In 1998, avant-garde artist Ter-Aghanian engaged in felling the "saints" of images at the opening ceremony of the "Ari-riding", for which he was prosecuted under Article 282 of the Criminal Code ("Actions aimed at inciting religious hatred" -? ?). To escape from the threat of imprisonment "for a period of two to four years," the artist asked for political asylum in not having the relevant laws Czech Republic.

Of less stringent measures to strengthen the religious feelings should be mentioned decree of expulsion of Jews from the non-baptized December 2, 1742, replaced, after the accession of Poland, the infamous Pale. There are fines for talking to churches and non-participation in the cross passages. Empress Elizabeth ordered by those in the church talking to impose chains — "for the noble ranks of gilded copper, for mediocre white tin, and for other ranks just iron." In 1748, the Bishop of Great Ustiug Totem and commanded, "Buda who is laziness and negligence in the holy church will not go, this is sure to encourage and exhort. And if the second and third admonition and forcing who is adamant and stubborn will, that of the priest with his clerk to each parishioner to punish, and to those of the procession was not laziness, planted in a chain and pad and keep daylight savings time at the bell tower in the square. "

Then the church was trying to influence the secular terror — in accordance with tradition, reaching the time of Prince Vladimir, not in the direction of easing. In 1754, the Senate introduced a report to the Emperor for the release of the torture of criminals under 17. Orthodox Synod protested — the teachings of the Fathers, of majority is 12 years of age, that age should begin to torture criminals. C. Ascension, in the article "Elizabeth," written for Britannica-Efron (1913), gave the following assessment of "compassionate" protest Orthodox priests, "they forget that the decisions to which they referred, due to population of the southern countries, much earlier than the northerners are coming of age. " Incidentally, the empress of the Senate adopted the report without any changes.

Under the legislation in force on the eve of the Revolution, has been convicted heretic only "deprivation of property rights and a link to a settlement." Orthodox Christians who refuse to confession (and the custom introduced by Peter I, informed the police about the confessors heard in confession confessions of political crimes) and other rituals were subject "Church nakazaniyampo discretion and spiritual order of the diocesan authorities, with the observation tokmo, to herein have not been for a long time otluchaemy officers of the service, and villagers from their homes and jobs. " All of the Penal Code and Criminal Corrections (developed in 1845, minor changes were made in 1885) included 81 article on crimes against the faith (for comparison: the French Napoleonic Code — 5 articles, all-German Criminal Code — Article 3). Another example of this pious legislation under which our ancestors lived, and even great-grandmothers: for distribution of works condemning the Orthodox Church, the guilty (guilty) sentenced to twenty lashes and exile to remote places in Siberia.

In 1866, a book was published by IM Sechenov, "Reflexes of the Brain", in which the scientist explained materialistically mental processes. Petersburg metropolitan demanded that the author of "exiled to humility and fix" to the Solovetsky Monastery. It was limited by the fact that the book of the year was not allowed to sell. In the early 90s, the proportion of those convicted of religious crimes ranged between 1 and 2% of the total number of criminals. In 1894 — 1903 years after they were convicted 4671 people, 1904 — 1913 — 8000. The interim government was first proclaimed freedom of conscience, and the post-October terror already and does wear the opposite.

Thus, the history of Russian church shows its much softer policy of heretics than in the West. So, we have not received wide application execution by burning them alive. Another survey — what were the reasons? Can humanism orthodox doctrine, in comparison with a Catholic? Indeed, the isolation of our homeland from the European Development of Christianity played a part. After all, there burnings began after the papal bull establishing the Inquisition, and the Orthodox Russia their action did not apply. Among the most ardent persecutor of heretics were clearly fans of the Catholic Church. Gennady Gonozov refers to the experience of Torquemada, Stefan Jaworski studied at the Jesuit college. But not behind them and Orthodox Orthodox. The first burning of heretics was held on the initiative and the insistence of the church council (meeting of all senior pravoslanyh hierarchy), Joseph showed special fanaticism Volotsky, ranked among the Russian Orthodox Church canonized. In the 16th century, another council insisted on the execution of followers Bashkin and oblique. Burning of Thomas Ivanov at Peter again was under pressure the entire Orthodox Church Cathedral. As you can see, give our church will — it established the Inquisition would not worse than papal. Fortunately, this will not give her. It's not in the dogmatic and organizational unlike Orthodoxy to Catholicism — the absolute subordination of the church to the state. The state was the heretics (if they did not attempt to society) rather indifferent, and even (if they were willing to give secular authorities ecclesiastical wealth) provided them tacit support. You can cite as an example and Ivan III, Ivan the Terrible (in general, not given to charity), and Peter's Senate. But it would be an exaggeration to declare secular power protector of heretics. Whatever disagreements arose between the secular and spiritual power, Orthodoxy remains the state ideology, which the state protects from attacks. Hence the duality of his policy toward dissidents. Ivan III, long sympathetic "zhidovtvuyuschim" eventually gave the nod to their burning. Ivan IV in 1553, stood up for the supporters Kosoy, ten years had executed one of them. Peter refers to the church with hostility, insisted on punishing Tveritinov mug. The fate of the division, where both parties demanded the king of terror against his opponents, decided that Nikonianism introduced by the decree of the monarch and his starooobryadtsy were disobedient. Not later escaped exile and Nikon, trying to oppose the king. In this matter, Alexis is not worried about the truth of one or the other direction, but the absolute submission to the will of its citizens.

So, the burning of heretics held in Russia from 1504 to 1743, although it is rare, but fairly regularly. Heretics were punished in other ways, such as waterboarding. The reason for the rarity of persecution for religious persecution, first, in a break with Western European Christianity, and secondly, in a subordinate position of the Orthodox Church to the state.

Main Reading.

1) Buganov V. Bogdanov Rebels and whistleblowers in the Russian Orthodox Church. — M. Politizdat, 1991. — 526 p.
2) F. Grimberg Rurik semisotletie or "eternal" questions. — Moscow: Moscow High School, 1997. — 308 p.
3) Life of memorable people of the Russian Land: X — XX centuries. — Moscow: Moscow Worker, 1992. — 334 p.: Ill.
4) Karamzin. N. History of the Russian State: In twelve volumes. T. 5. — Moscow: Nauka, 1993. — 560 p.
4) Kostomarov N. Russian history in the lives of its most important figures. — M.: Thought, 1991. — 616 [2].
5) Kryvelev I. History of Religions: Essays in 2 vols 1. — M.: Thought, 1988. — 445 [1].
5) Novombergsky N. "About Magi first mentioned" / / Russian conspiracies. — New York: Press, 1993. — S. 284 — 339
6) Chronicle. — St.: ABC, 1997. — 224.
7) The Russian legislation X — XX centuries. T. 6. The legislation of the first half of the XIX century / Ed. Ed. Chistyakov A. — M.: Legal Literature, 1988. — 432 p.
8) R. Skrynnikov Great Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible: 2 volumes — Smolensk: Rusich, 1996. — (Tyranny)
9) Soloviev History of Russia from ancient times: In 15 kn. — M., 1959 — 1968
10) Fletcher, On the State Russian / / On the eve of the Troubles. — M.: Young Guard, 1990. — 622 p.
11) M. Shakhnovich man rebelling against God: Scientific artist. book. — L.: Children's Books, 1986. — 175 p.: Ill.
12) Collegiate Dictionary: Brockhaus and Efron: Biographies. Volume 1 — 5. — Moscow: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 1991 — 1994

Shatsky Eugene

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