The first time I saw Muammar Gaddafi in 1975 when, as the 2nd Secretary of the African Department of Foreign Affairs I arrived in Tripoli in the delegation that accompanied the chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin. It was striking that 33-year-old Gaddafi, the last time the chairman of the Board of revkomandovaniya LAR, ie the head of the country, in dealing with Kosygin strongly emphasized respect for him as a person, it is superior in age and experience, and at times could not hide his own embarrassment. Also sent to the attention of fervor and sincerity with which he expounded his ideas.
In the next, working 1 st Secretary of the Soviet Embassy in Tripoli in 1976 — 1980., I met with Gaddafi 10s again, accompanying him during visits to our ambassadors and I.N.Yakushina A.V.Anisimova, taking part in the negotiations of delegations visited Libya, Libyan favorite translating conversations with Russian leaders during his visits to Moscow in 1976 and 1981., and then had a meeting with him in 1992 — 1996. already as Russia's ambassador to Tripoli.
Over time demeanor Gadhafi began to change. He is not shy in talking to "the powers that be", and sought in every way to highlight its importance. Publicly, he visited quite different, skilfully adapting to the audience. Yet, in the course of our meetings with him, he became a former Gaddafi, kept simple and natural. Maybe because he realized that underscore the importance of their own will not make memories for me, and perhaps, as I was to him by a man from his youth.
M.Gaddafi was extravagant (spending the night in a tent during zabugornyh visits, protection of the ladies tearing during a speech at the General Assembly of the UN Charter, and the like), but it was obmyslennoy strategy for managing a small country, at any cost sought to draw attention to themselves and to to Libya.
Naturally, dictator Muammar Gaddafi was, but it was not the type of Teran Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. If it were executions for political reasons, but to mass repressions M.Gaddafi no recourse. Moreover, he showed amazing softness towards their former colleagues, with whom he had some disagreements. Suffice it to recall Abd al-Salam Dzhelludom, when there was a conflict between them, A.S.Dzhellud has been removed from the control of the Revolutionary VSNLAD but relaxed living in a villa in Tripoli and even time occasionally traveled abroad.
Gaddafi was a deeply religious man. Before making a harsh decision, he went into the desert and would be alone in a tent, in consultation with their god. This seems unusual, but remember that even relatively recently, at the end of the XIX century., Lord William I before taking key decisions went into the sea, was closed in the ship of the church and inquired of God what he should do. From municipal leaders admired Gadhafi called, first, Gamal Abdel-Nasser. According to Mohammed Heikal Hasaneyna, "Gaddafi made by two people — the prophet Mohammed and President Gamal Abdel-Nasser. The result is a mixture of Islamic thought since the prophet's life and revolutionary principles Nasser »[i].
Gaddafi was one of those people for whom the main are not worldly goods, and the idea, the implementation of which they devote their lives. In this case, such a role was played, he developed "The third global theory" designed in what Gaddafi was convinced problems facing the population of the earth difficulties.
"The third global theory" proclaimed the necessity of establishing a "true democracy". Made in accordance with it the Jamahiriya system was identical to the ancient democracy. The supreme authority among the local people's congresses (MHC), which were created by the territorial principle and united the entire population of Libya. In their discussion include all issues of the country, including associated with economic development plans, budget, internal and external policies. District People's Conference and the General People's enthusiasm was only entitled to bring solutions adopted by the MNF to a common denominator.
In practice it turned out that the system is inefficient. The meeting lasted for weeks MHC torn from the current affairs of people, the vast majority of which was not ready for the imposition educated decisions on the agenda day or matters which could not affect the reasonableness of resolutions adopted. Often, only the intervention of the situation rescued favorite Libyan Revolution Muammar Gaddafi (renounced all municipal posts, but has maintained a de facto full power).
In the economic field, the basic postulate of "Third World Theory" was the principle of "partners, not wage workers", in accordance with which the factory and the factory became the property of those who work on them. This has led to the emergence of self-managed sector in Libya, which accounted for, but only 3% of the gross national product. Explained by the fact that the experience was not vserasprostranen the remaining in the hands of the country's oil-producing and processing industry and the banks, as the mixed companies: Libyan administration feared that the introduction of self-government in these sectors will lead to the collapse of the economy if the experience with self-government tolerate trouble.
The undisputed award Gadhafi was the construction of the artificial river Lofty (VIR), which became the world's naikrupneyshim engineering project. System was built pipelines to supply the northern regions of the country with water that came from under the sands of the Sahara 4 large lakes containing 35 thousand cubic meters. km. Freshwater [ii]. VIR not only had to provide water to the coastal town, and give the opportunity to learn under 160 hectares of agricultural land [iii].
Gadhafi is the undisputed award and made them in the social sphere. A significant portion of the state income was in 2010 14.2 thousand dollars per capita is distributed in the interest of all Libyans [iv]. Has been virtually eliminated illiteracy, infant mortality rate has dropped to 25 per 1 thousand newborns, parents of each child were paid seven thousand dollars, the newlyweds were allocated 60 million dollars for an apartment, the main food and gasoline were subsidized by the state, the electricity was free, poor received assistance funds, food, and some of them, and certificates for cars, unemployment benefit was $ 750 per month [v].
As for foreign policy, then, according to M.H.Heykala, Gaddafi, being "simple-hearted man," was after coming to power in the "complex world filled komplotami and maneuvers", which to a large extent has warned his behavior on international arena, like, as the Egyptian journalist with the behavior of Tarzan's New York [vi].
His foreign policy was also subject to the zeal to implement their theoretical postulates. Being as G.Abdel-Nasser, advocate of Pan-Arabism, Gaddafi sought union with Syria, Egypt or Sudan, then with Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. All these initiatives were put forward without regard to the real situation, ended in failure. Disappointment in the Arab unity led him to embark on the merits of African unity through the formation of the African Union, which would go on the path of integration, following in the footsteps of the EU. Although the AU was formally created, replacing him Company of African Unity, there is no analogue of the Euro Union has not happened and could not happen.
One of the constants of Libya&#
39;s foreign policy was to support the national liberation struggle. In Gadhafi out, but, the exact dimensions of what to realize a "national liberation movement". As a result, Libyans provided assistance on the one hand, terrorist groups such as the Irish Republican Army or the Moro Liberation Front, and the other — the Palestine Liberation Organization, the African National Congress, the Mozambique Liberation Front, People's Organization South-West Africa.
Foreign policy actions Libyan regime inevitably associated with the explosion of December 21, 1988 747 of "Panameriken" over the Scottish borough of Lockerbie and September 19, 1989 DiSi-10 of "UTA" over Niger, resulting in the deaths of a total 440 problems man.[Vii] In 1999, the French tribunal sentenced six Libyans in absentia to indefinite imprisonment for the attack against the French Airbus, and in 2002 a Scottish tribunal sentenced a Libyan intelligence officer Abdel-Basit al-Megrahi to indefinite imprisonment for the bombing of a South American plane. August 12, 2003 Libyan side admitted that its officials are responsible for the death of the 747, but continued to deny any involvement in the destruction of DiSi-10. [Viii] Against Gaddafi himself charges were not made. Moreover, in August 1999, the French prosecutor recommended not to incriminate him of involvement in the explosion of the French Airbus. [Ix]
It seems however, the death of 2-planes is a black spot on the board Gadhafi. I have a medal, but the other side. In 1973, Israeli fighter planes shot down without warning over the occupied Sinai off course Libyan Boeing. Killed about 150 people. There was not a decision of the Security Council, nor the imposition of sanctions. Striking example being the norm for the policy of the West of "double standards", is not it?
During his life as a politician, Gaddafi made a lot of mistakes, but every time he corrected them, finding a way out of what seemed to be hopeless situations. But two of his mistakes were fatal.
First, Gaddafi incorrectly assessed the situation in Libya, where the spirit of opposition grew. His rule were dissatisfied with the top of the tribes of Cyrenaica, whose access to the partition of the "state of the pie" was limited, and feel deprived Berbers Jebel Nefusa. This stratified demands for democratization, which were young people, the state bourgeoisie, the modern middle class. Shock same power of "freedom fighters" were fundamentalists. The Libyan Islamic Fighting Group was able to recover from the defeat that it suffered in 1996, trying to raise a rebellion in Cyrenaica. With the help of Qatar was purchased and hidden in the Libyan desert gun, trained and deployed to VSNLAD militants. They immediately took an active role in anti-government actions, from the first day turned into an armed rebellion.
The scion of Muammar Seif al-Islam sensed the impending danger. He offered the Pope a constitution, hold parliamentary and presidential elections, but Gaddafi refused to do so. If he went on such a step, the current disaster, perhaps, could have been avoided.
Second severe mistake Gadhafi was the conviction that the external threat to Libya over. He did not expect the same heads of state and government, who assured him in friendship, obymalis with him, allowed him to pitch one's tent in the center of their own capitals, will give orders to bombard Libya or take a neutral hostile. If Gaddafi does not wondered who he'd better buy weapons, and would gain many modern anti-aircraft and anti-missile systems and prepared for their calculations, it is not clear yet, whether the West had decided to intervene.
What happened was a terrible blow for Gaddafi. According to the 1st of his companions Mansour Ibrahim, "he thought that people would adore it to the end. He felt he did so quite good for Libya and Libyans. He felt that the people whom he thought were his friends, such as Tony Blair and Silvio Berlusconi threw him ». [X]
But all this can not be overlooked that the Libyan favorite was not overthrown by his people. At his side was a large part of the population of Tripolitania and Fezzan, and rebel militias, when they found themselves without support from the air, suffered defeat after defeat. Their victory has provided the North Atlantic Aviation contract committing the seven months 26 thousand sorties. Fought on the side of the opposition — in violation of resolution 1973 of the Security Council — hundreds of Qatari soldiers and officers, whose role in the fighting acknowledged in public statements by NTC chairman Mustafa Abdul-Jalil and the Chief of the General Staff of Qatar, Hamad al-Attiyah. [Xi] These together with French soldiers of the Foreign Legion, the British 22th Regiment Special Aircraft Services, and the United Arab Emirates armed forces have played a decisive role in the assault on Tripoli (as proven by the evidence of witnesses 10 s). France, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates have supplied the rebels weapons in their squads sent the French, British and Qatari military advisers. What a blow to the column, in which Gaddafi followed, dealt helicopters allies (which officially confirmed the command of NATO), and the "freedom fighters" only then brutally killed a wounded Libyan leader. Attention is drawn to the fact that during the day or two before his death, arrived in Tripoli Municipal U.S. Secretary Hillary Clinton publicly claimed to "kill or catch Gaddafi, the Libyan people are no longer afraid of him." During air raids killed the sons of Libyan favorite — Safe Al-Arab and Khamis, and three grandchildren — four-month-Mansur, safe two-year and 3-year-old Carthage, and once his son Muatasim Bill was captured along with his father and killed by the "defenders of democracy». [Xii]
Gadhafi was the last of a cohort of Arab revolutionary nationalists, the last of the generation to which belonged G.Abdel Nasser Ahmed Ben Bella, Houari Boumediene, Abd al-Karim Qasim, Habib Buriba. On the proposal to leave Libya, he replied: "Gaddafi no ordinary president to leave, he — the leader of the revolution and the Bedouin warrior who brought glory to the Libyans ». [xiii] His will, posted on the website of the Libyan Revolution, a favorite on October 24 this year, said:" I urge my supporters to fight against all foreign invaders now, tomorrow and always. Even if we do not win immediately, we will give a lesson to future generations that the decision to protect its own people — this stately honor and betrayal — it is the greatest betrayal that will long remain in history. "
With the death of Muammar Gaddafi came to an end an era that began in 1955 with the nationalization of the Universal Suez Canal Company, an era when the Arab people thought that they are able to get rid of the domination of the West and take their destiny into their own hands. But what happened there is another nuance. The overthrow of Gaddafi — This is another victory of the Indian philosopher Dzh.Kapur calls "protected instrument of consumerism." At the current time, shows he is imposing, including force, unified model of civilization, "which pochetaet and protects the interests of the market", and taken in this regard, "an attempt to damage the cultural, religious or cultural abundance is always accompanied by the processes of economic, physical, communal violence ». [xiv]
Society who refuse to adopt this model, to make it an instrument. This model does not fit into Libya. From it falls Syria and Iran. Incidentally, and Our homeland is not absolutely meets the requirements of "consumer society" …
[I] Mohammed Heikal Hasaneyn. At-Tariq Ramadan il. Beirut, 1975, p. 168.
[Ii] An excellent project aqua Gaddafi. / / Military Review — by: http://topwar.ru/7735-grandioznyy-vodnyy-proekt-kaddafi.html.
[Iv] Mirzoyan G. Blight Jama
hiriya. / / Expert, 24.08 — 04.09.2011, p. 64.
[Vi] Heikal M.H.At-il Tariq Ramadan, p. 175;
[Vii] Gaddafi, Muammar. / / Wikipedia — to:
[Viii] Gaddafi, Muammar …; Interview Gaddafi M. newspaper "Le Figaro". — P. by: Alekseev 30 years under Colonel / / Kommersant, 01.09.1999.
[Ix] Interview with M. Gaddafi newspaper "Le Figaro". — P. by: Alekseev 30 years under Colonel / / Kommersant, 01.09.1999.
[X] Adler died K.Kaddafi "angry and disappointed." / / BBC. Russian service, 31/10/2011 — by: http://www.bbc.co.uk/russian/international/2001/10/111006-qaddafi-featureю.html
[Xi] Suponina E., D. Dubov Syrian President scares regional war. / / Moscow announcements, 31.10.2011.
[Xii] Gaddafi, Muammar …;
[Xiii] In the same place;
[Xiv] J. Kapur Our Future: Consumerism or Humanism. Moscow, 2008. s. 203, 205.