According to historians, Antipater traveled and recorded his impressions. Babylon smote him, above all, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
In 1898, on the banks of the Euphrates, about a hundred kilometers south of modern Baghdad, on the instructions of the German Oriental Society archaeologist Robert Koldewey began searching for the legendary Babylon.
Having studied a lot of literature devoted to the ancient city Koldewey wanted to find this architectural wonder, the glory of which consisted of the Tower of Babel, grandiose walls and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. According to historical sources, the luxury and splendor of the city attracted merchants, travelers, and just fortune seekers from all over the world. Motley crowd of merchants and caravans drive here with unprecedented goods, traveling musicians, warriors, fortunetellers, healers, selling women and pickpockets, filled the streets of Babylon.
Have passed since many centuries. It seemed, from the great civilization was gone. In areas where there could be once Babylon, prostrated hills with steep slopes so stunted vegetation. It was here, in the plain Sahi (pan) and headed by Robert Koldewey to spring 1899 start looking. In large-scale excavations attended two hundred workers. In order to take out the garbage and rubble, Europe was discharged portable railway.
Success came almost from the first day, and after a few months of work Koldewey got an idea of the extent of Babylon.
Before the eyes of archaeologists opened a wall of mud brick width of 7 and a height of 12 meters, far from it under the ground was another wall about 8 feet wide, and behind it — one, three-meter width, encircling moat once, lined with brick. On the inside of the wall, which had a length of over 18 kilometers, towered 360 turrets. Thus, the estimated Koldewey, a city hidden behind such a grand city walls, on the right could be the biggest of the man built four thousand years ago.
Every day brought new discoveries — unique bas-winged lions, covered with copper city gates, household items, gold jewelry, ancient burial … Apparently, here in ancient Mesopotamia, at one time the greatest flourishing of the known civilizations. Which one? Experts studying the artifacts retrieved at the site, suggested that it could be the Sumerians, who, as you know, the city erected the stone, had a unique writing system, and many of their buildings are still a mystery to modern engineers.
According to some historians, the Sumerian civilization had been destroyed as a result of a global natural disaster. However, the surviving representatives of the people could set up Babylon, which revived the greatness gone forever Sumerians.
"The botanical splendor."
Luck left arheolsgov, they discover more and more new secrets of centuries past. However Kogzleveya had a dream that it is not implemented. Archaeologist knew that King Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 years BC. Oe.) Built a unique facility in Babylon — The Hanging Gardens.
Phoenician writer Antipater called the name Gardens of Babylon, though, as you know, Semiramis was a legendary Assyrian queen. If it exists, in fact, that she lived much earlier than the Hanging Gardens were built. Name a Median princess, wife of Nebuchadnezzar, for which he created a miracle, is not known. Perhaps it was also called Babylon. According to legend, she longed for his homeland and to somehow comfort favorite, my husband ordered the creation of a monotonous landscape of the Euphrates valley area, which resembled a queen Media.
Nebuchadnezzar soldiers were ordered to dig in his campaigns and bring to Babylon all the unknown plant. Caravan and ships arriving from foreign lands, too, had to bring a variety of botanical wonders. Near the royal palace, as if a giant step ladder, there were seven terraces. Each of them is a wonderful garden where green with unprecedented grass, flowers filled the air with delightful aroma, in the branches of trees, exotic colorful birds chirping, the transparent surface of the pond slid graceful swans, and with all the terraces is one. They were united vines located at the edges of terraces and creep from Sona to another. From a distance it seemed that oantasticheskaya mottled mountain, as if descending from the heavens, soars above the barren plain.
In summer, when, as if to destroy all life, the sun was beating down mercilessly, slaves, pumping water from wells, drove her to numerous channels, which thanks to a special irrigation system, water dripping from the top terrace down by watering it "botanical splendor."
So there were actually showers Hanging Gardens of Babylon, or is it just a fairy tale?
12 underground spaces.
One day in the north-eastern part of the palace complex Koldewey unearthed 12 underground spaces with very massive arches, as if designed for a huge load. These facilities were built of hewn stone and echelon, and among them was the passage. The thickness of the walls reached seven meters. Beside these amazing buildings was a round well, and both sides of it — rectangular wells smaller. Near the well towered building that looked like a ladle-st-lift, which could be for a continuous supply of water to the top.
According to Koldewey, that's likely to look the underground part of the Hanging Gardens. Over their powerful arches, apparently, is the central part of the terrace, and each terrace-five meters high above the previous one and was lined with thick beams. Beams carpeted cane. The next layer of asphalt was then cast and above — lead to prevent leakage of water into basements. Already in the lead lining pour three-meter layer of earth on which a great feeling, even large trees.
So found basements, most likely a set of Hanging Gardens of Babylon. A system that provides water to the gigantic construction yard, was unique for its time!
Unfortunately, the system of underground facilities — all that is left and came to the present day from the beautiful hanging gardens. However, has been preserved and the legend that by passing the throne to his son, Semiramis, who owned the magical knowledge, fell from the upper terrace, but did not break, and turned into a white dove flew to his beloved homeland.
Tower of Babel.
In addition to many discoveries shed light on the history of the ancient kingdom, Robert Koldewey discovered foundation colossal structures, which appear to be the remains of the legendary Tower of Babel. Its width is 90 meters. The very same tower served as a huge sanctuary, at the top of which stood a temple to the god Marduk. Archaeologists have found and cuneiform clay tablets, which brought us the story of Assyrian-Babylonian kingdom and the second wonder of the world — the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Yu.Serebrov "Secrets of the twentieth century" № 2
Category: Mystery stories