History of Civilization

Incas — Indian tribes living in Peru and created long before the Spanish conquest of vast empire centered in Cuzco, in the Peruvian Andes. Inca Empire, one of the two empires that existed in the New World in Columbus (another — Aztec), stretching from north to south, from Colombia to central Chile and included the territory of modern Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, northern Chile and northwestern Argentina . Inca Indians called only the emperor and the conquistadors used this word to refer to the whole nation, which in pre-Columbian era, apparently enjoyed the self-designation "Capac-kun" ("great", "famous").

Landscapes and the natural conditions of the former Inca empire are very diverse. In the mountains between 2150 and 3000 m above sea level are moderate climate zones favorable for intensive farming. In the southeast, a huge mountain range divides into two mountains between which at the height of 3840 meters is a vast plateau with Lake Titicaca. This and other high-altitude plateau, stretching south and east of Bolivia up to the north-west of Argentina, called the altiplano. These treeless grasslands are in the continental climate, with hot sunny days and cool nights. On the Andean altiplano lived many tribes. To the south-east of the Bolivian mountains break off and are replaced by the boundless expanse of Argentine pampas.

The Pacific coastline of Peru, from 3 ° S and down to the river Maule in Chile, is a continuous zone of deserts and semi-deserts. The reason for this is the cold Antarctic Humboldt Current, which cools the air flow coming from the sea to the mainland, and not give them to condense. However, the coastal waters are rich in plankton and fish, respectively, and the fish attracts sea birds, whose droppings (guano), covering the coastal desert islands, is a very valuable fertilizer. Coastal plain, stretching from north to south for 3,200 km in width does not exceed 80 km. Approximately every 50 km to cross the river flowing into the ocean. In river valleys flourished ancient cultures developed on the basis of irrigated agriculture.

Incas managed to connect two different areas of Peru, called Sierra (mountain) and Costa (coast), in a single social, economic and cultural space.

Eastern foothills of the Andes are covered with deep wooded valleys and turbulent rivers. Further to the east stretches the jungle — the Amazon jungle. Incas called 'Yungas' hot moist foothills and their inhabitants. Local Indians have provided strong resistance Incas, who were never able to subdue.

Category: Mystery stories

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