How America led the world

How America led the worldJanuary 27, 1973 in Paris, signed an agreement "On Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam"

The unprecedented U.S. defeat in the Vietnam War nearly a decade and more generally in the Indochina War to the present discussions are historians, professionals, publicists. That is logical: the loss of manpower in the United States exceeded 58 thousand people. At the same time, did not help the Yankees in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, nor the use of napalm bombs, neither the introduction of bacteriological weapons or mass executions of peaceful inhabitants, nor the constant bombardment of everything.

According to documents, the Pentagon, the State Department, the military and foreign ministers of Britain, Australia, Taiwan, the Indochinese peninsula since the mid-1960s was to become the main springboard for the American military, political and economic expansion in the socialist countries. Specifically planned to start moving from South-East Asia, because it was believed that a confrontation with the USSR, China, and the absence of China and North Vietnam in the Warsaw Pact and the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), making this region more vulnerable, feeble from the standpoint of economic stability and military-political security. Vpribavok United States intended to take possession of large oil reserves in the seas adjacent to Indochina. (By the way, until this time, all countries in the region argue about state ownership of these resources).

The basis for the implementation of that policy was created in the early to mid-1960s, when the Americans expanded its network of military bases in Thailand, the Philippines and, in part, on Taiwan. In addition, a factor which substantially facilitate execution of brutal plans, Americans considered a failed pro-communist-promaoistsky coup in Indonesia — the largest country in the region — and the actual "delivery" Beijing Indonesian Communist Party (also naikrupneyshey regional) authorities in the autumn of 1965.

In those years, we recall, Beijing, striving after the break with the Communist Party in the region to do their "sotssodruzhestvo" instigated Indonesian Communists to seize power. But the majority of the population supported the government, and the plan was foiled coup. What turned into a massive repression against the Communists and their supporters (were arrested more than 300 thousand people, including almost all the management KPI) and the time lag of diplomatic relations with Beijing Jakarta. But neither China nor USSR not speaking in defense of the Indonesian Communist repression.

Soon, in the spring of 1966, to the authorities in Indonesia have come nationalist military. But the new leadership of the country, although it has become to develop the business with the United States, Washington has refused requests for the development of military bases in Indonesia, even temporary ones. Coupled with the fact the failure of pro-Peking coup in this country Americans interpreted in the sense that the PRC continue to refrain from preventing the United States in the region and, accordingly, will not stop them in Indochina. But in China believed this, bordering with China Peninsula, a kind of "gateway to the Middle Kingdom", because "surrender" Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos Yankees did not plan to. Unlike Indonesia, not bordering with China.

It should be noted that the Vietnamese people in the struggle against South American conquerors showed such properties as the intolerance of the aggressors and the willingness to at least what the victims and hardship for the sake of unity and independence.

Americans do not take into account what exactly these properties have led to the victory of the Vietnamese people in the wars of liberation: the Japanese invaders in 1941-1945., And then — with the French colonialists in the years 1946-1954. Vietnam almost without a break was at war 15 years (1941-1954 years), and not only survived, and prevailed.

Naturally, the most important role in the victorious wars against the land of the rising sun, France and the United States played a different help Vietnamese most socialist countries, especially the Soviet Union. During the conference at the Embassy of Vietnam in Russia in spring 2012 his representatives said that the defeat of the invaders and aggressors in the Vietnamese countryside, as in Cambodia and Laos is unlikely it would be if I did not truly fraternal, disinterested aid of the socialist states, first the Soviet Union , and China. With all of this salting Vietnam to Russia Pham Xuan Son stressed that "the peoples of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos will never forget the various support provided by the brotherly and friendly countries in times of anger, resistance to the Land of the Rising Sun, France, the United States. First, we will always be grateful to the Soviet Union and China for this invaluable assistance. " The same outlook has repeatedly expressed the founder and first manager of the North Vietnamese DRV (1945-1969) Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969). In this regard, we note that, according to many estimates, the number of dead and missing in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, military, economic advisers and other people of the USSR in 1965-1973 years. amounted to no less than 200 people in China — about 1,500, including 900 people from the "accidental" bombings Yankees areas adjacent to Indo China.

The total number of U.S. troops in East Indochinese region, in other words, in Laos, South Vietnam and Cambodia by the end of 1960, according to official data, has exceeded 80 thousand soldiers and officers.

Meanwhile, more and more frequent defeat of U.S. forces in the region and the growing ineffectiveness of the bombing of North Vietnam, although more and more fierce, with 1968 very often become covered in the American media. Mentioned, namely, that "society lost faith in the U.S. military victory in Vietnam. Communist forces are exhausted and can not continue the fight. Calculations for fear of Moscow and Beijing to intervene in the war did not come true. "

In the U.S., total shirilos antimilitarist movement. Often in the course of demonstrations in Washington former members of the Vietnam War threw his services towards the government buildings. Antimilitarist factor is also working on the next U.S. agreement to the Paris talks and then to withdraw troops from Vietnam.

Meanwhile, the chief South American forces in Vietnam, General William Westmoreland requested in February 1968, an additional 206 thousand troops to expand operations. But in the context of growth antimilitarist sentiment in the United States and the military-political situation in South-East Asia, this request was not granted. President Lyndon Johnson agreed to send a small reinforcement of 15 thousand soldiers, and on March 31, made a televised address to the civilization in which announced the end of the bombing of North Vietnam (DRV) and the intention to engage in peace talks.

Washington's position on the affected and talks with President Lyndon Johnson's Council of Ministers of the USSR AN Kosygin in June 1967 in Glassboro (USA). Kosygin confirmed that Moscow increment aid to Vietnam and will soon achieve synchronous action with China on this issue. The Chinese side during the talks in Beijing with Henry Kissinger in 1971, said it will reduce help the communist guerrillas in other countries in Southeast Asia, if the United States would reduce its military presence in Taiwan and end interference in the internal affairs of North and South Vietnam.

These reasons could not fail to affect U.S. policy towa
rds Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. In November 1968 the presidential election in the United States defeated Richard Nixon, who spoke under the slogan "the war is honorable peace." The gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops from the US-backed South Vietnam began in July 1969, and in August 1970 — from Cambodia. Vpribavok the spring of 1971 the Air Force and the U.S. assault troops ended their operations in Laos. We can say that in retaliation for the defeat of the Americans spent their first January new bombing of North Vietnam (Operation «Linebacker II»), while almost the most massive since 1965. And in this time of loss eclipsed the U.S. Air Force calculations Yankees. And then began a new round of the Paris talks, culminating in the signing of a peace agreement on January 27.

The agreement was signed by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the DRV, the Republic of Vietnam, the United States and the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Vietnam (NLF). The document provides for the final withdrawal of U.S. troops and military bases in South Vietnam in 1973, which was carried out in the spring of 1974.

The talks in Paris were specifically justified the fact that France was a mediator in the organization at the end of 1960 the first official contacts with the United States and the DRV South Vietnamese liberation movement.

But perhaps more fundamentally, the the mid-1960s the French administration, led in the 1960s to mid-1970s, Charles de Gaulle, Georges Pompidou and then, strongly protested against the U.S. aggression in Vietnam and Indochina.

That was due, in-1's, with de Gaulle's strategy to strengthen the international position of France and South American opposition neoglobalizmu. And in-2, so that practically the whole of Indochina until the mid-1950s was under French control, because there remained, well, now preserved, the French cultural and linguistic influence.

Moreover, since the late 1960s through the USSR France or China at times directed cargo is not only a civilian, and military mission in the DRV, Cambodia and Laos. And, for example, Charles de Gaulle and Georges Pompidou did not cancel their own visits to those countries even in times of increasingly violent American bombing. Plus, France in the 1960s — 1970s are often carried out military maneuvers in their own areas of the Pacific Islands, and they are placed, recall, nevdali of the U.S. Pacific Islands. All this means in practice that Paris has entered into a confrontation with the United States in Indochina and immediately became a de facto ally of the Soviet Union and China, provides the bulk of international military and economic aid to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia to fight against U.S. aggression.

Of course, the "bow" of France with the USSR and China had predicted a significant loss of U.S. geopolitical, not only in South-East Asia. So the "French factor" is also working on a U.S. agreement to the Paris peace talks. In the course of the last round, which began on January 22, Americans once again (as in 1970) were in favor of the role of the Soviet Union and China in the negotiations and in the future agreement. But it has affected a tough position, again, France: Georges Pompidou said that countries assisting any side in this war, but not specifically involved in combat operations, can not participate in the agreement on the cessation of hostilities — in contrast to the USA.

In support of such position was made and Beijing. Premier Zhou Enlai said that since the start of the U.S. aggression in Vietnam, the Air Force and the U.S. Navy has repeatedly violated the border of China and fired his locality, allegedly, a "mistake." But China, giving tribute military rebuff to these provocations, and does not violate the boundaries of any of the DRV or other countries of Indochina. Because, according to the views of the Chinese premier, the particular participant on Vietnam peace agreement should specifically the United States. Russian position was similar, and for the same reasons: recurring attacks of the Air Force and the U.S. Navy for Russian merchant ships in the waters and ports of the DRV were not accompanied by appropriate responses on the part of the Soviet Union, including on the border with South American Alaska and the Aleutian Islands.

The situation worsened for the Yankees and then the event that even their strategic ally in the region — Taiwan — insisted on the withdrawal of U.S. military bases from the island in 1973.

Taiwan authorities, frustrated by official visits to the U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and U.S. President Richard Nixon to China in 1971-1972,., And, as a consequence, the frisky normalization of US-China relations began to pursue the evacuation of troops and U.S. bases in Taiwan (she ended in the fall of 1974). For it has performed and Beijing. Vpribavok the fall of 1972, the Taiwanese have rescinded the agreement on U.S. military operations in Indochina from these bases. In addition, the authorities of the island feared "revenge attacks" on Taiwan from Beijing for the "wrong" the U.S. military provocations against China.

Since then, the U.S. had to use its bases in more remote from the Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand, which limited military capabilities of the Yankees. But with the help of China and North Korea, the first 1970 Filipino, Thai and Burmese communist insurgents stepped up their operations against the local "pro-American puppet regimes" and U.S. military bases. The same processes, with the filing of the PRC and the DPRK, developed in close ups (ex-UK), Malaysia and Brunei, which at that time were British military base.

In short, the appeal of Mao Zedong in 1965 "for the United States to create two, five, one hundred square meters of new Vietnams" quite successfully put into practice.
According to the views of American professionals at forcing U.S. consent to "leave" from South Vietnam, and soon from Cambodia, and Laos also affected by the fact that, contrary to Washington's calculations, the contradiction between USSR and China have not led to a reduction in their assistance to these Indo-Chinese countries. On the contrary, the desire to beat each other in those countries has led to the fact that both Russian and Chinese support was growing. In this case, after Moscow in response to Beijing's confirmed (in 1970 and 1972.) To fulfill its obligations under the agreement with China on mutual military assistance (1950) in the case of a direct US-China military conflict, both sides have more often coordinate their own schedules deliveries to the DRV through the terrain of China.

In the confrontation with the U.S. in Vietnam, with the second half of 1960 and joined North Korea. December 4, 2011, Woodrow Wilson Center (United States) has published data on the Vietnam People's Army (ie the army DRV) in the 1960s — 1970s. It is noted that more September 21, 1966 the command of the North Vietnamese troops had discussed Pyongyang's offer to provide military assistance to Hanoi via China. Army commander General Vo Nguyen Giap North Korea accepted the offer, and the first North Korean pilots entered the Vietnamese air force corps, complete with the main Russian MiG-17 and MiG-21 fighters and Chinese "Shenyang" in October and November of this year. Then these "supply" of North Korea were in 1969 and 1971.

According to specified data of the North Korean and Vietnamese, participated in the Vietnam War 87 North Korean pilots and 40 of them were killed or went missing, and these pilots shot down in Vietnam nearly 50 U.S. Air Force assets.

In addition, in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia during the period were the North Korean special on laying of underground tunnels for mining or missing troops. The number of these professionals was a total of about 100 people. At the end of September 1966, Kim Il Sung, addressing the first batch of North Korean
pilots and professionals traveling to the DRV, urged them to "defend the Vietnam also selflessly as their homeland and their own family members."

In such a situation, the U.S. could not be afraid of the creation in the literal sense of "anti-American second front" — the Korean Peninsula, in addition, in the criteria for the existence of agreements on mutual military aid North Korea with the Soviet Union and China.

In short, the U.S. geopolitical calculations for a quick victory in Vietnam and Indochina were incorrect. In particular, because not provided by Washington military and political developments in South-East Asia, the Soviet-Chinese relations in the politics of France, Taiwan, North Korea. Because the Paris Agreement of 27 January 1973 was imminent and totaled nearly crushing defeat of South American "blitzkrieg" in Vietnam. But after two years, the U.S. had to withdraw from Laos, South Vietnam and Cambodia, and Vietnam was and remains one … a socialist state.

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