This story concerns the 1st of the most unsafe inventions of the last century, the process to create the world's first nuclear bomb. And she started for a long time before the second world terrain UK. Specifically, in this country with 2 German Jews was confirmed by the theoretical possibility of creating a transportable bomb based on the use of the uranium nucleus as a source of energy. In those years, specifically Canada and Britain belonged to leading positions in the field of development to the use of the atom for military purposes. In the 1940th at the Institute of Birmingham physicist Otto Frisch and his collaborator Rudolf Peierls made a big step, beginning the transition from the theoretical foundations to the killer, as it later turned out to practice. According to their calculations critical mass of uranium-235, you need to start a nuclear reaction was only 10 pounds, which opened up the possibility of using aircraft to deliver weapons to the location of the target.
German by birth, Rudolf Peierls was naikrupneyshim British theoretical physicist of his time. He studied quantum mechanics and electrodynamics, nuclear physics and solid state physics. Saw the limitations imposed on the theory of relativity, quantum physics, founded the modern theory of excitons and the provisions of magnetism. Went into the Manhattan Project scientists, as well as foreign member of the Academy of Russian Union.
Despite the fact that Frisch and Peierls, bringing a critical mass of uranium, a couple of times a mistake in calculations, their calculation led to the desired weight of the order, showing that the ready nuclear bombs completely feasible task.
If President Roosevelt fit to heed the appeal of Einstein, which in his own letter of 2 August 1939 and warned him of the threat, pointing to the strong force, hidden in a brand new invention, the worst thing in the world would have created a tool, maybe even in the 1944th. Then the end of the second World War and the collapse of Germany would have arrived even earlier. But the president of the most powerful nation of all stated in a letter to the noble scientific reason I only saw that the relevant instrument does not yet have a comfortable design that is allowed to be freely transported to its designated point with the aircraft, and so do not pose any threat and the prospect of its creation quite far. The seriousness of the issue raised doubts have since worked on creating technology former German scientists, even now living in the UK that Roosevelt did not inspire confidence, and create the appearance of a fictional grandiose plans.
In the 30 years of the physicist Marcus Oliphant found the ability to fusion of hydrogen nuclei, which was fundamental to the process of the creation of the hydrogen bomb, as a scientist at the time of his discoveries did not even know. Specifically, this person Frisch and Peierls, who have realized that Einstein's voice was ignored, passed first spring 1940 memorandum own. This document was presented Oliphant personally Churchill adviser Henry Tizard, who headed the commission at the time of research in the field of defense. Specifically Tizard later became the main initiator of the creation of the MAUD — a special committee dealing with the study of the implementation of the military capabilities of uranium. The findings of this body of real ability of the creation of a uranium bomb that will decide the final war, a broker to give a higher value of the work to create a new kind of weapon.
But it needs the cooperation of the United Kingdom the United States in such a fundamental endeavor. But overseas allies as before remained deaf to the calls, and a new letter written by a German scientist Leo Szilard, who was also "the first letter of Einstein", first in March 1940 the first Roosevelt was shown only on 11 October of the same year. The President of the United States, taking into account the information about what to do in the Colombian Institute of the ad hoc group of scientists involved in nuclear research work, sent the "father of the theory of relativity" response. In his own letter, he notified the physics of the State Committee on the development of uranium, which commissioned the lead director of the State Bureau of Standards Leimen Briggs. Despite the acquired capabilities, Briggs and not intended to be cut into the work. So cold attitude States to study explains that the burning is easy enough: Europe, coupled with nastignuvshey its war for them was still quite far away, and Pearl Harbor did not even show up on the horizon.
The British, perhaps, would have had to have quite a long time to knock on doors to South American, but Oliphant was persisten
t, and at a time when the war in Europe has developed into a global scale, it is under the guise of development projects radar for bombers crossed into the United States to find out the real cause of indifference South American administration to so severe issue. Personally contact with Washington, Oliphant found that the sovereign Briggs does not even begin to address it. Purposeful scientist arranged a meeting with someone who could appreciate his arguments — namely, the outstanding physicists EO Lawrence and Enrico Fermi, who fully supported him in the importance and urgency of the matter. But it was not enough. Only after the catastrophic events of Pearl Harbor, Jan. 19, 1942, the president of the United States-still gives approval for works on the development of atomic weapons.
In the end, two years after the receipt of Frisch and Peierls first results, in the spring of 1942 Nobel Prize in Physics Arthur Compton Yankees come to conclusions about the actual critical mass of uranium-235, which, in his opinion, should be less than hundreds of pounds. On March 9, these data were known to the president, but only at the end of the summer had taken the first steps to implement the project, which was later dubbed Manhattan. It can be said that the Americans had not failed a bit one of the main examination of the glorious era of "peaceful atom." Although subsequent actions demonstrate that, maybe it would be much safer for the population.
And this is where the story starts to get interesting us momentum. After the signing of Churchill and Roosevelt Quebec Agreement 19 August 1943 the first year, the goal of which was to coordinate joint work 3 sides (the UK, U.S. and Canada), was formed by the first team of scientists led covert investigation. In a group of 4 people who came to the U.S. with the so-called "British Mission", and consisting, of course, of Frisch and Peierls, as Bohr, the South American side decided to include Klaus Fuchs, who safely stuff the Soviet intelligence information. It was a huge blunder, but none of it had not yet suspected.
Promising work, which first took place in the UK, had to continue in Canada as a significant area of Britain was under continuous fire attacks of the German Air Force. At the time, scientists Cavendish already received scientific proof guesses about what nuclear reactor can really work, but on the basis of their theoretical justifications first 1942 British concern 'Metropolitan Vickers' began work on the creation of special equipment for the splitting of uranium isotopes gazodiffuznym way.
The first option was to house the laboratory Chicago, but London has shown caution because only one scientist from the leading professionals was British, and so it was decided to stay in Montreal. Soon the number of workers re-made lab was more than three hundred people. Inconsistencies and delays the Yankees, who were dependent on the supply of raw materials in principle, by the summer of 1943 virtually wiped out all the efforts and the initial interest of scientists. The project was on the verge of closing, but signed with the Yankees Quebec agreement gave the opportunity to disperse the composition scholar, giving each group the opportunity to solve their specific tasks without the help of others. The result of the common efforts was the creation of a huge research on the heavy water reactor ZEER at Chalk River (Ontario), which is September 5, 1945 th has already reached the critical mark.
Canada became subject to increased enthusiasm for Russian intelligence, and specifically there and focused its main strength. As part of a scientific group of nuclear physicists working Bruno Pontecorvo and Allan May, which is often reported on the major achievements and progress made in the establishment of the reactor. In 1943, the Russian spy network consisted of more than 20 men under the command of Colonel Zabotina, many of them occupied the highest positions. And everything went smoothly until August 1945 GRU USSR decided to withdraw its own embassy employee Igor Gouzenko ….
Allan May brilliant English scientist, PhD from Cambridge. Once in 1936, the year visited the Russian Alliance, his name put in the "Annals" of the Russian special services. First 1943 May was included in the first group of British scientists involved, coupled with the Yankees in the work on the atomic bomb. First 1945 Dr. knew more than any other English on the state of affairs in the Argonne. As currently understood, a Chicago laboratory has had a huge impact on creation latest version of the bomb. All the information he regularly aired Jan Chernyak and Pavel Angelov of the Russian underground organization that operated in the area of North America. Before the death of Allan Mei said that not a bit sorry for gratuitous cooperation with representatives of the Russian Union. The basic premise of the horror he called for the future of the world's population, if an atomic weapon will own the politicians and the military of one country — the United States.
Igor Gouzenko was born in the village of Rogachevo in the 1919th year. In 1941st GRU took it back for himself, and in 1943 it he arrived with his wife in Ottawa (Canada) as the head of department of the Embassy of Russian encryption Union. Brand new country seemed Guzenko a real paradise, and when in the middle of 1945, arrived in Ottawa its successor, the twenty-six-coder defected to the "enemy." Having taken all the hi
dden paper embassy, he went to surrender to Canadian police. Then began the story, which became then the layout funny story, told Putin at a solemn table. It was about a spy who has come to give up and, after a long walk on the cabinets got a question about whether he has a job. Scout replied in the affirmative, then he was asked not to interfere with the hard people, and to do their own job performance.
In the history of Guzenko it was almost the same. In Canada, the police on duty thought that the guy is not all the houses and expelled him from the site. And the newspaper Ottawa Journal, where he waved to reporters hidden documents, advised him to ask the staff of the Ministry of Justice. But in a decent department did not take the statements Guzenko tribute to attention, and, in desperation, the hapless spy and his wife took refuge in the country of the 1st of their own neighbors — the non-commissioned officer of the Canadian Air Force.
As it turns out for good reason, because after some time, broke into the apartment a group of strong men from the KGB and organized a search warrant. Not finding the hidden documents, they thought up Guzenko wait, but instead it came law enforcement officials. Hacking and the search did not go unnoticed, for the first time the police became interested in the personality landlord. It was not hard to find. Guzenko listened intently and was sent to a military base where he was interrogated British, American and Canadian intelligence agencies. In his testimony, the last Russian citizen is not aware that the rising tide of cool confrontation, which for many decades, the world will cover the former allies. None of the Canadians could not believe that their right under the nose created such a large spy network. William King, who served as Prime Minister of Canada and recognizable supporter of rapprochement with the Soviet Union, after reading all the papers, said: "It's a bomb, it is superior to all."
As a result of actions Guzenko Canadian side got 109 documents and hidden ciphers with information about Russian agents embedded in the nuclear branch. In the end, the operation was arrested about forty people. In the middle of the GRU employees living at that time in the U.S., started a real panic. They are terrified tried to leave America, but many of them were caught and deported, and some convicted of espionage and illegal activity. In the UK, first in March 1946, was arrested th May, who was sentenced to 10 years hard labor. In Britain, February 4, 1950 th took Fuchs, giving him fourteen years. Coherent Harry Gold was thirty of, and a pair of wedding Rosenbergs were executed on an electronic chair.
But the greatest damage was caused relations between Canada and the Russian Union. Press called such misconduct Communists stab in the back and dark ingratitude. Criticizing the double game of the USSR, they reminisced about the supply of raw materials, equipment, technology and fuel, which have been sent to help our country. In their opinion, without all that Stalin would never have won the war languid. Most Canadians were outraged by the fact that most of the scouts entered the country under the pretext of the role in the work of specially organized for the assistance of the USSR Committee.
A similar behavior of the Russian administration led the United States, Canada and Britain to review all previous agreements in relations with the Soviet Union, who defected to step hard confrontation. And Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946 in his own famous Fulton speech referred to the Soviet government police and dictatorial, noting that "it is very unsafe to trust the leaders of similar atomic weapons secrets, because you never know what can turn their knowledge and how they are real limits of prudence" .
Betrayed by Igor Gouzenko is based in Toronto. He participated in the 10th framework of court proceedings against their fellow citizens. Canadian authorities until the end of life strongly guarded and provided it to all fit. Publicly, he arose exclusively in a white hood or mask, because of what was nicknamed — man-hood. But abiding horror accompanied Guzenko until the last days. In his diary, he complained: "Always hide very hard. I played 20 times on different courts of espionage, where I always carefully guarded. Canadians are not at risk. Maybe there will come a time when my family and I will be able to live a normal life. " In 1982, the year he died from diabetes and was buried in an unmarked grave with gray-stone tomb. He left eight kids that age to wonder what their family is originally from Czechoslovakia. Not long ago, a hacker-traitor Gouzenko in Ottawa, in the park, located in front of his apartment on Somerset Street, established a small bronze plaque.