Berlin, London, Paris wanted to start a major war in Europe, Vienna was not the defeat against Serbia, although the European war is not particularly lusted after. War gave rise to Serb conspirators, who also lusted after the war, which would have destroyed the 'patchwork' Austro-Hungarian Empire and is allowed to implement plans for the creation of a "Greater Serbia."
June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo (Bosnia) terrorists kill the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia. It is curious that the Russian Foreign Ministry and the Serbian Prime Minister Pasic received through its own channels of communication abilities such attempt and tried to warn Vienna. Pasic warned by the Serbian ambassador in Vienna, and our homeland through Romania.
In Berlin, decided that it was a good excuse for going to war. Kaiser Wilhelm II, who vyznat the terrorist attack on the celebration of the "Fleet Week" in Kiel, in the fields of the report wrote, "Now or Never" (the ruler was a lover of the loud "historic" phrases). And now began to spin a flywheel hidden war. Although the majority of Europeans believed that this event, like many before (like 2-Moroccan crises, 2-Balkan wars), will not be the detonator of World War II. In addition, the terrorists were Austrian nationals, not Serbian. Need to see that the European society of the early 20th century, it was almost all over the pacifist and did not believe in the possibility of a major war, it was believed that people are already quite "civilized" to resolve disputed issues of war, for this is the political and diplomatic tools, likely only local conflicts .
Vienna has long found a reason for the defeat of Serbia, which was considered the main danger of the empire, "engine pan-Slavic policy." However, the situation depended on the support of Germany. If Berlin will push for Russia and she backed down, then the Austro-Serbian war is inevitable. During the talks in Berlin on July 5-6, the German Kaiser assured the Austrian side in full support. The Germans probed attitudes English — German salting said Foreign Minister Edward Grey of England that Germany, "taking advantage of the weakness of, do not consider it necessary to restrain Austria-Hungary." Gray evaded a direct answer, and the Germans thought that the British would remain on the sidelines. Many researchers believe that such makarom London has pushed Germany into war, Britain has suspended solid position to the Germans. RF Gray said that "England will take a position that is suitable for Russia." 9th Italians Germans have hinted that if Rome take a suitable position for the Central Powers, while Italy could get Austrian Trieste and Trentino. But the Italians evaded a direct answer and eventually traded up to 1915, were waiting.
The Turks also began to fuss, began to find more lucrative a scenario. Marine Minister Ahmed Djemal Pasha visited Paris, he was a supporter of the alliance with the French. The War Minister Ismail Enver Pasha visited Berlin. And Interior Minister Mehmed Talaat Pasha went to St. Petersburg. In the end, defeated pro-German course.
In Vienna at the time came up with an ultimatum to Serbia, and tried to include the following items, which the Serbs could accept. July 14, the text has been approved, and the 23rd of his handed the Serbs. The answer was to be given within 48 hours. The ultimatum contained a very sharp demands. From the Serbs sought to ban publications that promoted hatred of Austria-Hungary and the violation of its territorial integrity, prevent society "Narodna Odbrana" and all other similar associations and movements, leading anti-Austrian propaganda and removing anti-Austrian propaganda of the education system to discharge from the military and civil service all officers and officials who are engaged in propaganda directed against Austria-Hungary, the Austrian authorities to assist in the suppression of movement directed against the integrity of the empire to stop the smuggling of weapons and explosives in the Austrian countryside, arrest involved in such activities of border guards, etc.
Serbia was not ready for war, she had just gone through two Balkan wars, experienced a political crisis. A time to tighten the issue and the diplomatic maneuvering was not. It is understood and other policies, the Minister of Foreign Affairs Sazonov, learning of the Austrian ultimatum, said: "This is a war in Europe. "
Serbia began to mobilize the army and Serbian Prince Regent Alexander "begged" Russia for help. Nicholas II said that all efforts are focused on the Russian Federation is in order to avoid bloodshed, and, if war begins, Serbia is not alone. 25th Serbs answered the Austrian ultimatum. Serbia agreed on almost all items, except for the 1st. The Serbian side rejected the role of the Austrians in the investigation of the murder of Franz Ferdinand by Serbian countryside, because it affected the country's sovereignty. Although promised an investigation and said the capacity of the transmission results of the investigation Austrians.
Vienna has regarded itself as a negative response. July 25, the Austro-Hungarian Empire began a partial mobilization of troops. On the same day the hidden German Empire began to mobilize. Berlin claimed from Vienna to begin military action against the Serbs immediately.
Other powers have tried to intervene to resolve the diplomatic issue. London has proposed to convene a conference of the majestic powers and peacefully resolve the issue. Britons supported the Paris and Rome, but refused to Berlin. Our homeland and France tried to persuade the Austrians to accept a settlement plan on the basis of proposals Serbian — Serbia was ready to hand over the investigation internationalist tribunal in The Hague.
But the Germans had already decided the issue of the war in Berlin on the 26th produced an ultimatum to Belgium, in what was alleged that in this country the French army is planning to knock on Germany. Because the German army to prevent the attack and occupy the Belgian countryside. If the Belgian government in accordance with, the Belgians were promised after the war to compensate for harm if not, Belgium declared opponent of Germany.
In London, there was a struggle of different groups of imperative. Very strong were the adherents of the classical policy of "non-interference", they maintained, and public opinion. The British wanted to stay away from the European war. The English Rothschilds associated with the Austrian Rothschilds financed the active promotion of non-interference policy. It is entirely possible that, if the brunt of Berlin and Vienna directed against Serbia and the Russian Federation, the British did not intervene in the war. And the world saw the "phony war" in 1914, when Austria-Hungary crushed Serbia and the German army major blow directed against the Russian Empire. In this case France could lead a "trench warfare", limited to personal transactions, and Britain — do not go to war. London forced to intervene in the war that it was impossible to prevent the complete destruction of France and Germany's hegemony in Europe. First Lord of the Admiralty Churchill at your own risk after the end of the summer maneuvers of the fleet with the role of reservists do not let them go to their homes and kept the ships in concentration, not sending them to places of dislocation.
Austrian caricature "Serbia must die."
Our homeland at this time behaved very cautiously. The governor in a few days had long meetings with the Minister of War Sukhomlinov, sea — Grigorovich and Chief of Staff Yanushkevich. Nicholas II did not want war preparations Russian armed forces to provoke a war.
Measures taken only preliminary: the 25th of the holidays withdrew the officers of the 26th governor agreed to the preliminary activities for the partial mobilization. And only a few military area (Kazan, capital, Kiev, Odessa). In Warsaw military surrounded the mobilization did not spend as He immediately bordering with Austria-Hungary and Germany. Nicholas II, his hopes that the war will stop, and had sent "Cousin Willie" (the German Kaiser) telegram, asking to suspend the Austria-Hungary.
These oscillations of the Russian Federation began to Berlin confirms that "Russia is now unfit for combat" that Nicholas fears of war. Were made wrong conclusions: German salting and military Officer wrote from St. Petersburg that our homeland is not decisive plans coming, and the gradual retreat, following the example of 1812. The German press wrote about the "full expansion" in the Russian Empire.
The outbreak of war
July 28 Vienna declared war on Belgrade. It should be noted that the first global war started on bolshennom patriotic rise. In the capital of the Austro-Hungarian rule the general rejoicing, crowds of people flooded the streets, singing patriotic songs. The same mood reigned in Budapest (capital of Hungary). It was a real prazdnichek, ladies swamped the military, which had split accursed Serbs, flowers and signs of attention. Then, people believed that the war with Serbia will be victorious walk.
To approach of the Austro-Hungarian army was not ready yet. But by the 29th of the Danube flotilla ships and fortress Zemlin, located in front of the Serbian capital, Belgrade bombardment began.
Reich Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg sent to Paris and St. Petersburg threatening tone. French said that military production that France is about to begin, "forcing Germany to declare a state of danger of war." Russia warned that if the Russian military will continue to manufacture, the "then it will turn out just to avoid a European war."
London offered another plan of settlement: the Austrians can occupy part of Serbia as "collateral" for a fair investigation in which perceive the role of the majestic power. Churchill ordered the ships to transfer to the north, away from potential attack German submarines and destroyers, the British introduced the "preliminary martial law." Although the British as ever refuses to "have their say", although Paris requesting it.
In Paris, the government has maintained constant meetings. Chief of General Staff of the French Joffre had preliminary event to a full-scale mobilization and offered to lead the army on full alert and take positions on the border. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the French soldiers under the law could at harvest time to leave their homes, half of the army has separated the villages. Joffre said that the German army would be able to take part of the French countryside without serious resistance. In general, the French government has been squandered. Theory — is one thing, but reality — quite another. The situation was worsened by two factors: first, 1-x, the British did not give a definite answer, in-2, except for Germany, in France could knock Italy. Ultimately Joffre allowed to withdraw fighter of the holidays and to mobilize 5 frontier corps, but with all this, take them to the border of 10 kilometers, to show that Paris would not be the first to attack, and do not provoke a war by any accidental conflict of German and French fighter.
In St. Petersburg, also was not specific, was still hope that the great war will be avoided. After Vienna declared war on Serbia, in Russia announced a partial mobilization. But it was hard to do, because in Russia had no plans to partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary, the plans were only against the Ottoman Empire and Sweden. It was believed that separately, without Germany, the Austrians did not venture to make war with Russia. But she Our homeland attack the Austro-Hungarian Empire was not going to. The governor insisted on partial mobilization, the head of the General Staff Yanushkevich argued that without the mobilization of the Warsaw Military Area Our homeland risk to miss a powerful blow, because on the intelligence turned out that it is here that the Austrians will focus assault force. In addition, if you start unscripted partial mobilization, it will lead to a breakdown of railway transportation schedules. Then Nicholas decided not to hold a general mobilization, wait.
Information came the most contradictory. Berlin tried to buy time — the German Kaiser sent a telegram encouraging, reported that Germany is declining Austro-Hungary to make concessions, and Vienna as it agrees. And here came a note of Bethmann-Hollweg, the message about the bombing of Belgrade. A Vienna, after a period waggings, said the refusal of negotiations with Russia.
Since July 30, Russian government gave the order for mobilization. But immediately quashed because from Berlin's received several telegrams friendly "Cousin Willie", who said of his own efforts in order to persuade Vienna to negotiate. William asked not to start military manufacturers, as it would interfere with negotiations in Germany and Austria. Nicholas in response proposed to submit the matter to the Hague Conference. Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov went to the German Ambassador Pourtales to work out the main destinations for the settlement of the conflict.
Then Petersburg has received other information. Kaiser changed his own tone to a more rigid. Vienna renounce all negotiations, there were evidence that the Austrians clearly coordinate their actions with Berlin. From Germany were reports that there are in full swing military production. The German ships from Kiel tossed in Danzig on the Baltic Sea. By the boundary nominated cavalry units. And the Russian Federation for the mobilization of the armed forces required for 10-20 days longer than in Germany. It became clear that the Germans simply fooling St. Petersburg to gain time.
July 31 Our homeland to mobilize. Moreover, it was reported that the Austrians will end military action and the conference is held, the Russian mobilization will be stopped. Vienna said she can not stop fighting, and has announced a full-scale mobilization directed against Russia. Nicholas Kaiser sent a telegram to the latest, in which said its peace efforts were "ghostly" and what else you can stop the war, if our homeland cancels military production. Berlin got an excuse for war. And an hour later Wilhelm II in Berlin, under the roar of the crowd excited, said that Germany "forced to wage war." In the German Empire was introduced martial law, which just legalized the production of the last war (they were held for a week).
France sent an ultimatum to the need to maintain neutrality. The French have had to respond within 18 hours, will France neutral in case of war between Germany and Russia. A pledge of "good intentions" sought to convey border fortresses of Toul and Verdun, who promised to return after the war. The French just stupid from such arrogance, French salting in Berlin even hesitate to pass the full text of the ultimatum, limiting the requirement of neutrality. Also in Paris feared civil unrest and strikes that thre
atened to organize a leftist. Was prepared by a plan that planned on the lists prepared in advance, to arrest socialists, anarchists and all "suspicious".
The situation was very complicated. In St. Petersburg on Germany's ultimatum to stop mobilizing learned from the German press. (!) German salting Pourtales was instructed to hand it to midnight on July 31 on the 1st of August, was given a deadline of 12 hours to reduce the ability of the diplomatic maneuvering. The word "war" was not used. It is interesting that Petersburg was not even sure of the support of France, as union contract has not been ratified by the French Parliament. Well, the French and the British offered to wait for "further developments" since conflict between Germany, Austria and Russia "does not affect the interests of Britain." But the French were obliged to go to war, because The Germans were not given another choice — 7:00 am on August 1, German troops (16th Infantry Division) crossed the border with Luxembourg and took the town of Trois Vierge ("Three virgins"), there came together the border and railway communications of Belgium, Germany and Luxembourg. In Germany, later joked that the war began with the acquisition with 3 maidens.
Paris on the same day began a general mobilization and rent the ultimatum. Moreover, the war had not yet read as, saying that Berlin "mobilization — This is not a war. " Worried about the Belgians (their country's neutral status was determined treaties in 1839 and 1870, the main guarantor of Belgian neutrality advocated Britain) asked Germany's explanation for the invasion of Luxembourg. Berlin said that there is no threat to Belgium.
French continued to appeal to the UK, recalling that the British fleet under previous agreements, must protect the Atlantic coast of France and the French fleet should focus in the Mediterranean. During the meeting, the British government 12-Tb of 18 of its members were against the support of France. Gray told the French ambassador that France itself should decide Britain is not currently in a position to help.
London was obliged to reconsider its position because of Belgium, which was likely springboard directed against Britain. British Foreign Minister requested Berlin and Paris on reverence neutrality of Belgium. France confirmed neutrality of Belgium, Germany said nothing. Because the British announced that the attack on Belgium, Britain can not remain neutral. While here, London has kept himself a loophole, Lloyd George expressed the view that if the Germans do not take up the Belgian coast, then the violation can be considered "negligible".
Our homeland Berlin offered to resume negotiations. It is interesting that the Germans were going to declare war, in any case, even if our homeland took an ultimatum to cease mobilization. When German salting handed a note, he immediately gave Sazonov two papers, both in the Russian Federation declared war.
In Berlin, there was a dispute — the military sought to start a war without declaring it, they say, the opponents of Germany by taking retaliatory actions, declare war, and will be "ringleaders". And the chancellor sought to preserve the rules of international law, the Kaiser took his side, as adored great gestures — a declaration of war was a historic event. August 2 in Germany officially declared a general mobilization and war Russia. It was the start of the day, "Schlieffen Plan" — 40 German cases should be transferred to the offensive. It is interesting that Germany officially declared war on Russia, and the troops began to jibe to the west. 2nd was completely occupied Luxembourg. But Belgium was handed an ultimatum to pass the German troops, the Belgians had to answer a 12-hour period.
The Belgians were shocked. But in the end decided to defend themselves — in assurance Germans to withdraw after the war they did not believe to ruin good relations with Britain and France did not intend. Lord of Albert called to defend himself. Although the Belgians was the hope that this is a provocation and Berlin does not violate the country's neutral status.
On the same day caused the UK. French said that the British fleet would cover the Atlantic coast of France. A pretext for war will be Germany's attack on Belgium. A number of ministers who have been opposing the decision to resign. Italians declared its neutrality.
August 2, Germany and Turkey signed an agreement sanctuary, the Turks committed to take the side of the Germans. Third, Turkey declared its neutrality, it was a bluff, taking into account the agreement with Berlin. On the same day Istanbul began to mobilize reservists 23-45 years, ie almost universal.
August 3rd Berlin declared war on France, the Germans accused the French in the attacks, "aerial bombardments," and even violating the "Belgian neutrality." Germans, Belgians rejected the ultimatum, Germany declared war on Belgium. 4th began the invasion of Belgium. Lord of Albert asked for help from the guarantor countries of neutrality. London issued an ultimatum: end the invasion of Belgium or England declares war on Germany. The Germans rebelled, and dubbed the ultimatum "racial treason." On expiry of the ultimatum, Churchill ordered the fleet to launch military action. Thus began the first global war …
Could Our homeland prevent war?
There is a perception that if Petersburg gave Serbia at the mercy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the war could have been prevented. But this is the wrong outlook. So Makar, Our homeland could only buy time — a few months, a year or two. The war was predetermined course of development of the majestic Western powers of the capitalist system. It was necessary to Germany, the British Empire, France, the U.S., and it is still at some point would begin. Would find another excuse.
Our home can change only its own strategic choices — who to fight a war — at the turn of approximately 1904-1907 years. Then London and the United States openly helped land of the rising sun, while France was of the cool neutrality. At that time, our home could join Germany against the "Atlantic" powers.