All day closer when we will celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Russian victory in the war of 1812 and its main battle at Borodino, which became an outstanding event in Russian and world history. But to this day the descendants and heirs of the glory of the heroes of Borodin asked a seemingly ordinary at first glance questions. How and why she started war? Was it possible to warn her? What political benefits received our homeland, defeating Napoleon?
Paul I got involved in a war with revolutionary France, not having sufficient grounds, and even share a border with it. Suvorov's victory in Northern Italy, as Admiral Ushakov in the Ionian Islands and in the kingdom of Naples took the very best page in the annals of military history of Russia. On their background in Russia, no one saw the defeat and surrender 2-Russian Army Lieutenant General Ivan Herman in Holland and Lieutenant General Alexander Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory in Switzerland.
War politics begin and end with WAR
In the same diplomatically against our homeland has suffered complete defeat. The Austrians claimed the withdrawal of Russian troops from the North and South of Italy. And the British, capturing Malta, refused to return it to the Knights of the Order of Malta, which became a grandmaster Paul I.
Suvorov more March 14, 1799 in Vienna, said: "The aim — to Paris! Achieve her smash the enemy everywhere, to act at the same time on all points. " He added: "In the study lie in the field and beating!"
I would venture to say that without Suvorov victories flight from Egypt, Bonaparte would not have ended triumphantly and "18 Brumaire," and-martial tribunal.
Becoming the First Consul, Bonaparte immediately drew attention to the absurdity of the situation — Our homeland was at war with the state, which has no common border, and in general of contention, with the exception of ideologies. "We do not ask the King of Prussia no army, no union, and we ask him to provide only one service — to reconcile us to Russia", — wrote Bonaparte in January 1800.
Surprisingly, the same thought occurred to Paul and I. On the report dated 28 January 1800 the Russian Ambassador in Berlin Kryudnera, announces marching through Berlin French overture, the ruler of his own hand wrote: "As a rapprochement with France, I would do best not lusted how to build it resorted to me, especially as a counterweight to Austria. "
In December 1800 Our homeland has signed, together with Prussia, Sweden and Denmark contracts renewable on a larger scale system of armed neutrality in 1780.
18 (30) December 1800 the Russian government wrote to Bonaparte: "Mr first Consul. Those to whom God gave the power to control the people, have to think and to plead for their welfare. " There's also Paul for the first time defined the principle of coexistence between countries with different political systems: "I do not speak and do not want to bicker about human rights or the principles of the various governments established in each country. Let's try to bring back peace and tranquility of silence in which he so desperately needs. "
In about October 1800 Rostopchin gave the emperor enough bold note. I will only excerpts from it: "France in the exhaustion boasts its own in the form of broad Conqueror lands and trendsetter in Europe."
"During the French arms alternately UK armed threats, deceit, and means all the powers against France."
Paul's remark: "Even when we were vicious!"
"To take possession of merchandise, a light dared to seize Egypt and Malta. Our homeland is its position, and so is an inexhaustible power, there should be the first country in the world … Bonaparte its best to win our favor. "
Paul's remark: "And can manage."
"But at the general pacification … except Austria, all these three powers have finished the war with significant benefits. Our homeland is left to do with it, losing 23,000 people. Your Imperial Majesty gave an indisputable right stories to tell once the future centuries, "Paul I, went to war without preconditions, and also walked away from thereof, without reaching to the target's own, and all the powers of his face were nothing from the flaws in the ongoing persistence."
Paul's remark: "He began to blame all round."
Next Rastopchin proposed draft section of Turkey under an agreement with Prussia, Austria and France. He offered to make the Hellenic Republic under the protection of the Russian Federation and 3 other states participating in the venture. In the proposed section Our homeland was to get Romania, Bulgaria, Moldavia and Constantinople.
At the end of the note ruler attributed: "Aprobuya your plan, I wish that you started to implement onago. God grant that it was according to this. "
In the 2nd letter to Bonaparte Paul saw: "There is no doubt that the two majestic powers, setting an agreement between will have a positive impact on the rest of Europe. I'm ready to do it. "
21 a thousand Cossacks, reinforced by a brigade of artillery and troops of Kalmyks moved to India. The army marched from the Don 700 miles. But on March 23 the Cossacks have come down to the village Mechetnaya Wolski County Saratov province, caught up with the courier from St. Petersburg. He announced the death of Paul I and the fact that the new ruler commands vorachivatsya home.
British salting in St. Petersburg, Sir Whitworth, acting through its general's mistress Zherebtsov, née Countess Zubov, organized and financed officer komplot. In the night from 11 to 12 March 1801 at the Mikhailovsky Castle was brutally murdered by conspirators Paul I.
Alexander I was aware komplota. With all of this the officers to keep up appearances and in negotiations with the heir used the term "force the emperor to abdicate."
Immediately squadron of Admiral Nelson's April 1, 1801 treacherously attacked in Copenhagen at the Danish fleet. Note that since 1792, Denmark was of the most serious of neutrality in the war. Part of the Danish ships lost in battle, and others were captured by the British. But the main purpose of the British was not Denmark, and our homeland. May 14 British squadron under the command of Nelson entered the mouth of the Gulf of Finland.
Alexander I claimed from Nelson to escape from the Russian coast as preparatory conditions for negotiations. British gave to "save face" newcomer to the emperor, and the squadron is really gone. But in negotiations with the British government gave them almost all Fri June 5, 1801 between Russia and Britain had signed a convention, in fact significantly alters the rules of the armed neutrality of Catherine II and destroys the purpose to which I sought to Paul in the formation of the Northern Union states.
6 (17) in July 1800, in other words, even before the signing of the peace treaty with France, the squadron of Admiral Ushakov left Corfu on October 26 (November 6) arrived at Akhtiar (Sevastopol) raid. But contrary to the views of many historians, and contrary to the Treaty of Paris of the Russian Federation's military presence in the Mediterranean remains, although it has been greatly reduced. So, first in 1801 off the coast of Italy were two groups of Russian ships in the six frigates, and three or four small vessels. And in the area of the kingdom of Naples were three Russian infantry battali
SHIPS TO HOLD THE COURSE CORFU
In Corfu was abandoned Russian garrison of 150 fighter under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Gastfera. Small islands were stationed on Russian positions 15-30 people. Supply of Russian troops in the Ionian Islands performed by local residents.
Soon the three infantry battalions were transferred to Corfu. In the years 1801-1803 the Russian forces in the Mediterranean gradually build up. From Sevastopol to Corfu and back once a year, there were a few on combat and transport vessels.
Now fast forward from the Mediterranean Sea to the banks of the Seine. 3 nivoza evening (December 24) 1800 Bonaparte left the Tuileries Palace, the Opera House, where there was a premiere of Haydn. When the carriage drove turn on the Rue Saint-Nicaise, there was a terrible explosion. After the smoke cleared, it was clear that pavement and walls torn up, a few people were killed, 10's injured. Everywhere fragments of mangled carriages burst, crippled horses, blood, broken glass, bricks, turned into rubble. Napoleon escaped unhurt.
It later emerged that the Cavaliers drove a wagon barrel of gunpowder and ignited the wick in a carriage of the First Consul.
Royalist attempt only strengthened the authority of Bonaparte in the eyes of the vast majority of the French. In July of 1802 in France plebiscite was held to recognize the First Consul Napoleon indefinite. "For" vote with three redundant million people "against" — 8374 people.
Meanwhile, French royalists, instigated by the British, were preparing new attempt on the life of Napoleon. In response, on the night of 14 to 15 March 1804 a detachment of French cavalry gendarmes invaded the area of the Duchy of Baden, came into Ettengeym, surrounded the house, where the Baron of Enghien, arrested him, and immediately took to France. None of Baden authorities and did not try to protect the Baron, all were sitting quietly and were pleased by the fact that they were not touched.
March 20th Baron was imprisoned in Vincennes castle. In the evening of the same day or at the castle a military tribunal that accused the baron in matching funds from the UK and the fact that he was waging war against France. At a quarter to three nights Baron Enghien was sentenced to the death penalty tribunal, and at three o'clock he was taken to Vincennes ditch and shot.
Later, many historians argue that the poor prince was not involved to any komplotam. In fact, the Baron of Enghien was in the army and the Prince de Conde was a party to a number of royalist komplotov. Because, as importantly, to once and for all to stop the British practice of political assassinations, first consul ordered the arrest of Baron and judge him-martial tribunal.
Across Europe, was walking joke that the volume of protests monarchs on the shooting down of Baron d'Enghien proportional to the distance of their capitals to Paris. Thus, Alexander I protested the harsh note of, violation of the integrity of indignation Baden area from the standpoint of international law.
Napoleon ordered his own minister of foreign affairs to that eminent response that will never be forgotten and has not been forgiven by Alexander as a ruthlessly nobody never insulted in his life. The meaning of the answer lies in the following: Baron Enghien was arrested for his role in the lives of Napoleon komplote. If, for example, the ruler Alexander learned that the killer of his late father, the Emperor Paul, though there are in the opponent's area, but it is possible to arrest them, and if Alexander arrested them, he, Napoleon, would not protest against the violation of inviolability of foreign terrain Alexander. A clear call to the public and officially Alexander's parricide was unreal. All of Europe knew that Paul conspirators destroyed with the consent of Alexander, and that he did not dare to own after the accession of a finger touch them, although killer Paul were not on a "foreign territory", and in St. Petersburg, and were often in the Winter Palace.
And our, and French historians believe that this particular exchange of notes gave rise to the modern Russian-French war.
In fact it was different. To understand this, fast forward from St. Petersburg to Sevastopol. There March 20, 1804 went to sea in the squad Leontovycha 3 large frigates, up to a maximum loaded troops and ammunition to Russian garrisons in the Ionian Islands, from which, I note, they should be taken out long ago. Let me remind you, March 20 — day shooting baron. But Sevastopol Admirals were not aware of the execution thereof.
A simple calculation indicates that the order to send troops to the Mediterranean Sea, "the ruler of weak and wicked" could give no earlier illumine 1803. For what? In the Mediterranean world, and grace, in 1803 not produced any of the 1st shot.
Adolf Rohan. Meeting of Napoleon and Alexander I on a raft at Tilsit. Versailles, France, 1807
Whether we like it or not, but the premise squad Leontovycha suggests that even in the middle of 1803, Alexander I made the decision to go to war, and any acts of Napoleon, such as execution of Baron and terrorists small administrative configuration in Northern Italy — were only a pretext for declaration of war.
And right after detachment Leontovycha of Sevastopol, Odessa and Nikolayev Ochakova the summer and autumn of 1804 sent in Corfu 10's combat and transport ships with troops, weapon and food. Cavalry and artillery units carried with horses.
May 8, 1804 Ochakova out of squad captain 1 rank Saltykov (ships "St. Paraskeva", "Simeon and Anna" and other vessels) with a battalion of the Siberian Infantry Regiment.
June 28, 1804 from Sevastopol came detachment of Captain 1st Rank Maksheev in the ship "Mary Magdalene" (2nd) and the frigate "Michael" with the 14th regiment of Chasseurs.
In June of the same year went to Corfu squad Captain 1st Rank Messer in the ships' Varahail "," Victory ", as other courts with the Vitebsk Regiment.
A number of courts was separated. August 11, 1804 in Odessa on Corfu was a new frigate "St. Gregory the Great Armenia". "Transport of large size", "Gregory" in the years 1801-1804 made three diving in Corfu and back.
In the end, the number of Russian troops in the Ionian Islands from the middle of the 1803rd before the end of 1804 increased from 1.2 thousand to 8 thousand land forces commander Maj. Gen. Earl Anrep.
October 13, 1804 from Kronstadt to the Mediterranean squadron left-Captain Greig in the 2-ships and 2-frigates. January 11, 1805 the squadron arrived in Corfu.
Further, it was "the sun of Austerlitz," Friedland Treaty of Tilsit and fight. And on the Mediterranean Sea in the years 1807-1808 the Russian fleet, without losing the 1st fight, was obliged to give up parts of the British, the French and Neapolitan. So was lost most of the ships of the Baltic and Black Sea fleets — in a couple of times more than all the combat and navigation loss of the Russian fleet in the XVIII century.
Napoleon ever wanted? The occupation of the Russian Federation and its connection to France? He never ever read about it, well, do not know what to do with the occupied territories. His goal was to force Alexander I do conditions of contracts, including support for the continental blockade against the United Kingdom.
Because of the continental bloc
kade of Britain Our homeland was carrying some losses. But, on the other hand, the continental blockade has strengthened its industry, as it was in other European countries. And, in the end, the main products, the subject desires of the landowners and especially their wives and daughters — furniture, carriages, clothes, wine, perfume — it is all done completely in the UK.
Alexander April 27, 1812 by Earl Kurakin gave an ultimatum to Napoleon. It contained a demand evacuation of a number of Swedish Pomerania and the Prussian areas, reducing the garrison of Danzig and the virtual elimination of the continental blockade.
Naturally Alexander did not expect that Napoleon accept his ultimatum, and therefore more April 21, left St. Petersburg for the army.
LOSS OF CHANCE
History, as they read, "do not tolerate the subjunctive mood," but, in my opinion, our historians it is time to give an answer, and what happened if Napoleon was a Russian wife majestic Princess and the continental blockade led government in accordance with all articles of the treaties? Fortunately, our thieves still would find millions of loopholes in it.
What if Napoleon would have desired to connect Russia to France? Remember Prince Nikolai Bolkonsky, "he Commercials and we will write his subjects …" No, Napoleon was not insane. Also, it is expected the new long war in Europe. And most importantly, "man is mortal, and in a moment of death." Change Napoleon was no one to completely. Would begin the destruction of the empire is stately, and this — again a string of European wars. And during this time the Russian flag could fully whirl up the Bosporus and the Dardanelles.
Russian Army covered itself with glory in the battles of Borodino, Maloyaroslavets, reddish and on the Berezina. For the first time in Russian history a major role in the defeat of the enemy played a strong partisans from both the Cossacks and hussars, and from farmers.
Kutuzov warn Alexander I of "foreign campaign." Do I have to state that the wisest commander could not provide a compelling case to the king. But how annoying it did not sound, Alexander I and court historians prefer to hide it from the children. But enough to make a simple calculation to realize justice field marshal. To the foreign campaigns of 1813-1814 is best phrase of Talleyrand: "This is worse than a sin, it is — a mistake."
Recall the formula of Clausewitz: "War is the continuation of politics by other means." By January 1813 the remains majestically army fled the Russian Empire (within 1811). Napoleon could not even think of repeating the Capital campaign. On the other hand, all the European monarchs want the overthrow of the "Corsican monster." Providing Europe to deal with the "Buanopartiem" Alexander I in the least relaxed version could have adopted for the restoration of the ruined country, and in the highest — to try to take the straits. Specifically, in the years 1813-1814 in the Russian Federation was the last chance to take control of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, without fear of interference Europe.
And that got our homeland, engaging in a very bloody two-year war in Europe? Britain cemented its important strategic points of the Mediterranean — Malta, Ionian Islands, which together with Gibraltar have allowed her two centuries to control the Mediterranean and the Middle East, as a number of French colonies around the world. Austria is not only taken away by Napoleon returned terrain, and acquired a new, same Venice.
And our first home received only part of the former Duchy of Warsaw. And what was the reaction to this "liberated Europe from the usurper?"
January 3, 1815 was concluded hidden alliance between Austria, Britain and France, directed against Russia. Rescued Russia from the latest war "enemy of the human race." Evening March 7, 1815 in Vienna at the Imperial Palace was a ball given in honor of the Austrian court assembled princes and representatives of the European powers. Suddenly, in the midst of the festival visitors have seen some confusion around the ruler of France: paly, the frightened courtiers hastily descended from the grand staircase, and generally created a memory, as if in a palace at one time the fire broke out. In an instant, all the news spread through the halls of the palace, which forced all the participants in a panic to leave the ball: just rushed courier brought the news that Napoleon had left Elba, landed in France and, unarmed, there is a direct route to Paris.
Louis XVIII drapanul so quickly forgotten that on the dresser original secret contract from January 3, 1815. Napoleon sent the contract to Alexander I. He showed the document to Austrian Chancellor Metternich, and then defiantly threw it into the fireplace.
Napoleon scared allies, and April 21 (May 3) in 1815 in Vienna were signed Russian-Prussian and Russian-Austrian agreement on the division of the Duchy of Warsaw.
10's of thousands of Polish gentry, who were Russian citizens who fought on the side of Napoleon, the king had pardoned and returned to their heroes Ukrainian and Belarusian estate.
In November 1815, Alexander I signed the Constitution of the educated in the Russian Empire Kingdom of Poland. This Constitution was less liberal if, at the level of the unwritten British Constitution. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland, on the one hand, inspired by the Lords to the new uprising against the tsarist regime. In this pans under any circumstances do not lusted after the creation of the Polish government of the country. Their minimum program was within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1768, in other words with Belarus and Right-Bank Ukraine. A maximum program — border since Duke Vytautas "from sea to mozha", in other words from the Dark Sea to the Baltic Sea, including Odessa, Kiev, Smolensk and Riga.
On the other hand, the educated part of Russian officers was outraged by the introduction of the Constitution for the worst enemies of Russia, who in 1812 burned and looted the town of Russia. With all this our home was left without a constitution and ruled like a "Kokand khanate" (an expression of Count Leo Tolstoy), "Mongol dynasty of German Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov" (an expression of Prince Rurik Peter Dolgorukov). So Makarov, Polish Constitution was one of the causes of the Decembrist uprising.
Alexander I, becoming a "collegiate assessor" on the part of foreign affairs, his hopes find love Europe and relied on the "sanctity of unions." His brother Nicholas I in 1848, rushed to rescue crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire. Again, for the sake of stability and order in Europe. Fighting and the loss of health of the Russian army during the Hungarian campaign of 1848 amounted to 10's of thousands of people. And the money spent to rescue the ruler of Franz Joseph I, it was possible to build a 100 (!) Steamships-class frigates "Vladimir". (It was the only truly combat ship in the Black Sea for 1854.)
Then there was the Crimean War of 1853-1855 years. Also, "thank" the ruler of of Franz Joseph I in 1854-1855, 1877-1878 and 1914-1917, respectively.
How annoying would it sounds, our politicians did not pay tribute to the findings of the history of their own homeland and once again put their trust in the sanctity of union and love of the West to Russia. On the sanctity of unions hoped in 1914, Nicholas II, and later — Brezhnev, who concluded the Helsinki agreement, which provided for the inviolability of European borders, the missile defense contract and much more. List of amateur politicians alliances with the West goes on and on.
But we condemn the British Prime Ministers for their favorite saying: "The UK is not immutable and unalterable opponents of the Allies, but only abiding interests."