Compared with the current good old days. But the revolution was still …
Regarding the question in the title, there are two opposite point of view: the first adherents believe that the Russian working eked out a miserable existence, supporters of a second substantiate that the Russian working live even better than the Russian. Which of these versions is correct for you to help you understand the material. Where did the first version, is easy to guess — about the hard life of the Russian working tirelessly talked the whole Marxist historiography. But in the middle of a lot of pre-revolutionary literature itself, which supported this view.
The greatest notoriety in this regard was labor Eustache Dementieva "Factory is that it gives the population and that it takes him." In the web walks its second edition, and it is often referred to as bloggers and commentators arguing with them. But not enough who devotes his attention to the fact that this is the second edition was published in March 1897, in other words, in-1's, a few months before the adoption of the Factory Act, establishing the 11.5-hour day.
In-2-into a set of book gave up a few months earlier, in other words before the currency reform of Sergei Witte, during which the ruble was devalued by half, and are as follows, all wages are in this book still in an old rubles.
B-3 well, and in the main, by a recognition of the creator, "Izsl? Dovanie was made unto 1884-1885 godah," but as it follows all of the data apply only to the mid-80s last century. Yet, this study is very important to us, allowing to associate the well-being of the working ever since to the level of life of pre-revolutionary proletariat, to assess where we have used the data of the yearly statistical handbooks, codes of reports of factory inspectors, as the works of Stanislav Gustavovich Strumilin and Sergei Nikolaevich Prokopovych.
The first of them, who became famous as an economist and statistician before the revolution began in 1931, Russian academician and died in 1974, before the age of 3 years to its own centennial. The second is, who started as a populist and social-democrat, later became a prominent Freemason, he married Catherine Lump, and after the February Revolution, he was appointed Minister of the Interim Government of food. Soviet power Prokopovych took in arms and in 1921 was sent from the RSFSR. He died in Geneva in 1955.
But neither the one nor the other adored royal regime, and therefore can not be suspected of embellishment of contemporary Russian reality. Well-being, we will determine on subsequent aspects: 1. Earnings. 2. The duration of the working day or. 3. Nutrition. 4. Housing.
Let's start with earnings.
First systematic data refer to the end of the 1870s. For example, in 1879 a special committee, consisting in the metropolitan governor-general, has collected data on 648 institutions 11 groups of industries, which employed 53.4 million workers. According to the publication Bogdanov in the "Proceedings of the Capital City Statistical Division," First Throne-year earnings of workers in 1879 was equal 189 rubles. For a month, as it should, on average, looked out at 15.75 p. In the following years due to the influx in the former town of farmers and, consequently, the growth in the labor market earnings were lowered, and only since 1897, began their steady growth. In the Province of St. Petersburg in 1900, annual average worker's wage was 252 rubles. (21 p. Month), and in Europe of — 204 rubles. 74 kopecks. (17,061 rubles. Per month). On the average monthly wage for the Empire worker in 1900 was 16 rubles. 17.5 kopecks. With all of this upper limit of income was rising to 606 rubles (50.5 rubles. Per month), and the bottom fell to 88 rubles. 54 kopecks. (7.38 rubles. Per month).
But after the revolution of 1905, and followed it with a kind of stagnation in 1909 earnings were to rise sharply. In the weavers, for example, wages grew by 74%, and dyers — by 133%, but that was hidden behind these percentages? Wages weaver in 1880 for the month was only 15 rubles. 91 kopecks., And in 1913 — 27 rubles. 70k. We dyers, it rose from 11 rubles. 95 kopecks. — Up to 27 rubles. 90 kopecks. Even better things were scarce jobs among workers and metalworkers. Machinists and electricians are earning per month for 97 rubles. 40 kopecks., Senior artisans — 63 rubles. 50 kopecks., Blacksmiths — 61 rubles. 60 kopecks., Locksmiths — 56 rubles. 80 kopecks., Turners — 49 rubles. 40 kopecks. If you want to compare these data with current wages of workers, you can simply multiply these numbers by 1046 — is the ratio of pre-revolutionary ruble to the Russian ruble as of the end of December 2010. Only in the middle of 1915 in connection with the war inflation began to happen, but in November 1915 blocked the growth of earnings inflation, and only with the June 1917 wages began to lag behind inflation.
The duration of the working day or.
Now move on to the duration of the working day or. In July 1897 a decree was issued that limited the working day of the industrial proletariat all over the country the legal norm of 11.5 hours a day. By 1900, the average working day in the manufacturing industry averaged 11.2 hours, and by 1904 th has not exceeded 63 hours per week (excluding overtime), or 10.5 hours day. So Makar, for 7 years, starting in 1897, 11.5-hour rule decree actually been reincarnated in the 10.5-hour, while from 1900 to 1904 year this rule once a year fell by about 1.5%.
And that still was at the time in other countries? Yes, about the same. Also in 1900, working day in Australia was equivalent to 8 hours, England — 9, the U.S. and Denmark — 9.75, Norway — 10, Sweden, France, Switzerland — 10.5, Germany — 10.75, Belgium, Italy and Austria — 11 hours.
In January 1917, the average working day by the Petrograd Province was 10.1 hours, and in March it has already decreased to 8.4, in other words, in just two months by as much as 17%.
But the introduction of the working time is determined not only the duration of the working day or, and the number of working days in a year. Before the revolution it was significantly more prazdnichkom — the number of solemn days of the year was 91, and in 2011 the number of non-working prazdnichkom, including the New Year's holiday, will be only 13 days. Does not compensate for this difference, even the presence of 52 Saturdays, which became inoperative since March 7, 1967.
Average Russian handyman ate half a pound a day of dark bread, half a pound of snow-white, half a pound of potatoes, a quarter pound of cereal, half a pound of beef, bacon and ounces of ounces of sugar. Energy value of such ration was 3580 calories. The average inhabitant of the empire was eating a meal a day to 3,370 calories. Such is the amount of calories the Russian people since that time more than almost never received. This figure was exceeded only in 1982. Lots of the same occurred in 1987, when the daily amount of food consumed was 3397 calories. In Russia, a peak consumption of calories came in 2007, when consumption was 2,564 calories.
In 1914, the working squandered on food itself and its own family of 11 rubles 75 kopecks month (12,290 in today's money). This amounted to 44% of earnings. But in Europe at that time the percentage of wages spent on food was even higher — 60-70%. Moreover, during World War II in Russia this figure even further improved, and the cost of food in 1916, despite the increase in prices, accounted for 25% of earnings.
Now let's see how things were with housing. As written was published once in Petrograd "Krasnaya Gazeta" in the privacy of their rooms from 18 May 1919, according to data for 1908 (taken are likely to have the same Prokopovych), workers spent on housing and 20% of its own income. If we compare the 20% with the present situation, the price of rent an apartment in a modern Peter would have to be at 54 thousand, and about 6 thousand rubles, or today's St. Petersburg worker should not receive 29,624 rubles, and 270 thousand. How was it then the money?
Price of the apartment without heating and lighting, according to the same Prokopovich was on the 1st earning: in St. Petersburg — 3 p. 51 k in Baku — 2 p. 24 k, and in the remote town of Kostroma Sereda — 1 p. 80 k, so that the average for the whole of the Russian Federation paid the price of apartments was estimated at 2 rubles per month. Translated into modern Russian means it is 2092 rubles. Here we must say that this is certainly not the master's apartment, eat in St. Petersburg which cost an average of 27.75 p., In Moscow — 22.5 p., And an average of 18.9 of in the river. In these lordly apartments lived in the main to the rank bureaucrats and officers of the college assessor. If the master's apartments on the 1st tenant had 111 square yards, in other words 56.44 m. m, in working to 16 m. yards — 8,093 square meters. m But the price of rent per square yard of itself was the same as in the master's apartments — 20-25 kopecks. per square yard per month.
But since the end of the nineteenth century, the general trend is the construction of public housing owners of companies improved layout. So, in a clay plant holders Borovichy acid-product engineers Kolyankovskie brothers built for their own work in the village Velgiya wood 1-story home with separate outputs and plots of land. Worker could buy this house on credit. The initial amount of the contribution was only 10 rubles …
…So Makar, in 1913 only 30.4% of our workers lived in rented apartments. Other 69.6% were free living space. Incidentally, when the post-revolutionary Petrograd cleared 400 thousand master's apartments — who shot who escaped and those who died of hunger — the working people took the time to seize these apartments even without compensation. In 1-x, they are placed too far away from the plant, and in-2, protopit such an apartment cost more than the entire salary in 1918 …