How did Topol-M

How to create "Topol-M"04.09.2012 75 years old Hero of the Russian Federation, Honored Engineer of the Russian Federation, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Lieutenant-General Vladimir Bolysovu.

If ever I have to make a documentary film about how a troubled post-perestroika era missile men "sprout" new modernized "Poplar" — pride of the land component of the strategic triad — that the main character of my paintings will be Vladimir Bolysov. The first and the only vooruzhenets SRF, awarded a star of Hero of Russia.

So happened that the missile medals usually bypassed. Still, the most "peaceful" troops, as some believe. But if you do not bring, of course … they still have to turn that key, then the reward, it will be too late! And the fact that virtually disappearing for a week for the family, they go down to the dungeon, where the air is weightless clean and hard work out there … hundreds of signals on it and combat it duty!

What to read about vooruzhentsah, designer, developer of our missiles. Oh, and just remember them only when tragedies. And then there is the sleepless nights that they while away for the drawings in his scientific skhimnichestve, "forgetting" for weeks, months, years, that house expecting wife and kids. There overcome stressful situations during the test, making complex scientific and engineering problems — it is also a feat, known only to them. But this is very rare for some reason they say, in the newspapers, make movies …

After a three-hour conversation with Vladimir Bolysovym — and he rarely gives interviews — think of was that the newspaper does not have the outline of the arsenal of expressive means that documentary films. Beyond words, frozen in small type on paper as a hectic whirl of days they forgets about everything, except for the "cause". The agreements, meetings, debates, search for technical solutions fortune and misfortune in the tests … And again the debate, meetings, negotiation … And then — again tests in KB, plants or landfills … Finding solutions to ordinary problems, but they are inevitable. There was still that of the complex, which would be able to "collect" is as simple as, say, children's designer. Actual creation of missile systems — the never-ending search for those solutions or other problems, without it — no way.

Almost a third of the century, Lieutenant General Bolysov specifically and intensively involved in the development, testing and staging on alert the whole family of missiles. Some of them are now grouping SRF.

How to create "Topol-M"Missile systems have several generations. Many of them now possible to see only in museums and documentary films. As with the other missile R-12, which on the eve of the Cuban missile crisis, he still Lieutenant — Head office — was on duty in Belarus. By the way, as it is magnificently, but Vladimir Ivanovich can be considered as the pioneers of the Strategic Missile Forces. Serve them, he began three months after the appearance of this most severe form, and now branch. He then, however, had other plans — after the end of the Air Force Academy named after AF Mozhaiskogo he wanted to fly as a flight engineer on a strategic bomber. And no matter how he resisted twist of fate, reports about the direction of the Air Force lost some places. Something similar, by the way, I have heard from many generals Missile Forces, so it seems, the fate of the missile …

The current path of Vladimir Bolysova unlikely you can cram in some "framework". Childhood, overshadowed by the war. Siege of Leningrad.

— Out in my mind many severe episodes — says Vladimir Ivanovich, without going into details. — In such situations, kids grow up fast and retentive memory is …

This feature distinguishes it from the memory of many. He remembers almost all by heart append him newspapermen dialogues pereinachennye comments. Therefore is not love to meet with journalists, treat them with a certain grain of salt. That's why communication with him was so fascinating that I'm not a documentary filmmaker.

I have often heard that General Bolysov do a lot to make better tactical and technical characteristics of the missiles, which "strategists" are its combat watch and up to date. This "Governors", had taken refuge in the Orenburg region and Krasnoyarsk Krai, and the "Poplar", "seated in" throughout the Russian Federation, and, of course, "Stilettos", which has more than 30 years old are on duty. Almost everything was finalized in their not without its role, including the possibility of rapid and retargeting, calculating flight missions specifically on launchers, and the ability of our mobile "Topol" hold start with at least some combat patrol route point. It is logical that, having stepped over the threshold of his office, I knew who I was dealing. But all this he seems out of modesty, did not say a word. We led the conversation about how increased durability of our systems to the effects of a nuclear explosion, their autonomy and, obviously, accuracy …

The title of Hero of the Russian Federation Gen.-Lieutenant Bolysov received after the successful tests the world-famous complex "Topol-M". It was a difficult time, a time "monstrous", as my interlocutor change. This epithet they just suffered through, like herself rocket, which has become a landmark in his career.

— What came out in the 1990s — is a collapse. Collapsed cooperative combat missile. It was formed over decades, and suddenly, in a flash of her company were in various states. A missile system required the creation of a qualitatively new features, but within the limits stipulated by international treaties. It must be said that the plan itself is a new missile system has been born yet when Russian Union. This theme is not counting the Metropolitan Institute of Heat Engineering and worked through the NGO "Engineering", began work CB "South" (Ukraine), but specific decisions about the design and form of the complex was not. And in such a situation all instantly fell into decay. Businesses fall into poverty, spices scatter in search of paid work to support his family. Many scientists have been trading in the markets to foreign consumer goods. As in the famous song Trofim when the designer-engineer suddenly became "the seller of the seventh series." Such then were the days. Well, the military had hard times: someone was unloading wagons, others — shot shoulder straps …

— Everything was destroyed, and the Military Industrial Commission is not, as, in general, and defense ministries. Together with them was lost conduct of a single state policy in "the defense industry." Technology were lost, ran a spice — continues Vladimir Bolysov. — Doctors have been trading in the stalls, were engaged in a personal taxi driver. And we, and the people left in the Ukraine in size. The destruction was so fast that it was impossible to gimp. Required urgent solutions, needed a real design theme. It was at that time chief of the Strategic Missile Forces, Army General Yuri Pavlovich Maksimov has put us (I was then the first deputy head of the administration of the Head of missiles)
puzzle to lead the formation of the tactical and technical requirements for the newcomer complex. It was a significant upgrade "Poplars." Specifically, thanks to this project managed to return to KB and factories professionals. And those who are just about to retire, keep it. People got to believe in what they needed. Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology in collaboration with the military is closely managed in the short term to make a purely Russian cooperation of companies in the development and production of combat missile systems. Showed high professionalism of the Institute of professionals, related companies and the military.

Of course, means a hell lacked. Because previous experience in the development was not always sufficient. Besides missile should be used in mines and mobile submarines. As you know, in February 1993, by decree of the President of the Russian Federation, the creation of such missiles has been entrusted to the Metropolitan Institute of Thermal Technology. The situation is complicated by the fact that MIT previously silo-based missile systems did not. Here, there are new challenges …

Only in Ukraine remained the third part developers and manufacturers. According to Vladimir Ivanovich, which is only Dnepropetrovsk CB "South." How to throw from the accounts of Kharkov, Kiev and other businesses? In short, those tasks that were solved in the Ukraine, Belarus and other republics were to pile up on their shoulders hundreds of Russian design bureaus and plants. With that Russian cooperation is made more than cope successfully.

— Working on Kompeks, punctually required to adhere to international treaties, which, of course, also influenced by some design decisions. But despite these difficulties, it was possible to do much better properties of the future missile in comparison with its predecessor, "Topol": and not only thanks to the latest control system …

General Bolysov deep breath, maintaining a significant pause. Recalling how the accident because of the money issue even had to rebuild the techniques of bench tests. They had to do more informative, spanned a wide range of different characteristics in each test.

— We did not go to the dangers in working out, — says Vladimir. — Understand that the results of the first run will determine the fate of the complex. Many doubted the ability of his creation, bearing in mind the state of the industry in the country and the economy as a whole. The Ministry of Finance and other administrative bodies of some considered it cumbersome and not very fit. Because the continued development of the complex is largely dependent on the woes of success or the first rocket launch. In the political and economic situation in Russia in trouble and could close the project.

In addition, pacifists and psevdopoborniki democracy krivoslovili on different frets. Danger, they say, is not and can not be. Overseas — some friends, no one is going to face a political and military pressure in the solution of controversial international issues — a relic of the "cold war." And then there were the hot head, proposing to "optimize" the Strategic Missile Forces to three or four divisions …

"Expert" to sign the pro-Western economists lulled public attention and incited them against the people in uniform. Biased journalists added fuel to the fire: that the army zhiruet. Let's take her money, and then begin to live! ..

— Because the first launch and was to be the "top ten" — emphasizes the general Bolysov. — All fine-tuned to the smallest detail. At first the heat shield in the engine of the first stage. Then it was necessary to bring to the brain controls the drive. We encountered a number of other difficulties. For example, the sine ends with fire test motor of the first stage before the first start could be derailed because the test board thoroughly out of order, and on the way — cold. There was a threat to several months of fire tests of this engine, and as it should, and launch. It was only thanks to the efforts of professionals Huge Research Institute of Geodesy, Ministry of Economy supported by the Deputy Minister Vyacheslav Fedorovich Mozgaleva shield was actually created anew just a month. Conducted so desired mastery tests the motor, which allowed to enter the start. Naturally, all of unplanned rework shifted to the right of the start of flight testing. But for us the quality of the work was over. True, some gossip that I say, especially tighten the tests. I wish to serve longer. I already went over the age limit. I did not direct attention to it. Thought: Here let a rocket, and then we'll talk …

On the hard-won, the first start of the modernized "Poplars" my co-worker at the "Red Star" — now Colonel Alexander's Stores Dolinin — standing next to General Bolysovym. He beheld with our eyes, as vooruzhentsy whispered prayer, religiously observing the unwritten rituals. Worried and Vladimir. Perhaps more than ever …

For a couple of minutes before the rocket said goodbye to the ground, then commander in chief of the Strategic Missile Forces, Colonel-General Igor Sergeyev said to him: "Vladimir Ivanovich, is there somewhere slack in working out? You're in no doubt? "

He said: "Comrade Commander, despite all the difficulties, which was conducted ground tests missiles, no hesitation."
Listening to Vladimir Ivanovich, I again and again, sorry about that newspaper page can communicate that sensual colors, which he knows about it. Not without pride, he says, now that missile system "Topol-M" has become a basic grouping of Strategic Missile Forces.

In the biography of Lieutenant General Bolysova more than 100 test launches of strategic missiles. But specifically in creating the "Topol-M" and his tests, he said, "the apotheosis of his own career." Even the date of this Vladimir remember by heart: December 20, 1994. Unfortunately, he did not become a hero when TV programs. But became a Hero of Russia. Nepoprostu. Almost everything that is not yet the time to talk, perhaps, will serve as material for future stories …

Soon after that he went to the launch in store. The premise was not only age, and nastignuvshie disease. But in spite of them, Vladimir still benefit missile troops and our "defense". As Deputy General Director of JSC "Izhevsk Motor" Axion-Holding ", he made a significant contribution to the company at the company production of combat control Strategic Missile defense systems, on-board equipment operational-tactical complex" Iskander "guided missiles" Krasnopol "," Kitolov " cruise missile "Yakhont", "BrahMos". Not the case in 2007, he was awarded the title of Honored Worker of Industry of the Republic of Udmurtia.

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