How did you begin the first ethnic conflict in the USSR Caucasian Knot

How did you begin the first ethnic conflict in the USSR Caucasian Knot

At first, in 1988 the Nagorno-Karabakh Regional Council of People's Deputies raised the issue of the withdrawal of Nagorno-Karabakh from Azerbaijan and its inclusion in the RA. A similar decision provoked a general confrontation along ethnic lines, which by the end of 1989, escalated into full-scale military engagements.

Since the beginning of the period of "glasnost" when expressing requirements in the modern, more open atmosphere, established in the USSR, it was admissible and was not pursued by the law, the situation changed. Since 1987, the Moscow authorities began to get one after the other various letters demanding unification of Karabakh and Armenia. Prepared in August 1987, the Academy of Armenia petition requesting the transfer of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, not only Nagorno-Karabakh and Nakhichevan and the same (although according to the 1979 census, there, there were 97% of Azerbaijanis), was signed by many hundreds of thousands of Armenians. In October, the indigenous inhabitants of Cherdakly, populated by Armenians priemuschestvenno settlements in the north-west of the country, refused to recognize the appointment of Azerbaijani director of the farm. This led to the fact that the local party authorities sent their anger on the villagers. According to the statements of the Armenians, the Azerbaijani party leaders intended to supplant primitive Armenian population. Proceedings of Cherdakly simultaneously sunk to the Armenian capital, which at that time were mass demonstrations demanding the closure of the production of contaminating the environment. Environmental rallies soon escalated into political, nationalist, demanding the return of the Autonomous Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh and the historical region of Nakhichevan to Armenia. At that time, local law enforcement agencies still get stuck and broke up the demonstration. Given the fact that Moscow did not take any retaliatory action, there were rumors that the government in the Kremlin is ready to transfer Nagorno-Karabakh, with all this attention was paid to the Armenian origin of a number of high-ranking advisers Misha Gorbachev.

After a certain time after the catastrophic events in Cherdakly ethnic Azeris in Armenia is increasingly become targets of persecution — the Armenians openly began to displace them from their own country. At the end of January 1988 1st wave of Azeri refugees has sunk to Baku. A significant part of them was placed in Sumgait — an industrial town located near the capital. February 11, in Nagorno-Karabakh of demonstrators to protest directed against economic and social policy in relation to the Baku area. A February 20, 1988 Regional Council adopted another resolution (110 votes were cast "for" and 17 "against"), which contained an appeal to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Armenia Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan to pass under the control of the Armenian SSR.

Between 21 and 25 February in Armenia has increased tensions, as the re-launched in Yerevan demonstrations irredentist demands. The Armenian diaspora in the West, although the methods by exaggerating the number of demonstrators, arguing about "millions of innocent people to the streets of Yerevan," despite the fact that all population of just three million. In Yerevan Committee was formed "Nagorno-Karabakh", and on February 26, Misha Gorbachev met in Moscow with 2 winners Committee Zori Balayan and Silva Kaputikian, asking for a moratorium on the monthly demonstrations, in order to assess the current situation. In Stepanakert, spread rumors that Moscow "is almost ready to say" yes "and the Karabakh Armenians have at the moment only a" more fearlessly inform about their own requirements. "

Discord flared with double force February 26, 1988, when unconfirmed rumors about the Armenian outrages in Stepanakert that led to the destruction of the 1st Azerbaijani, made Agdam — Azerbaijani city, located almost a few kilometers from the eastern border area of Nagorno-Karabakh. There was an armed clash between Agdam indigenous ethnic Azeris and Armenians from the adjacent town of Askeran. Deputy Attorney General Katushev, speaking on national radio Azerbaijan, said of the "violent death of 2-peaceful inhabitants of the Agdam region, which became the innocent victims of killers" — and said in a broadcast of their Muslim names. As could be expected in response to the massive outrage occurred in Sumgait, where in just a few days before Russell tremendous number of violent Azerbaijani refugees. From all sides have been calls for revenge for the deaths of Armenians Azerbaijani civilians. Initially, there were disturbances in certain controlled part, but after that, rumors spread that the Armenians after the meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev said in Yerevan on the complete victory. Follow-day or three in the town of Sumgait pogrom is full — bullies prey on ethnic Armenians set fire to and destroyed their homes. Officially recognized by the number of victims in the middle of the civilian population during the 3 days of unrest in the period from 27 to 29 February, counted 32 dead (6 Azerbaijanis and Armenians 26). Armenian sources, of course, manipulated reports about the number of Armenian victims in at least 10 times. The fact that the unrest in the area were shrouded Russian military units and internal troops, in significant part did not change anything, the military appeared to be relaxed and just passively tracked down from behind a mess and mayhem. According Nolyan, the Soviet government not only did not intend, to prevent massive bloodshed, but rather strongly supported the contention between with 2 ethnic communities. This was accomplished by controlling the media — on both sides spread exaggerated and provocative messages. In addition, according to his statement to initiate the mayhem from prison in Sumgait were intentionally released by bandits. Like it or not, we do not know. But in reality, whatever may have been the nature and degree of intervention by Moscow, in retrospect it is clear that inflame the Armenian-Azerbaijani contention was not worth much effort and strife this quickly rose to the point at which he could not be controlled by Moscow.

The value of Sumgait was the fact that for the Armenians, this event has made the process irreversible escalation of contention. After Sumgait became clear that there is no turning back, especially since the Kremlin showed extreme uncertainty and hesitation. And to Sumgait Armenians expelled all Azerbaijanis from Armenia, but at the moment it was conducted systematically and purposefully, including from areas Zangazur and Ararat, where Azerbaijanis lived many years of small-sized group.

In November 1988, after five months of relative calm in Yerevan and Baku resumed mass rallies. Mess occurred in Ganja, where the Armenians were absolutely banished. Mass flows of refugees flocked to Armenia and Azerbaijan in the direction of working. First, in May 1989, after another period of relative calm that has come with the introduction of the Kremlin, "a special form of government," military tensions in Nagorno-Karabakh again intensified. In Martakert (Agder) and Stepanakert street confrontation broke out again. By this time the Armenians living in Goranboy region north of Nagorno-Karabakh, have formed the first "spontaneous" military education. Then in the Armenian capital of Karabakh Committee began to associate with other insign
ificant political groups, which led to the creation of the Armenian National Movement (ANM). It was headed by eminent Levon Ter-Petrosyan. During the first multi-party elections in the sun Armenia In May 1990 ADP failed become the largest faction in parliament, surpassing in size even the Communists. August 4th Ter-Petrosyan was unanimously elected chairman of the parliament.

At the same time, the situation in Karabakh all downhill from there. From the 2nd half of the 1989 shooting and fighting between armed groups act steel, faster than the exception, and sample Russian Army to make appeasement were largely in vain. Moreover, military posts were often attacked by armed formations, and a growing number of weapons gradually passed into the hands of militias as one, and on the other side. 28 November 1989 direct rule in Nagorno-Karabakh center was canceled — Moscow admitted defeat and gave Nagorno-Karabakh to his fate. As a result of the Armenian Armed Forces December 1, 1989 made a historic decision, declaring the inclusion of the Autonomous Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh in the Armenian SSR.

In January 1990, the main scene of the confrontation moved to Azerbaijan. January 11 Armenian settlements in Goranboy (Shahoumian) and Khanlar regions were completely cleared of genocide. In the 1st time in a large-scale conflict, there have been involved armored vehicles and helicopters. January 11 NFA organized in Baku mass rally to protest associated with inactivity management, and 13 and 14 January Azerbaijani refugees from Armenia unsafe ransacked all Armenians, which led to the death of 88 people. Russian police behaved exactly like earlier in Sumgait, and nothing much is not solved. NFA condemned the outrages and massacres, accusing the Republican government in the Kremlin and in the conscious non-intervention in order to similarly justify the introduction of the armed forces in Baku and in order to prevent the NFA to power in the country. The veracity of these allegations were confirmed after almost 7 days since January 20, 1990 Russian Army in the amount of 29 000 fighter entered Baku. Little Resistance was fiercely suppressed, with all this, the death toll exceeded 100 people and it is only according to official sources, and more than five hundred people according to the NFA. At the same time introduced a special position in Nagorno-Karabakh, which has also been airlifted military unit composed of several thousand fighters. January 26 Soviet Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov openly stated during the press conference that segodnyaschy military occupation of Azerbaijan's capital was made in order to prevent a possible overthrow of the Communist Party.

By April 1990 protests in Armenia associated with a call to overthrow the military government in Karabakh became more ambitious. The Armenian government has openly vinyl Kremlin of inciting inter-ethnic strife, as the Russian army is closely cooperating with the Azerbaijani OMON. In Nagorno-Karabakh created special checkpoints to introduce passport controls, and to conduct searches and seizures of weapons. In late spring, just before the celebration of the anniversary of the proclamation of independence of Armenia in 1918, the Armenian militants tried to capture army depots in Yerevan, to gain access to weapons, which then led to the death of 22 innocent people. And again the same in this regard Armenian fighters showed tremendous activity more than opposing them Azeris, who, despite the January unseemly acts in Baku and the more open flow of weapons coming from Armenia Upland Karabakh, continued to rely on the central control of the USSR. The growth of the People's Militia, at first the Armenians, and they all did a great armament escalation of contention irreversible.

September 2, 1991 Karabakh City Council — Council of People's Deputies of the former Nagorno-Karabakh — self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic on the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh region and the self-Goranboy (Shahoumyan) region of Azerbaijan. Moreover, as a direct result of the Declaration of the autonomy of the Azerbaijani Parliament on November 26, stripped of rank Nagorno Karabakh autonomy, dividing it between the area adjacent areas. Certainly, such a decision could only have a purely "theoretical" political significance from the fact that Baku is rapidly losing control over Karabakh army. December 8, 1991 in Karabakh referendum was held, and from the fact that the Azerbaijani population boycotted it, it is reasonable that 99% of votes were cast for the autonomy.

The result of full-scale hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh in 1991, the beginning of 1992 he became a full or partial acquisition, the same parts of the Armenian, Azerbaijani regions 7. Right behind it, military operations with the most modern weapons systems spread to internal Azerbaijan and Armenian-Azerbaijani limit. Prior to 1994, Armenian forces have occupied 20% of the territory of Azerbaijan, captured and plundered 877 villages Fri, with all this, the death toll is about 18 thousand people, and maimed and disabled for more than 50 thousand

In 1994, with the help of, Kyrgyzstan, and the Interparliamentary Assembly of the CIS in Bishkek, Armenia, Upland Karabakh and Azerbaijan signed a protocol on the basis of which it was agreed to a cease-fire. However, negotiations on a friendly settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani contention were conducted since 1991. 1st Meeting of Attorneys of Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan was held in 1993, and from 1999 held constant meeting between the presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite this, the "degree" of war remains, of course, Azerbaijan is trying by all means to save his former regional integrity, Armenia insists that protects the interests of Nagorno-Karabakh.

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