Our scientists do not even admit that our home is in the XXI century backward raw power. On the question of whether our country's prospects for development of high technology industry, they confidently answer: yes! You only need to change the market legislation hindering the progress of science, and to return to the state to address global challenges introduction of high technology.
This was discussed at a meeting held in the State Duma, the Nobel Prize, the vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, member of the Communist Party faction Zhores Ivanovich Alferov. He gathered academics, professors, research institutes and manage the huge production facilities operating in conjunction with science. Invited shared sore.
Introducing the debate, Zhores Alfyorov said:
— There is no more fundamental tasks for the country than the revival of the industry in general, and high-tech industry in particular. In Russia, held a very "specific" by de-industrialization, and the country has entered a post-industrial period. In the U.S., the post-industrial period and the Information Society began on the basis of the development of modern technology, first of microelectronics. But in our post-industrial period began with the barbarian thieves privatization. Highly developed industry destroyed Russian Union of Industry, manufacturing base, on the basis of which it was possible to enter into a post-industrial period, developing a truly modern technology.
In the world at that time were running the rapid development of technology. And we have lost 20 years in its development!
Now there is an unusually difficult problem: how to get to the current level? You can exit with only one method — by developing science. If the country does not develop the science, it is subjected to colonization, claimed an outstanding scientist and a communist, a Nobel laureate in chemistry Frederic Joliot-Curie. And he was right. Realistically, this is happening to our country.
We sit in the State Duma, means must still think, how should the legislative support to develop research. From my point of view, the State Duma has worked very effectively. The State Duma may not work well if it is churning out without thinking all the legislative proposals introduced by the government. And rejects the proposals that are being developed deputy factions. For example, when there was a project "Skolkovo" which important and necessary, the three factions brought the amendment. Among them we have reflected the view that it is necessary not to develop the area and type of activity. The amendments were rejected by a majority of the State Duma known. On this topic there was much talk …
The purpose of our meeting — to construct a common political and legislative requirements related to the development of science. Unfortunately, now the policy of the President and Prime Minister traced the idea: we have the tools for the oil and gas, we can do everything to order, we will do everything and bring here. This method is sinful. That will never happen. International cooperation in science, but we'll have to do everything, to know everything and be able to create. International projects, we need to be consistent.
The participants expressed a great deal of criticism in the address Russian control that all the past 20 years, began to move science, funded by the residual principle, payment of scientific labor lowered below pensions, forcing scientists go over the limit. Now in Russia lack of personnel, shortage of engineers, designers, developers, the latest equipment and technology. In the USSR, the development engineers were proud Technical High School. And at this point in the technical universities is a shortage of students. The reason for that — political, ideological, reformist distortions.
But academician, president of the Association of Technical Institutions Igor B. Fedorov remains optimistic. Engineers says will restore if the interaction of industrial companies and universities. In Russia at the moment tehvuzov 190, 150 of them — technical institutes. In their studies of more than 1 million people. Young people want to become engineers. But they are worried about job placement after graduation. Previously, it was rassredotachivanie. The need for his return I.Fedorov offers loaf and executive and legislative branches. Rassredotachivanie imposes mutual obligations on both the graduate and the company that is guaranteed to receive frames from the institute and the university has assisted in conducting practices, the formation of the institute's experimental basis, orders for R & D (research and development activities). This helped sformirovyvaetsya forecasts staffing needs of the industry, increased social protection of students. Likely other schemes, such as the admission of students on the basis of contracts with companies that will also fix the relationship of production and training. And "the lawmakers need to set mutual responsibility for their commitments to secure the frame," said the academician.
"The message is not bad, but very soft," commented the performance I.Fedorova Zhores Alfyorov and found it necessary to add to it: — The basic failure of our universities and research institutions — it's lack of demand for our scientific results. We do when we were students, working on commercial contracts in the departments. Departments that was profitable. Not janitors … President, perhaps — yes. We — no. We worked in the departments of engineers, senior laboratory technician. Engineering education and engineering specialties were needed. Will science desired, and then to form it will be much easier and not have to invite so called leading professionals from abroad to pay them incomparable with our wages, creating a totally appropriate situation, and without solving certain scientific and engineering problems. "
Training opportunities for science and production has sverhtehnologichny Physico-Technical Institute. Ioffe, said the deputy director of FTI Viktor Ustinov. He did not lose hope for the future. Scientific School Institute firmly knitted together, she stood at the peak of the market and retains its own tsunami supreme research capacity. The Institute's scientists are working on 18 fronts, combined into 4 groups: nanomaterials, optoelectronics, development of new devices and equipment, energoeffektvnost and energy savings. They all can be the basis of modernization Russian industry.
In large development needs Russian oil and gas and coal facilities, identified academic Alex D. Kantorovich. The policy of ruthless exploitation of our mineral resources, which holds power, led to the fact that the society was seen as the scourge of oil and gas and the brake for the Russian economy and industry. A.Kantorovich noted, "it's not about how much we produced raw materials, and that they did to him," "we should not sell raw and processed product", "20 years of talking about deep processing of oil — and nothing changed, all braked in 1993. " The scientist is convinced that "the owner will not solve this dilemma, it is only by the state."
"Efficient" the owner, who promoted the reformers turned destroyer industrial production and science. In industrial areas, in workshops where master modern technolo
gy and honing their skills master class, the owners launched a flea market, entertainment centers, cereal institutions. The work of the first five generations and favorites in the majestic Russian war went to pieces. Were satisfied with the result of Western manufacturers and dealers: they cleared the area of market competition. And what's left of industrial production, 95% owned by foreign offshore companies …
In any self-respecting country defends its own manufacturer, prospector, scientist. In the conditions of capitalism to science have fundamentally on customer service and new developments. Russian scientists are not many zamechaemy power. The conditions in which our work innovators can be called extreme, they themselves have not only to invent and test their merits, and make its way to the market where they do not expect.
No one varies the importance of using other fuels. How is the search for them, how to create a data card biological resources of the country, told the Director General of the Agency INOTE Viktor Viktorovich Lavrov. According to him, "the creation of an information card bioresources of, the introduction of information technology sensing from space will give impetus to the development of small and large businesses in areas such as information sensing and other autonomous power." But work on the problem of hard, because "there are no relevant legislation, regulatory documents, partnerships in this area …"
Complicated by the views of the Director of the Scientific and Technical Center of the United Aircraft Company, Vladimir Andreyevich Kargopoltseva, is the situation in the field of high technology for aviation. On the world scene out massive new actors — China, India, Brazil, who hold the highest level of the organization of work in the industry. "This obliges us to ramp up efforts to not be in the final outsider" — read V.Kargopoltsev. On the agenda of the day or Russian aircraft designers — a concept completely electronic plane … At this point in the world until just a few hundred percent electronic aircraft as civilian and military. At our Russian aircraft also introduced elements of electrification. "We are ready to solve a problem which is comparable to the plan of electrification", highlighted Kargopoltsev.
The chief designer of aerobatic Research Center, Hero of the Russian Federation, honored test pilot Anatoly Kwacha announced cry from the heart: save the applied science!
On the verge of collapse — a very valuable research and testing air base. Die major funds. Park flying laboratories 20 years quantifiable hundred square meters, at the moment they left the unit. Less professionals, as there is no demand, no work. Unique media knowledge — researchers, engineers, technicians and test pilots go. He A.Kvachov — the youngest of the test, but he soon 60. " And yet, the Center is developing a promising direction as the introduction of aircraft to launch satellites into orbit. "We are launching small satellites with tremendous launch vehicles. Satellites start on the waiting queue months, and now years. Launch their non-optimal orbit. And they could be put into orbit fighter aircraft class. We know that this will be necessary. But I hustle without result in a variety of doors and walls with this proposal … "
Studding the highest thresholds A.Kvachov concluded that "the scientific processes, the highest technology can not manage the property owners, the government should construct puzzles, put them up and keep control of execution."
"It is important weighted role in the fate of the country's own production of microelectronics — the basis for the majority of innovation," Gennady Ya sure KRASNIKOV, Director General NIIME (Research Institute of Microelectronics).
This branch is well developed in the European Union, the Land of the Rising Sun, South Korea, China, where government Science and helps to protect their own producers. Our producers also have something to present to the market. But no one protects them access to the market is difficult. But in the capitalist criteria science must not only invent and discover, and incorporated into the market to sell the results of their labor. In other countries, the government is helping science. For example, in South-East Asia practiced share the country's role in the microelectronics factories. Developed tax incentives in the United States, South Korea, the land of the rising sun, in Taiwan. They understand that the development of microelectronics — is nanootkrytiya, new technologies, new jobs. In Russia there is no such awareness. Because "Russia is the only unprotected market and the state with the non-competitive economic environment."
Alferov Zh: "The Soviet alliance was powerful electrical power. It was an electrical empire. In all the 15 Soviet republics had electric companies, universities, CB. This 3 thousand companies, 400 institutions, 3 million people!
Now electronics remained in Russia at 20-25% of what it was in Russian time. Keeps your electronics Belarus. In other republics it is not there. And this — the strategic direction, without which nothing can grow. And the government, of course, must give that a corresponding decision. "
"It was government, the merit of which we are all proud of, "- grabbed the idea Zh.Alferova Nikolai Panich, the last Russian Minister of machine-tool industry at the moment — Machine Tool Manufacturers Association president.
From the perspective of N.Panicheva, "today in our state and uncertainty reigns colossal incompetence, especially at the level of the people who make the decisions." The country is working in a confined space, the market for the Russians completely deaf. Investment in machinery is actually no no. What we do now, and it is 25 times less than they did in 1990 — up 70% on the export push off. And our businesses remain with the equipment a 30-year, 40-year-old.
Is it in the public treated the aviation industry? Our President travels to the United States and signed a contract for 50 "Boeing". And we had our reliable aircraft, and can be created modern advanced aircraft, more applicable to our criterion than "Boeing". But our funds go zabugornom producers.
The basis for the high-tech industry believes N.Panichev machine tools, instrumentation and electronics. He managed to achieve certain financial routines for machine tool. But the 94th FL (law) which everyone in the Russian Federation did not like it, but not going away, crippled plans manufacturers.
"This is not the law, and corruption component of our procurement activities — said N.Panichev. — Half of those funds rather poor, who make the enterprise or receive any credits, benefits accrue to intermediaries. 55% of the benefit received intermediaries. Stop this orgy! "
"You all right uttered, Nikolai" — saw Zhores Alfyorov. He remembered, as in Stalin's government referred to the science industry. At least some appeal scientists have priority for Secretary General. At this point, all the contrary. And it's not only in the legal framework, said Zhores Alfyorov. "It's been 20 years. We read as about effective owner. We can say that in a small business, a restaurant, in the service sector — for sure, it is. But about the effective owner of a large industry — all lies. The collectivization of the means of production was in the West. And we have done it outright in 1917, he ran too far ahead. But for all that we have done sverhtehnologichny branches of industry. And the owner's effective these new privatizers can not be. They can buy-sell. And the emperor Chubais to these comments said that the aim was not an effective owner, and hammer nails into the coffin of communism. But it's the nails in the coffin for us all to our society. And we need another effective owner, we
need the State Planning Commission and the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade is not.
The first chairman of the State Planning Commission was Gleb Maksimillianovich Krzyzanowski. Then was born a successful innovator electrification plan. Right at that time, soon after the revolution it done. And how much later it was successful Innovative projects! And it's not only in the legal framework, the case in the change of our social system. Nowhere on it does not go. By this brings us analysis of the economy and everything that has happened to us. "
The words of Nobel laureate participants responded with loud applause. He expressed the very start the idea that this is not everyone dares to utter.
The meeting decided: the State Duma and the government to remove laws that prevent to develop science and superior technology. This — the 94th Law, the Law on autonomous institutions of inflated rates, on customs and tax barriers.
Scientists are turning to the president and the prime minister to decide on municipal participation in important sectors of the industry, a municipal task for science, the exact defense order, which will allow scientists to navigate and use and extend preserved in the Russian scientific potential.