The Conquest of Siberia by Yermak. Vasily Surikov
Art critic at a fashion show in the play Arcadia Isakovich Raikina:
"Take tovaischi, kaytinu Suikova" Pokoyenie Eymakom Siobhan. " Left — Cossacks spyava — Tata. Gemyat Cossack samopaly — kaboom-boom-boom. Whiz tatayskie stely — Whack, Whack, Whack. All napyaglos, everything in motion! Another minute — uyaaaa! Sybille peace! "
Broken down to the river. Under the cliff along the path of a huge number of Tatars. On the water, under the banner of the Cossacks in the boats (and some have already jumped into the water) firing their muskets. Boats are moving to the coast — to plant on a saved. On the precipice of a group of riders, some riders are jumping to descend to the river, some not screaming, cheering those who are under the cliff, not pray.
Left shows the castle in the distance with guard towers and some building with the highest spire and gilded crown.
Under the banners — Ermak he Shishak, in chain mail and armor, the hand pointing towards the shore, apparently hurrying landing.
Right across the bottom of Ermak — shoot guns, quick-firing musket. Another gun is a breech in the days of the spectator boats. Small boats, in their hard-fits four people. Not counting the people in the boat is what-a barrel bags.
Judging by the fact that the bank no 1st lying (wounded or killed), the Cossacks have just started to shoot.
So majestic stately painter depicted the beginning of the fight (fight was not dignified by the number of participants on both sides, and the results — Russian Siberia became the preserve).
Outcome a foregone conclusion for the viewer title picture. And because most are not inclined to consider that nevertheless wrote a painter, then our understanding of the conquest of Siberia is very similar to that found in the epigraph: another minute — and our Siberia.
In fact, all it was, to put it mildly, is not the case.
In 1-x, Ermak with his fighting unit — it's cops and robbers. They hunted robbery on the Volga River a couple of years (when Ermak was only one gang chieftain), robbed the local inhabitants, looted ambassadors who were sent from Central Asia to Moscow and from Moscow with a variety of gifts. In general, live — did not grieve. Naturally, when they started dopekat troops of the Russian Tsar, they are reabsorbed by the villages where they may have been, and his wife and kids.
Evenly government to restore order, the Cossacks went all the north and to the north, until they reached the possession of Stroganoff. And here came that the Cossacks of the bandits turned into watchdogs: Stroganoff invited them to all who came from the lower reaches of the Volga, to repel the attack of the Tatars, who ravaged all times surrounded by people and taken away as slaves.
In-2, Siberian Khanate never left alone district. Finish is carousing could only defeating the Tatars, depriving them of the ability based in towns and collect tribute from nearby residents.
These two incidents have converged together and Stroganoff with the approval of the king equip Cossacks beat the Siberian Khanate. In the expedition to gather a group led by Yermak, who seems to have struck the man responsible Stroganoff, on whose word can be trusted.
840 25 plow equipped with muskets and musket rapid-equipped with everything needed for a distant campaign, with interpreters on Chusovoi go up further. Ermak hike lasted several months. During this time the squad met with aggressive population. He had to fight a war with expected was nowhere. And ammo is also nowhere to get. All right for fighting the terrorists were carrying (or carried when they were on the boat). The Cossacks were moving Strugi up to 12 meters and a displacement of up to 6 tons, designed for 20-25 man.
They were not at random (not as a sailor Zhelezniak, which going to Odessa, and came to Kherson). They knew in what place will be dragged in the smallest, and dragged all the vessels of the 1st river basin to another. And the water reached the capital of the Khanate — Isker town. And there came a scramble, which Surikov ordained his canvas.
Preserving the Irtysh at this point — loss of about 10 meters and a narrow strip of land under the cliff. Apparently, Ermak staged landing and forced to go down to the Tatars saved. Ermak Court at this time lined up along the shore. And when the Tartars came down — Yermak began firing artillery shrapnel. This forced the Tatars flee into the castle, and the Cossacks planted and went to Isker (the capital of the Khanate of Kuchum).
Described picture — Only version. In any document of that time did not survive the description fights Ermak — while this did not motivate. But under this version is a purely quantitative reasoning: so small squad could not overcome the desperately brave Tatars swoop. Apparently, the Tatars still was unfamiliar buckshot and rapid-artillery. Specifically, this solved the final battle for Siberia.
Now a few words about the details of the picture. Surikov not just fantasized picture was preceded by a great deal of work on the study of historical material. With almost complete certainty depicted musketeers and muskets, equipment Ermak. But there are things that do not fit or conditions, or reality.
Tatar Right in the center of the picture — in front clothes. Hardly even any Mirza would put the fight for such a festive outfit.
Rower in the boat on the front plane Framed defenseless back under the boom. Reloading musket musketeer — he also is open to the arrows. Ermak, I think, to cherish every Cossack own squad and could not allow their warriors to behave in Makar.
Landscape on the horizon fortress with watch towers and a central building. The building has a steeple that is not fully correspond to the Muslim architecture.
Shuttles (boats for 5-6 people, one of which is drawn Surikov), intended for planting in store, and they should not be any drums or bags.
A painter who wanted a picture of the events of two centuries ago, could not ignore the information that by the time have been accumulated, first, in museums. His painting reproduces clothes, weapon and rituals. As for the likelihood of the fight against the Tatars Ermak — here is best states created by:
"In the historical picture after all, is not necessary, so it was quite so, and so the opportunity was, so it seemed. Essence is a historical picture — guessing. If only the spirit of the time observed — the details can make all sorts of mistakes. And when all point to point — even sickening. "
What Ermak? Before us looms the majestic portrait of the leader! Neither the rears, no friendly environment or human reserves, with a detachment of 840 anarchists against the 10-s of thousands of Tatars — and take a few fights without tangible losses! How instinct, which fortitude which the ability to bend the will of the people own and control them in all situations had this Cossack, To teach the art of war in the robbery!