Now the story of forty years ago may not seem a detective, not the plot of the novel. But then it was time — Che Guevara, Woodstock, the Prague Spring … And by himself for himself Gaddafi — the last piece of that romantic era. When he eventually military coup in 1969 came to power in Libya — he was only 27 years old. Young, charming, charismatic, famously pushed back to take the military during those years with boyish already beheld himself sponsor, banker, "purse" for anti-Western and anti-Israel movement in the Arab and African world. But to be so in fact, required funds.
By coincidence, the joyous events in Libya those years experienced positive pivotal era. In the end, it was a straight up to the mid 50's? There is no Suez Canal, nor generous plains of the Nile, nor the olive groves of Algeria and Tunisia. The most unfortunate, the poorest, most backward "wilderness" of North Africa. A large slice of desert — the shifting sands and barren cliffs inhabited by semi-savage tribes. And only 1% of the territory — near Tripoli, on the narrow coastal strip of Cyrenaica, a few oases can be had at least some agriculture. The local inhabitants to survive for centuries hunted than Allah will send. Do not disdain the slave trade, piracy, and that is first of the 19th century led to a military confrontation with the United States. And even when European colonists arrived — it was not French-British (they obviously grabbed for themselves meatier pieces), and the same in the years hapless Italians.
Mussolini tried to relocate to Libya colonists — Italian landless farmers. But not too special of success headed for — how the Nazis exterminated the Libyans do not like any of their land seized, but still just above dadeno — for 1% of eligible arable land area — is exactly 1% and even 2.3%. And, even at this 1% of water is much less than in Tuscany and Sicily …
Soon after the war, Libya gained independence. Lord became a recognizable fighter with Italian fascism, the grandson of the founder of the Order of the Muslim senusitov, Idris I. Libya continued to live all too timid and poor. According to the South American historian Daniel Yergin — "in the years after the second World War, the main exports were two: the esparto grass, used in the production of banknotes, and scrap metal — of tanks and military equipment abandoned in the desert Troops of the" Axis "and the anti-Hitler the coalition. " Later — rent areas of American and British military bases. Then suddenly one day … when suddenly one fine day in the middle of the 50s found the sands of Libya oil.
At the time Gaddafi came to power, the oil arm of the country already on its feet, flowed into the coffers first revenue that sovereign Idris squandered in the main to the home Cyrenaica. (And therefore no coincidence that now she initially rebelled and performs under the king's tricolor flag — after Gaddafi opposite preferred bless his native Sirte and Tripolitania).
As the commentator radio "Liberty" Il Lagunina, "when there were suspicions that Libya has oil, the master decided to create a special law. It was adopted in 1955 and supported the small oil companies. Minister for petroleum said then that would not want to see his country began because Iraq, Kuwait or Saudi Arabia, in other words, was in the hands of the 1st large oil giant. As a result, by the time of the military coup that Gaddafi referred to the revolution, the country has worked more than 20 foreign companies.
This event was fatal, and after the coup, Gaddafi — small companies was simply "press", to intimidate, to squeeze out Libya, and their property was nationalized. But the means to start up on their principal projects upgrading and sponsoring inter-Arab, African Unity …
"Of course, the nationalization of foreign oil companies took place at a time across the Middle East and even beyond, — the South American historian Didrik Vandevalle — but specifically Gaddafi has become a very principled person in the process of determining what should be the case between oil producers and consumers in Globally, in the middle of the 1970s. Turned out the main actor in the establishment of new, high oil prices, and the nationalization of oil resources. "
The most a weak link in the chain of international companies Libya first 70s was South American Occidental Petroleum, which owned the … Armand Hammer. Yes, that "a great friend of Russian Union", almost everything — slick international adventurer who buy at bargain prices Faberge egg and build Togliatti-Odessa ammonia pipeline, but has left behind only a half a billion dollars of debt. Communicate with all the Russian leaders from Lenin to Gorbachev, and whose grandson (Armie Hammer) was famous for the role of the twin-majors in the film by David Fincher's "The Social Network."
It turns out his way, and crossed paths with a fiery Moammar — in fact in the oil business Hammer to his own misfortune, all bets are made only on the Libyan oil…
"As soon as the pressure is increased, more nervous Hammer — continues Vandevalle. He went to Egypt to ask President Nasser, the "hero" of Gaddafi, to intercede for him with his successor. Worried that due to shutdown of oil production in Libya ended supply of fuel for the Egyptian army, Nasser al-Gaddafi has recommended to soften the policy. But the council was not heard. Hammer tried a few variants of the impact on Gaddafi, but everything was useless. In August 1970, he called the Libyan branch manager of Occidental and said that the government is going to pursue nationalization. "
Enraged by the Hammer of the same NIGHT MODE on the individual plane flew to Tripoli. There he was negotiating the Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Abdel Salaam Zhalud previously "terrorizing" the bourgeoisie of Texaco and Standard of California. At one point, showing his displeasure with the course of discussions with their representatives, crumpled up and tossed them offer
a lump in their face. And once again flew into the room where the oil executives were sitting, with a gun on his shoulder … During the first meeting with Hammer Zhalud, offering the visitor hot biscuits and coffee, unbuckled his belt and put its own 45-mm Colt on the table right in front of "a great friend of Russian the Union. " Hammer smiled. But he was confused. He had never had to negotiate at gunpoint …
It is said that Hammer was so frightened that he was afraid to stay overnight in Tripoli. Each day of negotiations (and they took more than a week), he at 2am flew his own plane to Paris, slept until 6 am, and again cast off in Tripoli. But in the end, the Libyans it too "broke". The contract has been signed, although the Libyan side managed to increment their income (due to the increase in oil prices and higher taxes) is not on the 35, as I, and 20%. And this, as Yergin notes, it is enough to open the way for the campaign of nationalization and pressures in other oil-producing countries. The agreement between the Hummer and Gadhafi returned to life and the company of Oil — OPEC, which previously hardly been idle.
"Anyone who drives a tractor, truck or car in the Western world, to feel for themselves the consequences of this agreement" — sadly saw during the signing of the deal with Gaddafi Hammer's representative in Libya. And really — just oil prices crept up. Again, by an unfortunate coincidence of events just at this time was uncorking a treasure trove of oil and gas in Western Siberia. In Soviet Russia, which, like Libya, yesterday could put up only export flax, hemp, wood breed, fur and fat, and therefore was obliged as a "spin" to industrialize, develop science, etc. drip a generous flow of petrodollars.
"And that — now you can own to do nothing and take everything?" — Mumbled front of the mirror, adjusting the medals on the jacket, Leonid Brezhnev. "Well, yes, you can buy … and then relaxed prevail on its side." As a result — a sad fate Kosygin reform, the latest sample to jump into the passing wagon train scientific and technological revolution and modernization. The growing backlog of the USSR and the socialist camp on the West. Reincarnation is a big country hostage to oil prices. And — a terrible collapse of everything at these prices fall.
Obviously, certainly not Gaddafi povinet of all that had happened — at first blamed themselves nekompitentnye and aging Russian leaders. But what "factor Gaddafi"And catastrophe" Comrade Hammer "became one of the shocks from which the Russian ball rolled specifically to that well — a fact.
Now you may ask, how in the end, our homeland is as involuntary "revenge" Gaddafi and also to some extent provoked the current wave of revolutions in North Africa? But oh well — "When it became clear that from the hot summer and drought in Russia did not really freak nothing — no potatoes, no vegetables, no grains, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin takes as it is now seen all over the world for a life-changing decision: to ban grain exports from Russia . Prices of grain is the most immediately rushed up, and one of the main buyers of Russian grain were just Egypt, providing themselves with food only 40%, and (to a lesser extent) Tunisia "- wrote the originator of this article and a half months back.
So muse Clio — the lady with the temper and quirks made another "penalty" of historical retribution.
And so in this time is worth quoting again from the ending of the text:
"Our world is fragile. Our world is incredibly interdependent, like someone did not want to hide from this interdependence behind the wall "Jamahiriya", "sovereign democracy" or "well-fed, comfortable West." The world is filled with accidents far-reaching consequences. And as before Straseni defenseless and vulnerable to the Rock. "