Heavy tank T-10 — the last on the list, but not least!
The initial impetus for the development of a new languid tank was the fact that by the end of the 40-ies of the last century in the Russian Army was armed with just three tanks of this type of class — IS-2M, IS-3 and IS-4, but not any of They did not meet all the requirements of the military and they have already been taken off the market. Since the end of 1948 it was produced in GBTU specification for the design of the tank languid, and as a developer is selected KB Chelyabinsk plant, the main designer appointed Zh.Kotin. "Object 730" was intended to equip chassis-type tank IS-4, but the shape of the body, for unknown reasons, to borrow from the IS-3. The upper limit on the mass of the tank equipped with a determined 50 tons.
Preliminary design completed by April 1949, in May, building wood model of the true value. The tank had a seven-track roller on the board, and the corresponding case with the bow of the "pike nose" inherited from the IS-3. Immediately started the construction of the prototype "Object 730", which was supposed to be called JS-5. Successfully passed factory tests, the prototype became the basis for the initial batch of 10 tanks, which went to the tests in the same 1949. Two steps successfully completed, and in April-May 1950 began testing step of municipal landfill NIBT Kubinka. In general, the Commission assessed the tank test results positive, recommending it for mass production, after the elimination of the identified shortcomings (in the main by the MTO). Additionally summer tests were performed guaranteed life, and in the autumn followed by troop tests. However, the volume of completions was great, the tank is constantly being improved and changed. Receives as a result of the introduction of corrections tank was so different from the layout, which in turn gave way to the title at EC-6, then the IS-8, IS-9 and finally IC-10 (some sources indicate that the tank initially had a number of EC-8). Check the configuration sought in connection with which the tank passed all the new factory, and municipal control tests. Crumpled sad experience of taking on the armament not fully brought machines and the customer and the developer painstakingly inspected all implemented solutions and configurations. Even in the criteria for escalating the "Cold War" and the conflict in Korea (which just might reincarnate cool phase in a very hot — nuclear) each month spent on the corrosive tests that protect the millions of rubles in the future, thousands of man-hours for repairs and can be helped out of life crews. In the end, finishing delayed until December 1952, and the creation of a batch scheduled for spring 1953. But in connection with the death of IV, Stalin and the subsequent rearrangements of Governors of various ranks, Adopt the Russian Army was delayed — the first production tanks left the factory until the end of the year. Title of the tank with all this changed with the IS-10, T-10 modest.
After the start of series production in 1954 has been developed and brought stabilized in the vertical plane variant gun D-25TS, equipped with PRCD-1 "Hurricane." At the Leningrad Kirov Plant built an experienced model "Object 267 sp.1" for tests of the gun, tank additionally equipped with the new gyro-stabilized sight TPN-1 at the end of the test tank was put into service in autumn 1955 under the designation T-10A ("Object 731" ). Brand new installation tools and drives it claimed little to change the shape of the tower near the loopholes and mask gun, gun barrel additionally supplied with an ejection device for reducing the gas content of the crew compartment. Modernization were vertical guidance mechanism and electric & shutter device (previously run was only mechanical). Along with the "Object 267 sp.1" passed tests and "Object 267 sp.2" with plane stabilizer, but this option was brought later, and its acceptance into service took place in 1957 under the designation T-10B. Besides PRCD-2 "Thunder" to equip the tank gun T2S-29-14, but otherwise the configurations were not introduced. In this case, the very principle to see that new versions of the tank appeared due to development of new, more advanced weapons and equipment, and not to "pull" it to the original tactical and technical requirements of the customer, as was the case with previous languid tanks — the rate on long, but painstaking tests before taking into service absolutely justified.
At this time, KB Perm factory number 172 was created a new 122mm gun M-62-T2 (2A17) with the highest initial velocity armor-piercing projectile — 950 m / s. Equipped plane stabilizer 2E12 "Downpour" gun tests took place in 1955 in different experimental machines. The next step is upgrading the tank not only stayed only on the substitution of the main gun, machine guns mnogokalibernye DShKM 12.7 mm by 14.5 mm replaced KPVT (both coaxial and anti-aircraft), with all this ammunition was reduced to 744 rounds of ammunition, with a constant number of rounds (30 pieces). Just got a tank full set of night vision devices — commander's TKN-1T, gunner TPN-1-29-14 ("The Moon II») and driver TVN-2T, for the operation of which is equipped with infra-red illuminators. Again, change the shape of the tower and in addition to its aft there was a box of spare parts. The engine is replaced by B-12-6 boosted to 750 hp
Made on the basis of the most experienced "Object 272" in series production tank received the title of T-10, becoming the last modification of the family. But in the process of production were introduced different configurations, for example, 8-speed gearbox was replaced by a 6-speed manual, in 1963, added OPVT for wading depth of 5 meters, with 1967 input-piercing ammunition and cumulative projectiles. Batch creation of the tank stopped in 1966, clear data on the number of cars produced creator could not be found — Western estimates produced in 8000 did not cause the trust tanks, Russian creators indicate "more than 2500", which is likely an underestimate. In any case, the T-10 is undoubtedly the most massive post-war heavy tank, and may be the most massive heavy tank in the history of tank development in the world. The highest performance characteristics and timely modernization have allowed him to remain in service 40 years — the order of withdrawal from service given only in 1993! The tank is not exported to other countries ATS and did not take part in hostilities (with the exception of this operation "Danube" on entering the Warsaw contract in Czechoslovakia in 1968).
The T-10 was the peak of the evolutionary concept languid Russian tank — the compact and relatively lightweight, intended at first to break the strong defense (a significant part of them was armed with GSVG), with all this anti-tank task assigned to the third plan. Armor offers sufficient protection available at the beginning of the 50s armor-piercing shells, but the rapid development in the 50's and 60's of the last century, shaped charge projectiles and missiles nullified the advantages of languid tanks before the average, they needed to deal with fundamentally different approaches. Like many other types of equipment, born during the transition period, the T-10 was a very diversified assessment of both contemporaries and historians of armored vehicles — on the one hand one can not but note the higher security, mobility and firepower of the tank, surpassing the average T-54/55 but the appearance of the T-62 with 115mm smoothbore gun and not inferior to reduce the gap in security (again increased with the adoption on arms T-10). At that time, it became clear that it takes a fundamentally new tank, single tank — a main battle tank, which will cooperate within themselves mobility, security and weapons languid and medium, surpassing them all. Conform as new requirements even after all upgrades T-10 could not, and upon receipt of the T-64 and T-72 and supplied to long-term storage pending utilization.
And in conclusion I would like to note such a rare part of the last languid tanks of the USSR as part of an armored train … fire! Yes, the Soviet Union was an armored train and then majestically Russian, and T-10 were used, or in the form of tanks actually installed on the special train platform (which could leave if necessary), or just the tower from them.
Technical description of the T-10, 10A, 10B and 10M.
The tank is arranged according to the traditional scheme, with the location in the aft engine compartment, bow placement of the driver's compartment and the fighting compartment between nimi.Korpus tank is made up of rolled armor plates (flat, bent and stamped), the tower is designed as a single casting with welded sheet your roof in the rear part, in which there are a commander's cupola and boarding hatch loader. The bow of the body, "aquiline" performed similarly to the tank IS-3 — three armor plates having a huge angles, with all this, the upper part consists of a 2-plate (joined along the center of the bow of the tank) with a significant deviation from the longitudinal axis of the tank . The fourth plate installed with a very huge slope is a roof's compartment and it is cut by a sliding hatch for planting of the driver, a triangular shape.
The upper part of the board has a large slope, is a flat piece of armor, while the lower part of the board is designed as a curved plate with reverse slope in the upper part. The bottom of the tank forged, trough-shaped (this helps to reduce the height slightly below the side armor, less susceptible to the side, so reducing the weight), flat in the box. Stern armor plate made folding for easy access to the units box. Chassis has an independent torsion bar suspension consists of 7 support, and 3 support rollers. During the tests, was elected Beam torsion bar — consisting of seven rods, instead of a single rod. This is caused by the short length of the torsion bars that are mounted coaxially to the right and left sides, with all this, between them is a small place on the axis of the tank (ie, the length of each less than half the width of the body, while the torsion bars usually have a length equal to the width of the hull, with all this installed with the necess
ary shift to accommodate them in pairs). First, second and seventh balancers are equipped with hydraulic shock absorbers.
Twelve-, four-stroke V-twin engine B-12-5 700 hp was the development of the upcoming B-2, but had a very large number of differences, at first stood out drive centrifugal blower. His successor, the B-12-6 has been finalized, and boosted to 750 hp at 2100 rev / min. Power transmission was a modified planetary gear mechanism and turns of the "3K" provided 8 assists front-stroke and two rear (within 6 and 2). The main clutch in the traditional sense was absent — neutral gear WFP provides mechanical motor switch. Next torque was applied to the two-stage final drives (with a conventional planetary gear and rows), and the drive wheels with replaceable 14-tooth crowns.
Fuel at the three internal and external 2-tanks — two aft by 185 liters. (Later to 270 l.) And one bow to 90 l., And tanks on the wings at the stern with a capacity of 150 liters .. All tanks are connected to a single fuel tank system and do not require the overflow from the outer to the inner as output. The total capacity of such Makar is 760 (later 940) l. fuel, which gave in store down the highway at 200 .. 350 km. The driver has a monitoring device TPR-51 in the cover flap, and two TPB-51 on the right and left of the flap, in the dark of night vision device used TVN-2T. The commander of the tank is placed on the left of the gun, with the gunner and a commander's cupola with independent rotation of the tower, curb seven devices TNP on its perimeter, and a tank commander's periscope TPKU-2. At the disposal of the gunner's periscope is snack gyro-stabilized sight with a field of view of T2S-29-14, a night sight TPN-1-29-14 and the viewing device TPB-51. A charging device has a TNP and appeal to anti-aircraft machine gun collimator sight VC-4 for firing at air targets, and PU-1 for firing at ground. Armament of the tank is placed in a cast turret streamlined shape and consists of a 122mm rifled gun D-25T on the first series and D-25TS on tanks T-10A and 10B, or equivalent in caliber guns M-62-T2. D-25T/TS was equipped with two-chamber muzzle brake active type, M-62-T2 — slit jet type. D-25TS, and M-62-T2 had an ejection device for purging the barrel after firing. Additional weapons are paired mnogokaliberny gun DShKM or KPVT and similar anti-aircraft machine gun mounted on the turret hatches of the loader. The tower is equipped with a rotating Polycom.
Ammunition consists of 30 rounds of separate loading placed in the turret and the hull of the tank, ammunition for machine guns mnogokalibernyh partly prepared for the shooting and stacked in boxes (two of which are installed on the machine guns), some are in a zinc box factory packaging. To facilitate the conduct charging a mechanical rammer, on the T-10M installed automatic loading mechanism type, with manual feed of the charges and projectiles. Application provides dosylatelya rate of up to 3 shots per minute, loading mechanism allows you to fire a shot with a rate of 3-4 per minute.
For the sake of brevity of presentation will be considered only weapon control system of the T-10M is a better representative.
When the commander's target designation tank commander having found the target and find the range to it, gives a command to open fire, indicating disposition purposes, range up to it, the direction and method of firing.
After that, aligning the crosshairs TPKU-2 in order, warns the crew of the team "tower to the right (on the left), "and presses down on the button located on the tiller unit. With all of this control tower crosses the horizontal drive to the commander (as reported indicator light in the tower) and the highest rate is rotated to align the strips of sight with the longitudinal axis of the tower, the commander keeps the crosshairs on the target and press down until it stops tower. After that, the control tower at the back crosses to the gunner, and he is looking for the goal in sight sight T2S-29 (or TPN-1 "Moon II» in the night) and the acquired data from the commander puts on a scale of sight distance in accordance with the type of projectile . In the presence of lateral movement target, the gunner holds a central pillar of the brand, accompanying goal some time.
With all of this will be calculated angular velocity of the moving target and vertical thread is deflected by the amount of lateral correction (based on a given target range), and for the shot gunner uses instead of the center mark and square or shtrishok through which the vertical thread. At this time, the loader retrieves the designated type of projectile styling and puts it on the slide loading mechanism. Holding it with his left hand, leads a mechanism in place — a tray automatically goes to the line of loading and shall be sent to the shell into the breech before biting the lead belt rifling, then automatically vorachivaetsya back (but not to the initial position). Without waiting for the operation of the machine, remove the charging sleeve befitting the projectile (the charges of high-explosive and armor-piercing shells and vary categorically unacceptable introduction of inappropriate charge for shooting), and entering it into the breech Dultsev, presses down on the Donets rubber stop — cut one carriage drive and the sleeve shall be sent after The tray moves to the starting position and the gun rasstoporivaetsya, moving in a stable mode. Pressing readiness and letting the team "Done!" Charging completes the circuit, removing the lock barrel.
At night, when using a sight TPN-1-29-14 ("The Moon II») amendment defines a side gunner without the
help of others, and vertical correction for distance puts shifting the point of impact according to the scale of sight.
Short tactical and technical characteristics of tanks:
Crew — 4 people.
Equipped with a weight — 50 tons
Overall length — 9,715 m (T-10, 10A and 10B) or 10.56 meters (T-10)
Width — 3,518 meters
Height — 2.46 m (T-10, 10A and 10B) or 2,585 feet (T-10)
Maximum speed — 42 km / h (T-10, 10A and 10B) or 50 km / h (T-10)
In store down the highway — 200-350km (for tanks up to 1955 and after)
The stores range on a dirt road — 150-200 km (in tanks until 1955 and after)
Ground pressure — 0.77 cm2
122mm rifled gun D-25T (D-25TS, M-62-T2), ammunition 30 rounds of separate loading.
12.7 mm coaxial machine gun and a 12.7 mm machine gun zanitny with a total 100 rounds of ammunition (300 in six boxes to the coaxial machine gun, 150 in the three boxes to the anti-aircraft machine gun and 550 rounds of ammunition boxes in zinc factory packaging).
Tank T-10 is armed with paired and 14.5 mm anti-aircraft machine guns KPVT with a total 744 ammunition cartridges.
Forehead body — 120mm top and bottom
Board housing — 80mm
Forehead towers — up to 250mm